Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NET) Entrap and Kill Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Spirochetes and Are not Affected by Ixodes ricinus Tick Saliva.
MENTEN-DEDOYART, Catherine ; ; et al
in Journal of Immunology (2012), 189(11), 5393-5401
Lyme disease is a pathology caused by members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, most often by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). They are transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus ticks ... [more ▼]
Lyme disease is a pathology caused by members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, most often by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). They are transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus ticks. After a few hours of infestation, neutrophils massively infiltrate the bite site. They can kill Borrelia via phagocytosis, oxidative burst and hydrolytic enzymes. However, factors in tick saliva promote propagation of the bacteria in the host even in the presence of a large number of neutrophils. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) consists in the extrusion of the neutrophil’s own DNA, forming traps that can retain and kill bacteria. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is apparently associated with the onset of NEtosis. Here we describe NETs formation at the tick bite site in vivo in mice. We show that Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. spirochetes become trapped and killed by NETs in humans and that the bacteria do not seem to release significant nucleases to evade this process. Saliva from I. ricinus did not affect NET formation by human neutrophiles or it stability. However, it strongly decreased neutrophil ROS production, suggesting that a strong decrease of hydrogen peroxide does not affect NET formation. Finally, round bodies were observed trapped in NETs, some of them staining as live cells. This observation could help contribute to a better explanation of erythema migrans. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 88 (16 ULg)