References of "Rochus, Pierre"
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See detailIs going to space still worthwhile?
Rochus, Pierre ULg

Conference (2017, June 27)

Very often, we hear: “Is it still worth going to space? Aren’t there better causes to spend our money on, here on Earth?” At this talk, Pierre Rochus will highlight the importance of the benefits that ... [more ▼]

Very often, we hear: “Is it still worth going to space? Aren’t there better causes to spend our money on, here on Earth?” At this talk, Pierre Rochus will highlight the importance of the benefits that space activities and space research bring. He will try to convince the credulous that besides those everyday space applications that we obviously can no longer do without (GPS, for instance!), space science activities are also essential for humanity. Space research not only gives answers to fundamental questions facing humanity but the technical design of future missions also poses a challenge to the collective imagination. Space scientific research is not only an intellectual challenge, it is much more: it is a stimulus for technical developments; it requires constant, leading-edge developments in different technical domains such as:  systems miniaturisation,  light detectors,  new materials,  coatings,  cryogenics,  mechanisms,  electrical motors,  tribology (the study of friction, wear, lubrication, and the design of bearings)  ... Space Research gives rise to spin-offs and unpredictable developments which will come in useful in our future daily life. One hope is that some part of the huge budgets dedicated to military research could be transferred to space activities. And, of course, it is very important to convince young people to study sciences and technology - where better to start, than in space? [less ▲]

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See detailConception of a near-infrared spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

in Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems (2017), 3(1), 015002

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument for stellar astrophysics. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument for stellar astrophysics. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s efficiency. Then the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses, such as resolution checking. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser optics in space failure risk due to laser induced contamination
Kokkinos, Dimitrios ULg; Schroeder, Helmut; Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULg et al

in CEAS Space Journal (2017), 8

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See detailHalf a century of Space Adventure at Centre Spatial of Liège
Rochus, Pierre ULg

Conference (2016, October 12)

Created by the University of Liège, the Centre spatial de Liège is a research centre dedicated to space instrumentation including environmental test facilities and high level laboratories. It works for ... [more ▼]

Created by the University of Liège, the Centre spatial de Liège is a research centre dedicated to space instrumentation including environmental test facilities and high level laboratories. It works for the European Space Agency (ESA), for the space industry and for regionals firms. From the beginning of its more than 50 years long history, CSL develops, assembles, calibrates and/or tests observation instruments and relevant sub-systems capable to operate in a harsh environment, in order to serve the demands of the space science. Space Systems Program focuses its effort to incorporate CSL into the teams dedicated for definition, design, integration and/or ground and in flight calibration of scientific payload missions, mainly under the final authority of the most prestigious Space Agencies (ESA, NASA, JAXA …). Today, more than 15 complex pieces of CSL technology have been launched in space, all of them operating nominally. Some of the most significant instruments made by CSL are: EIT solar telescope (SOHO), HI (STEREO), SWAP (PROBA 2), optical monitors with OM (Newton), OMC (INTEGRAL) and various contributions on PACS (Herschel), MIRI (JWST), UVS (JUNO) and COROT. In 2011, this strong heritage allows CSL to be awarded with the Extreme UV Imager (EUI) PIship of Solar Orbiter (ESA M1 science mission). For the Future, CSL is involved in the L1 JUICE, L2 ATHENA, M1 Solar Orbiter, M2 EUCLID, M3 PLATO, M4, S1 CHEOPS, S2 SMILE ESA missions as well as the SPP, ICON NASA Missions. The presentation will concentrate on the development of Space Instruments during this half a century of Space Adventure, focusing on Solar Physics and Space Weather Instruments. [less ▲]

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See detailLow Cost Concentrator Solar Array
Collette, Jean-Paul; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Hodgetts, Paul et al

Conference (2016, September 30)

Since the 70's, various researches have been undertaken to concentrate the solar flux on solar panels. In the 90's, concentrators with low concentration ratio appeared (C < 2.5), easily adapted to ... [more ▼]

Since the 70's, various researches have been undertaken to concentrate the solar flux on solar panels. In the 90's, concentrators with low concentration ratio appeared (C < 2.5), easily adapted to classical panels. From early 2000, the first commercial spacecrafts with such a technology were launched. Nevertheless, a gradual loss of power appeared and deep investigations concluded that this was due to various causes. From this incident, attention was paid to the contamination of the reflectors and more particularly to their operational temperature. Recently, in 2005, JAXA launched its small REIMEI scientific spacecraft, with two solar arrays equipped with a single lateral reflector. The good results achieved have triggered a new initiative in Europe to study a new concept of lightweight concentrator. The first results of this study including contamination and thermo-mechanical issues are presented. [less ▲]

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See detail6th Paolo Santini Memorial Lecture “Half a century of Space Adventure at Centre Spatial of Liège”
Rochus, Pierre ULg

Conference (2016, September 27)

Motivations for space activities started in 1958: it was then a small laboratory of Institute of Astrophysics of Liege (IAL). In 1962, under the name of IAL-Space, it began real space activities observing ... [more ▼]

Motivations for space activities started in 1958: it was then a small laboratory of Institute of Astrophysics of Liege (IAL). In 1962, under the name of IAL-Space, it began real space activities observing the auroras in ultraviolet by sending around twenty sounding rockets, launched mostly from the base of Kiruna (Sweden). IAL-Space was finally recognized in 1975 as a coordinated test installation of the European Space Agency. It moved to Sart Tilman in 1984 to reach more spacious buildings. Subsequently IAL-Space got the status Research Center in 1988, it became a PRODEX Institute and changed its name to CSL in 1992. Lately it has further expanded with the commissioning of a new test facilities like FOCAL 3, FOCAL XXL, enabling to perform tests in the infrared range. Centre spatial de Liège is now a research Centre dedicated to space instrumentation including environmental test facilities and high level laboratories. It works for the European Space Agency (ESA), for the space industry and for regional industries. From the beginning of its more than 50 years long history, CSL develops, assembles, calibrates and/or tests observation instruments and relevant sub-systems capable to operate in a harsh environment, in order to serve the demands of the space science. Space Systems Program focuses its effort to incorporate CSL into the teams dedicated for definition, design, integration and/or ground and in flight calibration of scientific payload missions, mainly under the final authority of the most prestigious Space Agencies (ESA, NASA, JAXA, CNES, BELSPO, …). Today, more than 15 complex pieces of CSL technology have been launched in space, all of them operating nominally. Some of the most significant instruments made by CSL are: S2 / S68 telescope on TD1/ESRO, Halley Multicolor Camera (HMC/GIOTTO), FOC (HST), EIT solar telescope (SOHO), HI (STEREO), SWAP (PROBA 2), optical monitors with OM (Newton), OMC (INTEGRAL) and various contributions on PACS (Herschel), MIRI (JWST), UVS (JUNO) and COROT. In 2011, this strong heritage allows CSL to be awarded with the Extreme UV Imager (EUI) PIship of Solar Orbiter (ESA M1 science mission). For the Future, CSL is involved in the L1 JUICE, L2 ATHENA, M1 Solar Orbiter, M2 EUCLID, M3 PLATO, S1 CHEOPS, S2 SMILE ESA missions as well as the SPP, ICON NASA Missions. CSL is an Academic Member of IAF since 1988. The presentation will concentrate on the development of Space Instruments during this half a century of Space Adventure, focusing on Solar Physics and Space Weather Instruments. [less ▲]

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See detailConception of a near-IR spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

in Proc. SPIE Volume 9908 Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI (2016, August 09)

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s performances. Then, the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses such as resolution checking. Eventually, the star positioning system onto the central fiber core is explained. [less ▲]

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See detailConception of a near-IR spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 27)

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s performances. Then, the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses such as resolution checking. Eventually, the star positioning system onto the central fiber core is explained. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (8 ULg)
See detailThe Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) : Mission Design and Planning
Immel, T. J.; England, S.; Mende, S. B. et al

Conference (2016)

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer is NASA's next Explorer mission, with a primary scientific goal of understanding the source of the extreme variability in Earth's ionosphere. The observatory is ... [more ▼]

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer is NASA's next Explorer mission, with a primary scientific goal of understanding the source of the extreme variability in Earth's ionosphere. The observatory is scheduled to be delivered to the Pegasus launch vehicle in early 2017 for a June launch. ICON carries unprecedented capability to orbit in a broader national and international effort to understand changes in our space environment occurring on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we will discuss plans for the observatory checkout and early operations, and discuss the observing conditions expected in the atmosphere and ionosphere at that time. The status of the science data pipeline and the predicted performance of the observatory for scientific measurements will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-time measurement of temperature variation during nanosecond pulsed laser induced contamination deposition
Kokkinos, Dimitrios ULg; Gailly, Patrick ULg; Georges, Marc ULg et al

in Applied Optics (2015), 54(36), 10579

In this paper a study of the heat generation during UV Laser Induced Contamination (LIC) and potentially resulting subsequent thermal damage is presented. This becomes increasingly interesting when optics ... [more ▼]

In this paper a study of the heat generation during UV Laser Induced Contamination (LIC) and potentially resulting subsequent thermal damage is presented. This becomes increasingly interesting when optics with delicate coatings are involved. During LIC radiation can interact with outgassing molecules both in the gas phase and at the surface, triggering chemical and photo-fixation reactions. This is a major hazard, in particular for laser units operating under vacuum conditions such as for space applications. The intense photon flux not only affects the contaminant deposition rate but also alters their chemical structure that can increase their absorption coefficient. Over cumulative irradiation shots these molecules formed deposits that increasingly absorb photons and produce heat as a by-product of de-excitation eventually leading to thermal damage. One could better asses the risk of the latter with the knowledge of temperature during the contamination process. For this purpose thermoreflectance technique is used here to estimate the temperature variation from pulse to pulse during contamination deposition through the analysis of a temperature-dependent surface reflectance signal. [less ▲]

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See detailSURFACE ENGINEERING FOR PARTS MADE BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
Nutal, Nicolas; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Collette, Jean-Paul et al

in 66th International Astronautical Congress (2015, October)

the surface preparation of metal parts made by additive manufacturing (AM). AM is a technology of choice for manufacturing of parts with complex shapes (heat exchangers, RF supports, optical parts…) and ... [more ▼]

the surface preparation of metal parts made by additive manufacturing (AM). AM is a technology of choice for manufacturing of parts with complex shapes (heat exchangers, RF supports, optical parts…) and integrated functions such as conformal cooling channels, clips, hinges, etc. This opens the door for lightweight parts which are of prime importance for space applications. The potential of the AM technologies is however impeded by the quite rough surface finish that is observed on the as-manufactured parts. It is known that such a finish is likely to impact the performance of the parts. Several post-treatment techniques can be applied to improve the surface condition of the AM parts. However, so far, the influence of the successive post-processing steps on the final properties is not well established. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of surface characteristics on the material behaviour is needed to expand the use of AM for high performance parts. The objective of this study, supported by ESA, is to propose and evaluate various surface finishing techniques for parts made by the AM technologies, in order to check their compatibility, evaluate their properties and derive guidelines for future applications. CRM is the prime proposer of this study and is in charge of the surface treatment and characterisations. Sirris additive manufacturing facilities are used to produce the parts. Thales Alenia Space and Walopt are included into the industrial team to provide concrete application cases. The study focuses on metals. Two metals under study are presented here: AlSi10Mg and Ti6Al4V. This paper is devoted to the early results of the first steps of surface preparation, namely material removal from the surface of the produced parts in order to improve their surface properties. As a first phase, tribo-finishing (TF) is tested on prototype parts to check its capabilities. Surface and volume parameters are analyzed, namely achieved roughness, material removal rate, location of removed material. The limitations in terms of geometry and applicability are discussed as well. These first observations should serve as guidelines for further application of AM for the design of parts used in space industry. [less ▲]

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See detail"Additive Layer Manufacturing for Space Instrumentation and subsystems"
Rochus, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, August 22)

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See detailThermal Balance Test of Solar Orbiter EUI Instrument Structural and Thermal Model with 13 Solar Constants
Jacques, Lionel ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Rossi, Laurence ULg et al

Scientific conference (2015, March 26)

Developed by a European consortium led by the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) is an instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter ESA M-class mission. At its 0.28AU ... [more ▼]

Developed by a European consortium led by the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) is an instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter ESA M-class mission. At its 0.28AU perihelion, the spacecraft will be exposed to a 13 solar constants solar flux. EUI is protected behind the spacecraft heat shield but for three apertures for its telescopes looking at the Sun in the Extreme-UV. To better reject the unwanted visible light and protect 150nm thick EUV filters, Aluminum coated carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics entrance baffles are located at the front of the instrument. The residual absorbed heat by the entrance filters and baffles is evacuated through heat pipes to a dedicated spacecraft thermal interface. To verify its thermal design, the instrument structural and thermal model has been tested in a vacuum chamber with a solar simulator providing the 13 solar constants solar flux at the three entrance apertures and dedicated heaters to model the spacecraft heat shield feedthroughs. To assess the off-pointing performance of the entrance baffles, the instrument was mounted onto a rotating structure inside the chamber. The test setup, results and the thermal model correlation will be presented as well as the calibration of the solar simulator divergence and intensity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Wide-Field Imager for Solar Probe Plus (WISPR)
Vourlidas, Angelos; Howard, Russell A.; Plunkett, Simon P. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2015)

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See detailThe extreme UV imager telescope on-board the Solar Orbiter mission: overview of phase C and D
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Renotte, Etienne ULg et al

in SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications (2015)

The Solar Orbiter mission is composed of ten scientific instruments dedicated to the observation of the Sun’s atmosphere and its heliosphere, taking advantage of an out-of ecliptic orbit and at perihelion ... [more ▼]

The Solar Orbiter mission is composed of ten scientific instruments dedicated to the observation of the Sun’s atmosphere and its heliosphere, taking advantage of an out-of ecliptic orbit and at perihelion reaching a proximity close to 0.28 A.U. On board Solar Orbiter, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) will provide full-Sun image sequences of the solar corona in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm and 30.4 nm), and high-resolution image sequences of the solar disk in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm) and in the vacuum ultraviolet (121.6 nm). The EUI concept uses heritage from previous similar extreme ultraviolet instrument. Additional constraints from the specific orbit (thermal and radiation environment, limited telemetry download) however required dedicated technologies to achieve the scientific objectives of the mission. The development phase C of the instrument and its sub-systems has been successfully completed, including thermo-mechanical and electrical design validations with the Structural Thermal Model (STM) and the Engineering Model (EM). The instrument STM and EM units have been integrated on the respective spacecraft models and will undergo the system level tests. In parallel, the Phase D has been started with the sub-system qualifications and the flight parts manufacturing. The next steps of the EUI development will be the instrument Qualification Model (QM) integration and qualification tests. The Flight Model (FM) instrument activities will then follow with the acceptance tests and calibration campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailThe extreme ultraviolet imager of solar orbiter: optical design and alignment scheme
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Mazzoli, Alexandra ULg; Meining, S. et al

in SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications (2015)

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See detailImportance of structural damping in the dynamic analysis of compliant deployable structures
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Acta Astronautica (2015), 111

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their ... [more ▼]

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their motion results from the elastic deformation of structural components, unlike usual hinges or prismatic joints, the motion of which is dictated by contact surfaces. No actuators or external energy sources are required and the deployment is purely passive, which appears as a decisive feature for the design of low-cost missions with small satellites or cubesats. The mechanical behaviour of a tape spring is intrinsically complex and nonlinear involving buckling, hysteresis and self-locking phenomena. High-fidelity mechanical models are then needed to get a detailed understanding of the deployment process, improve the design and predict the actual behaviour in the space 0-g environment. In the majority of the previous works, dynamic simulations were performed without any physical representation of the structural damping. These simulations could be successfully achieved because of the presence of numerical damping in the transient solver. However, in this case, the dynamic response turns out to be quite sensitive to the amount of numerical dissipation, so that the predictive capabilities of the model are questionable. In this work based on numerical case studies, we show that the dynamic simulation of a tape spring can be made less sensitive to numerical parameters when the structural dissipation is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detail"Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Systems of Nanospacecrafts".
Rochus, Pierre ULg

Conference (2014, October 29)

Space instrumentation and Space Environmental testing activities at CSL Dreams, a priori expectations and space specificities Advanced Manufacturing Techniques considered in our studies First steps ... [more ▼]

Space instrumentation and Space Environmental testing activities at CSL Dreams, a priori expectations and space specificities Advanced Manufacturing Techniques considered in our studies First steps realizations 15 years ago More concrete and more recent examples Conclusions and future activities [less ▲]

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See detailNew applications of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for space instrumentation and Systems of Nanospacecraft
Rochus, Pierre ULg; Plesseria, Jean-Yves ULg; Corbelli, Alberto et al

Conference (2014, October 03)

In the frame of an ESA TRP project, our consortium has investigated the possibility to use advanced manufacturing methods for application to space hardware. After a review of the state of the art of the ... [more ▼]

In the frame of an ESA TRP project, our consortium has investigated the possibility to use advanced manufacturing methods for application to space hardware. After a review of the state of the art of the new manufacturing methods, including additive manufacturing but also advanced bonding, joining and shaping techniques, several case studies have been realized. These new techniques imply a different approach already at the design phase since the manufacturing constraints can be completely different. The goal of the project was to evaluate the different technologies from the design to the realization and learn how the classical design and development of such parts shall be adapted to take into account the different specificities of the new techniques. Three types of case studies have been developed successively. The first type was a re-manufacture of an existing piece of hardware using advanced techniques to evaluate if there is some potential improvement to be achieved (cost, production time, complexity reduction). The second level was to design and manufacture a part based on the application requirements. The last level was to design and manufacture a part taking into account in addition the subsystem to which it belongs. All case studies have been tested in terms of achieved performances and resistance to the mechanical and thermal environment. For each level, several case studies were proposed by ALMASpace and TAS-F and a pre-selection was performed to verify the feasibility and the interest of the proposed part for the project. For the first 2 levels, the 2 selected case studies have been designed, built and tested. A single case study was built for last level. The cases studies of level one were an aluminium inertial wheel housing (using electron beam welding to connect simple machined parts) and a mechanism housing fully made by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting of Titanium). The ones of level two were an aluminium tray for nanosatellite structure (assembled by salt dip brazing) and an antenna support bracket (designed by topological optimization and manufactured by laser beam melting of aluminium). The third level case study is a Sun Sensor for nanosatellite designed by topological optimization and including electronic circuit (optical detector and proximity electronic) deposited by aerosol jet printing directly on the aluminium structure. All case studies have been manufactured and tested and all part manufactured, despite including some imperfections, fulfilled all performance requirements. [less ▲]

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