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See detailCatalytic hydroprocessing of lignin under thermal and ultrasound conditions
Finch, Kenneth B.; Richards, Ryan; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Catalysis Today (2012), 196

Lignin isolated from Miscanthus x giganteus using acidic (FAL) and alkali (AL) conditions was thereafter subjected to the catalytic depolymerization under thermal or ultrasounds activation. The ... [more ▼]

Lignin isolated from Miscanthus x giganteus using acidic (FAL) and alkali (AL) conditions was thereafter subjected to the catalytic depolymerization under thermal or ultrasounds activation. The characterization of lignins was achieved by thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR. Three different classes of catalysts, containing nickel as active species, have been prepared in this scope: (i) nano-Ni by reduction of NiCl2 with NaBH4 under ultrasonication, (ii) Fe3O4-(NiMgAlO)x and (NiAlO)x by calcination of Mg(Ni)–Al hydrotalcite incorporated Fe3O4 followed by reduction with hydrogen, and (iii) NiO(111) nanosheets by reduction of Ni(NO3)2 with urea in benzyl alcohol. The catalysts were characterized by XRD and XPS techniques. Reduced mixed oxides displayed a moderate activity while a significant increase in conversion (up to 90%) was observed in the presence of nano-Ni(0). NiO(111) nanosheets catalysts performed very close to nano-Ni(0). The conversion and the mass distribution of the reaction products were strongly related to the procedure used for the extraction of ligning. In all the case AL led to a better depolymerization. The performances of the tested catalysts under ultrasound conditions were inferior to those tested under conventional heating conditions. The nature of the solvent was also found to be very important in this process. Thus, ionic liquid [BMIM]OAc led to the best results in autoclave conditions, and methanol under ultrasounds. [less ▲]

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