References of "Rocca-Volmerange, B"
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See detailGaia Data Release 1. Open cluster astrometry: performance, limitations, and future prospects
Gaia Collaboration, ; van Leeuwen, F.; Vallenari, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 601

Context. The first Gaia Data Release contains the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). This is a subset of about 2 million stars for which, besides the position and photometry, the proper motion and ... [more ▼]

Context. The first Gaia Data Release contains the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). This is a subset of about 2 million stars for which, besides the position and photometry, the proper motion and parallax are calculated using Hipparcos and Tycho-2 positions in 1991.25 as prior information. <BR /> Aims: We investigate the scientific potential and limitations of the TGAS component by means of the astrometric data for open clusters. <BR /> Methods: Mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are derived taking into account the error correlations within the astrometric solutions for individual stars, an estimate of the internal velocity dispersion in the cluster, and, where relevant, the effects of the depth of the cluster along the line of sight. Internal consistency of the TGAS data is assessed. <BR /> Results: Values given for standard uncertainties are still inaccurate and may lead to unrealistic unit-weight standard deviations of least squares solutions for cluster parameters. Reconstructed mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are generally in very good agreement with earlier Hipparcos-based determination, although the Gaia mean parallax for the Pleiades is a significant exception. We have no current explanation for that discrepancy. Most clusters are observed to extend to nearly 15 pc from the cluster centre, and it will be up to future Gaia releases to establish whether those potential cluster-member stars are still dynamically bound to the clusters. <BR /> Conclusions: The Gaia DR1 provides the means to examine open clusters far beyond their more easily visible cores, and can provide membership assessments based on proper motions and parallaxes. A combined HR diagram shows the same features as observed before using the Hipparcos data, with clearly increased luminosities for older A and F dwarfs. Tables D.1 to D.19 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A19">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A19</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 1. Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties
Gaia Collaboration; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. <BR /> Aims: A summary of Gaia DR1 is presented along with illustrations of the scientific quality of the data, followed by a discussion of the limitations due to the preliminary nature of this release. <BR /> Methods: The raw data collected by Gaia during the first 14 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into an astrometric and photometric catalogue. <BR /> Results: Gaia DR1 consists of three components: a primary astrometric data set which contains the positions, parallaxes, and mean proper motions for about 2 million of the brightest stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues - a realisation of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) - and a secondary astrometric data set containing the positions for an additional 1.1 billion sources. The second component is the photometric data set, consisting of mean G-band magnitudes for all sources. The G-band light curves and the characteristics of 3000 Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars, observed at high cadence around the south ecliptic pole, form the third component. For the primary astrometric data set the typical uncertainty is about 0.3 mas for the positions and parallaxes, and about 1 mas yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] for the proper motions. A systematic component of 0.3 mas should be added to the parallax uncertainties. For the subset of 94 000 Hipparcos stars in the primary data set, the proper motions are much more precise at about 0.06 mas yr[SUP]-1[/SUP]. For the secondary astrometric data set, the typical uncertainty of the positions is 10 mas. The median uncertainties on the mean G-band magnitudes range from the mmag level to 0.03 mag over the magnitude range 5 to 20.7. <BR /> Conclusions: Gaia DR1 is an important milestone ahead of the next Gaia data release, which will feature five-parameter astrometry for all sources. Extensive validation shows that Gaia DR1 represents a major advance in the mapping of the heavens and the availability of basic stellar data that underpin observational astrophysics. Nevertheless, the very preliminary nature of this first Gaia data release does lead to a number of important limitations to the data quality which should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia mission
Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept ... [more ▼]

Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. <A href="http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia">http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia astrophysical parameters inference system (Apsis). Pre-launch description
Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Andrae, R.; Arcay, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 559

The Gaia satellite will survey the entire celestial sphere down to 20th magnitude, obtaining astrometry, photometry, and low resolution spectrophotometry on one billion astronomical sources, plus radial ... [more ▼]

The Gaia satellite will survey the entire celestial sphere down to 20th magnitude, obtaining astrometry, photometry, and low resolution spectrophotometry on one billion astronomical sources, plus radial velocities for over one hundred million stars. Its main objective is to take a census of the stellar content of our Galaxy, with the goal of revealing its formation and evolution. Gaia's unique feature is the measurement of parallaxes and proper motions with hitherto unparalleled accuracy for many objects. As a survey, the physical properties of most of these objects are unknown. Here we describe the data analysis system put together by the Gaia consortium to classify these objects and to infer their astrophysical properties using the satellite's data. This system covers single stars, (unresolved) binary stars, quasars, and galaxies, all covering a wide parameter space. Multiple methods are used for many types of stars, producing multiple results for the end user according to different models and assumptions. Prior to its application to real Gaia data the accuracy of these methods cannot be assessed definitively. But as an example of the current performance, we can attain internal accuracies (RMS residuals) on F,G,K,M dwarfs and giants at G=15 (V=15-17) for a wide range of metallicites and interstellar extinctions of around 100K in effective temperature (Teff), 0.1mag in extinction (A0), 0.2dex in metallicity ([Fe/H]), and 0.25dex in surface gravity (logg). The accuracy is a strong function of the parameters themselves, varying by a factor of more than two up or down over this parameter range. After its launch in November 2013, Gaia will nominally observe for five years, during which the system we describe will continue to evolve in light of experience with the real data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large Area ISO Survey - VIII. 90-microns final analysis and source counts
Heraudeau, P.; Oliver, S.; del Burgo, C. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2004), 354

We present a re-analysis of the European Large Area Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Survey (ELAIS) 90-μm observations carried out with ISOPHOT, an instrument on board the ISO of the European Space ... [more ▼]

We present a re-analysis of the European Large Area Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Survey (ELAIS) 90-μm observations carried out with ISOPHOT, an instrument on board the ISO of the European Space Agency. With more than 12 deg[SUP]2[/SUP], the ELAIS survey is the largest area covered by ISO in a single programme and is about one order of magnitude deeper than the IRAS 100-μm survey. The data analysis is presented and was mainly performed with the PHOT interactive analysis software but using the pairwise method of Stickel et al. for signal processing from edited raw data to signal per chopper plateau. The ELAIS 90-μm catalogue contains 237 reliable sources with fluxes larger than 70 mJy and is available in the electronic version of this article. Number counts are presented and show an excess above the no-evolution model prediction. This confirms the strong evolution detected at shorter (15 μm) and longer (170 μm) wavelengths in other ISO surveys. The ELAIS counts are in agreement with previous works at 90 μm and in particular with the deeper counts extracted from the Lockman hole observations. Comparison with recent evolutionary models show that the models of Franceschini et al. and Guiderdoni et al. (which includes a heavily extinguished population of galaxies) give the best fit to the data. Deeper observations are nevertheless required to discriminate better between the model predictions in the far-infrared, and are scheduled with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which has already started operating, and will also be performed by ASTRO-F. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue
Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2004), 351

We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 μm, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey ... [more ▼]

We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 μm, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed, and a summary of the area covered and the completeness limit for each infrared band is given. A detailed discussion of the band-merging and optical association strategy is given. The total Catalogue consists of 3762 sources. 23 per cent of the 15-μm sources and 75 per cent of the 6.7-μm sources are stars. For extragalactic sources observed in three or more infrared bands, colour-colour diagrams are presented and discussed in terms of the contributing infrared populations. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are shown for selected sources and compared with cirrus, M82 and Arp220 starburst, and active galactic nuclei (AGN) dust torus models. Spectroscopic redshifts are tabulated, where available. For the N1 and N2 areas, the Isaac Newton Telescope ugriz Wide Field Survey permits photometric redshifts to be estimated for galaxies and quasars. These agree well with the spectroscopic redshifts, within the uncertainty of the photometric method [~10 per cent in (1 +z) for galaxies]. The redshift distribution is given for selected ELAIS bands and colour-redshift diagrams are discussed. There is a high proportion of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (log[SUB]10[/SUB] of 1-1000 μm luminosity L[SUB]ir[/SUB] > 12.22) in the ELAIS Catalogue (14 per cent of 15-μm galaxies with known z), many with Arp220-like SEDs. 10 per cent of the 15-μm sources are genuine optically blank fields to r'= 24: these must have very high infrared-to-optical ratios and probably have z > 0.6, so are high-luminosity dusty starbursts or Type 2 AGN. Nine hyperluminous infrared galaxies (L[SUB]ir[/SUB] > 13.22) and nine extremely red objects (EROs) (r-K > 6) are found in the survey. The latter are interpreted as ultraluminous dusty infrared galaxies at z~ 1. The large numbers of ultraluminous galaxies imply very strong evolution in the star formation rate between z= 0 and 1. There is also a surprisingly large population of luminous (L[SUB]ir[/SUB] > 11.5), cool (cirrus-type SEDs) galaxies, with L[SUB]ir[/SUB]-L[SUB]opt[/SUB] > 0, implying A[SUB]V[/SUB] > 1. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large Area ISO Survey - I. Goals, definition and observations
Oliver, Seb; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Alexander, D. M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2000), 316

We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12deg[SUP]2[/SUP] at 15μm with ISOCAM and at 90μm with ISOPHOT ... [more ▼]

We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12deg[SUP]2[/SUP] at 15μm with ISOCAM and at 90μm with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the primary survey, with 6deg[SUP]2[/SUP] being covered at 6.7μm and 1deg[SUP]2[/SUP] at 175μm. This paper discusses the goals of the project and the techniques employed in its construction, as well as presenting details of the observations carried out, the data from which are now in the public domain. We outline the ELAIS `preliminary analysis' which led to the detection of over 1000 sources from the 15 and 90-μm surveys (the majority selected at 15μm with a flux limit of ~3mJy), to be fed into a ground-based follow-up campaign, as well as a programme of photometric observations of detected sources using both ISOCAM and ISOPHOT. We detail how the ELAIS survey complements other ISO surveys in terms of depth and areal coverage, and show that the extensive multi-wavelength coverage of the ELAIS fields resulting from our concerted and on-going follow-up programme has made these regions amongst the best studied areas of their size in the entire sky, and, therefore, natural targets for future surveys. This paper accompanies the release of extremely reliable subsets of the `preliminary analysis' products. Subsequent papers in this series will give further details of our data reduction techniques, reliability and completeness estimates and present the 15- and 90-μm number counts from the `preliminary analysis', while a further series of papers will discuss in detail the results from the ELAIS `final analysis', as well as from the follow-up programme. [less ▲]

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