References of "Reiter, Sigrid"
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See detailThe efficiency of different simulation-based design methods in improving building performance
Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Brebbia,, C.A.,; Pulselli, R. (Eds.) WIT Transactions on Ecology on The Built Environment, vol. 142 (2014, September)

This paper presents a pioneering effort to define the efficiency of the most common simulation-based design methods, namely the parametric simulation method (PSM) and the simulation-based optimization ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a pioneering effort to define the efficiency of the most common simulation-based design methods, namely the parametric simulation method (PSM) and the simulation-based optimization method (SOM), in improving two building performance indicators: thermal comfort and energy consumption. Three case-study houses were selected and their indoor conditions were continuously monitored during one summer month in 2012. Computer EnergyPlus models of these houses were established and then carefully calibrated by the monitoring data to improve the reliability of the numerical methods. Thermal performances of these houses during a year were simulated, then improved by the PSM and finally optimized by the SOM. By comparing the results of these two simulation-based design methods, this research found that both the PSM and SOM were very effective in improving these building performance indicators. This study found that the SOM is almost two times more efficient than the PSM in improving thermal comfort in naturally ventilated (NV) houses and life cycle cost in air-conditioned (AC) houses. In average, the discomfort period in NV houses could be reduced by 44.9% by the PSM while as high as 86.1% by the SOM, compared with the reference cases. The life cycle cost of AC houses had smaller reductions with 6.2% and 14.6% cut-off by the PSM and SOM, respectively. The results of this work give a strong and explicit insight of the actual efficiency of each design method. This work also shows great advantages of applications of advanced numerical approaches in the design of high performance buildings. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics: Application to a two-storey house in a temperate climate
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Building & Environment (2014), 75

This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical ... [more ▼]

This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical Belgian two-storey house. The coupling scheme developed in this study aims to improve the overheating prediction for buildings. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly frequent in Northern Europe due to increased insulation and a lack of sun protection and natural cooling strategies. Complementary contributions of the two numerical approaches are underlined and used to obtain accurate results in an acceptable computing time, even in a thermally stratified room. The space and time coupling is discussed to obtain an optimised tool in which BES is in charge of the primary portion of the effort, while CFD intervenes punctually on one room of interest. The numerical results are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to the experimental results, and the improved accuracy of the coupled tool compared with a standalone BES is underlined. [less ▲]

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See detailA climate analysis tool for passive heating and cooling strategies in hot humid climate based on Typical Meteorological Year data sets
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Energy & Buildings (2014), 68(Part C), 756-763

Through a newly developed climate analysis tool, this paper examines the potential of improving thermal comfort under the climates of Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. A Building climatic chart for ... [more ▼]

Through a newly developed climate analysis tool, this paper examines the potential of improving thermal comfort under the climates of Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. A Building climatic chart for Vietnamese was proposed based on Fanger’s theory [1] and the comfort zone of this chart was then extended by calculating the effects of passive heating and cooling strategies. Typical Meteorological Year weather data are used for extracting and graphically printing of hourly environmental parameters on the psychrometric chart and for climate analysis, subsequently. The limitation and the scope of this method are also specified. The climates of three climatic regions in Vietnam have been used as case studies using all year, seasonal and monthly analysis. The results show that natural ventilation is an effective cooling solution as thermal comfort improvement varies with the climatic zones, increasing from 24.8% in Hanoi, 22.1% in Danang to 32.0% in Hochiminh city. Meanwhile, passive solar heating is only effective under the climate of Hanoi. Direct evaporative cooling also shows great cooling potential for comfort improvement but probable elevated humidity is not expected. Total possible comfort in a year of each location indicates that further climate modification methods are inevitable to achieve comfort during extreme weather conditions, especially in Hanoi. [less ▲]

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See detailA review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 113

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building sector. This paper provides an overview on this subject, aiming at clarifying recent advances and outlining potential challenges and obstacles in building design optimization. Key discussions are focused on handling discontinuous multi-modal building optimization problems, the performance and selection of optimization algorithms, multi-objective optimization, the application of surrogate models, optimization under uncertainty and the propagation of optimization techniques into real-world design challenges. This paper also gives bibliographic information on the issues of simulation programs, optimization tools, efficiency of optimization methods, and trends in optimization studies. The review indicates that future researches should be oriented towards improving the efficiency of search techniques and approximation methods (surrogate models) for large-scale building optimization problems; and reducing time and effort for such activities. Further effort is also required to quantify the robustness in optimal solutions so as to improve building performance stability. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives pour une transition durable des territoires périurbains.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Dubois, Jérome (Ed.) Aménager les métropoles. Les réponses des urbanistes. (2014)

L’étalement urbain monofonctionnel et peu dense de la fonction résidentielle constitue un des phénomènes les plus marquants de l’évolution de nos territoires depuis la révolution industrielle. L’étalement ... [more ▼]

L’étalement urbain monofonctionnel et peu dense de la fonction résidentielle constitue un des phénomènes les plus marquants de l’évolution de nos territoires depuis la révolution industrielle. L’étalement urbain menace, par sa rapidité et sa constance, l’équilibre environnemental, social et économique de l’Europe (European Environment Agency, 2006). Pour lutter contre l’étalement urbain, trois grands champs d’actions complémentaires peuvent être mobilisés : (1) l’amélioration de l’attractivité des quartiers centraux et l’adaptation du stock bâti hérité à de nouveaux standards de confort et d’occupation via le renouvellement urbain ; (2) la construction de nouveaux quartiers dit « durables » à proximité de nœuds de transports et de zones bien desservies en commerces et services et ; (3) la densification et le renouvellement du stock bâti périurbain. L’article traite de cette troisième thématique et aborde les conditions de la transition durable des territoires périurbains. En Wallonie (Belgique), les quartiers dit périurbains représentent, en effet, près de 50% des quartiers. Deux leviers d’action sont mobilisés dans le cadre de cette intervention: (1) la forme urbaine et (2) la mobilité. La forme urbaine d’abord, est étudiée en complémentarité de l’échelle du bâtiment individuel car les mesures apportées à l’échelle du bâtiment ne sont pas en mesure de répondre, seules, à l’ampleur des enjeux énergétiques qui touchent les territoires périurbains. La mobilité, ensuite, car l’étalement urbain est entretenu et favorisé, en grande partie par la dépendance à la voiture individuelle. Trois types de scénarios centrés sur une évolution attendue du stock bâti existant sont modélisés et évalués (la rénovation énergétique, la densification et la démolition/reconstruction) de façon à investiguer deux questions principales: « comment intervenir dans les quartiers périurbains existants? » et « où intervenir? ». Les principaux résultats de l’approche développée montrent que le renouvellement périurbain par densification des quartiers les mieux localisés permet de dépasser le clivage traditionnel entre les modèles de la « ville compacte » et de la « ville diffuse », en offrant de véritables opportunités pour la transition durable des territoires périurbains existants. Ces résultats théoriques, axés sur le seul aspect énergétique, sont ensuite recadrés dans un contexte plus large pour mettre en évidence les opportunités, les limitations, les contraintes et la faisabilité de plusieurs types de scénario. Des freins, en particulier d’ordre réglementaire et sociologique, persistent et doivent faire l’objet de recherches empiriques plus approfondies de façon à les dépasser et à permettre l’implémentation concrète et la généralisation du renouvellement périurbain sur le terrain. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving the Energy Efficiency of the Building Stock: A Bottom-up Model and its Application in an Online Interactive Portal
Cuvellier, Simon; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of PLEA 2014 (2014)

There is an urgent need to reduce energy uses in new and retrofitted buildings. In Europe, energy consumption in the building sector still represents more than 40% of the final energy use. Emerging ... [more ▼]

There is an urgent need to reduce energy uses in new and retrofitted buildings. In Europe, energy consumption in the building sector still represents more than 40% of the final energy use. Emerging countries are also concerned by such issues at even wider levels because of the huge demographic growth they are witnessing. Numerous research studies have highlighted the need to produce more efficient buildings, but also to retrofit the existing building stock. However, research methods and tools that allow a precise quantification of energy uses in buildings and energy savings related to various actions (insulating the roofs, changing the glazing, behavioral changes, etc.) are mainly dedicated to trained professional users, thus neglecting the huge potential energy savings that is linked to individual actions undertaken by citizens in their dwellings. In this context, the main aim of our research is to raise awareness of energy efficiency in residential buildings and encourage positive changes to the energy efficiency of the building stock, starting at the individual scale. This paper first presents the methodology that allows a precise energy assessment (heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, appliances and cooking) of buildings (at the house, neighborhood, city and region scales) on the basis of a “bottom-up” approach. This methodology uses a typological classification of buildings, thermal simulations and local surveys. In this paper, this methodology is applied to the Walloon (Belgium) building stock. Many parameters are defined and taken into account to capture the specificities of numerous types of buildings (e.g., the number of floors, common ownership, orientation, thermal performances, ventilation, etc.). Several occupation modes are modelled to capture the impact of occupants’ behavior on energy consumption. To take into account the impact of urban form, correction factors are defined and applied according to the type of neighborhoods in which the buildings are located. All things considered, 250,000 individual results are obtained and stored in a huge database. Linear extrapolations and correction factors are used to extrapolate and apply these results to any type of residential building in Wallonia. This methodology is then used to develop an online portal that aims to strengthen citizens’ awareness of the necessity for ecological changes in the building sector and encourage individual actions to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This tool allows for a transfer of the main results of a two-year scientific research effort to citizens in a very simple and intuitive way. Although the results presented in this paper are focused on Wallonia (Belgium), the research is easily reproducible to other territories by adapting local parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailA simplified framework to assess the feasibility of zero-energy at the neighbourhood / community scale
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Energy and Buildings (2014), 82

Zero-energy buildings (ZEBs) are attracting increasing interest internationally in policies aiming at a more sustainably built environment, the scientific literature and practical applications. Although ... [more ▼]

Zero-energy buildings (ZEBs) are attracting increasing interest internationally in policies aiming at a more sustainably built environment, the scientific literature and practical applications. Although “zero energy” can be considered at different scales (e.g., community, city), the most common approach adopts only the perspective of the individual building. Moreover, the feasibility of this objective is not really addressed, especially as far as the retrofitting of the existing building stock is concerned. Therefore, this paper aims first to investigate the opportunity to extend the “zero-energy building” concept to the neighbourhood scale by taking into account two main challenges: (1) the impact of urban form on energy needs and the on-site production of renewable energy and (2) the impact of location on transportation energy consumption. It proposes a simplified framework and a calculation method that is then applied to two representative case studies (one urban neighbourhood and one rural neighbourhood) to investigate the feasibility of zero-energy in existing neighbourhoods. The main parameters that act upon the energy balance are identified. The potential of “energy mutualisation” at the neighbourhood scale is highlighted. This paper thereby shows the potentialities of an integrated approach linking transportation and building energy consumptions. [less ▲]

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See detailAn online interactive tool to assess energy consumption in residential buildings and for daily mobility
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; de Meester, Tatiana; De Herde, André et al

in Energy and Buildings (2014), 78C

Improving energy efficiency in the building and transportation sectors is a viable approach to mitigate the effects of climate change and has become an important policy target. As a result, in addition to ... [more ▼]

Improving energy efficiency in the building and transportation sectors is a viable approach to mitigate the effects of climate change and has become an important policy target. As a result, in addition to scientific research and public policies addressing energy efficiency, raising public awareness of the impact of the behaviour of citizens to energy efficiency is crucial and could quickly lead to significant reductions in the total energy consumption of a territory. In this context, this paper presents a new online interactive tool that enables not only citizens but also local authorities and private developers to (1) assess the sources of energy consumption related to housing and to daily mobility at both the individual and neighbourhood scales, (2) compare these sources and (3) determine relevant and personalised suggestions to reduce energy consumption. Numerous methods and tools, including a typological classification of buildings, thermal dynamic simulations, life-cycle assessments and statistical treatments of national censuses, were used to produce the two large databases used in this interactive tool. This report represents the primary results of a three-year long scientific research project dedicated to the study of energy efficiency in buildings and for daily mobility that is accessible to a large non-specialised audience. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive designs and strategies for low-cost housing using simulation-based optimization and different thermal comfort criteria
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Journal of Building Performance Simulation [=JBPS] (2014), 7(1), 68-81

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design ... [more ▼]

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design and operation of a low-cost dwelling were numerically optimized using a simulation-based approach. Three multi-objective cost functions including construction cost, thermal comfort performance and 50-year operating cost were applied for naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings. Thermal environment inside the house was controlled and assessed by two thermal comfort models. Optimization problems which consist of 18 design parameters and 6 ventilation strategies were examined by two population-based probabilistic optimization algorithms (particle swarm optimization and hybrid algorithm). Optimum designs corresponding to each objective function, differences in optimal solutions, energy saving by the adaptive comfort approach and optimization effectiveness were outlined. The optimization method used in this paper shows a considerable potential of comfort improvement, energy saving and operating cost reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom zero-energy building to zero-energy neighbourhood : urban form and mobility matter
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Penders, Marine ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings PLEA 2013 (2013, September)

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for ... [more ▼]

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for example, all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings (nZEB) by 2020) and in the scientific literature. Although Zero-Energy can be considered at different scales, this approach only adopts the perspective of the individual building and neglects phenomena linked to larger scales. Therefore, this paper aims at investigating the “Zero-Energy Neighbourhood” concept. It proposes a calculation method that takes into account three main topics: the energy consumption of buildings, the impact of the location on the energy consumption for daily mobility and the use of renewable energies. An application of this calculation method to two representative case studies (one urban neighbourhood and one suburban neighbourhood) is proposed. Main parameters that act upon the energy balance are highlighted and combined to propose concrete results to improve our built environment and move towards more sustainability. Hourly and monthly balances, the potential of “energy mutualisation” and smart grids are keys challenges that are of crucial importance in the scope of a Zero-Energy objective at the neighbourhood scale. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom zero-energy building to zero-energy neighbourhood : urban form and mobility matter
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Penders, Marine ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings PLEA 2013 (2013, September)

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for ... [more ▼]

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for example, all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings (nZEB) by 2020) and in the scientific literature. Although Zero-Energy can be considered at different scales, this approach only adopts the perspective of the individual building and neglects phenomena linked to larger scales. Therefore, this paper aims at investigating the “Zero-Energy Neighbourhood” concept. It proposes a calculation method that takes into account three main topics: the energy consumption of buildings, the impact of the location on the energy consumption for daily mobility and the use of renewable energies. An application of this calculation method to two representative case studies (one urban neighbourhood and one suburban neighbourhood) is proposed. Main parameters that act upon the energy balance are highlighted and combined to propose concrete results to improve our built environment and move towards more sustainability. Hourly and monthly balances, the potential of “energy mutualisation” and smart grids are keys challenges that are of crucial importance in the scope of a Zero-Energy objective at the neighbourhood scale. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom zero-energy building to zero-energy neighbourhood : urban form and mobility matter
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Penders, Marine ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings PLEA 2013 (2013, September)

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for ... [more ▼]

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for example, all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings (nZEB) by 2020) and in the scientific literature. Although Zero-Energy can be considered at different scales, this approach only adopts the perspective of the individual building and neglects phenomena linked to larger scales. Therefore, this paper aims at investigating the “Zero-Energy Neighbourhood” concept. It proposes a calculation method that takes into account three main topics: the energy consumption of buildings, the impact of the location on the energy consumption for daily mobility and the use of renewable energies. An application of this calculation method to two representative case studies (one urban neighbourhood and one suburban neighbourhood) is proposed. Main parameters that act upon the energy balance are highlighted and combined to propose concrete results to improve our built environment and move towards more sustainability. Hourly and monthly balances, the potential of “energy mutualisation” and smart grids are keys challenges that are of crucial importance in the scope of a Zero-Energy objective at the neighbourhood scale. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom zero-energy building to zero-energy neighbourhood : urban form and mobility matter
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Penders, Marine ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings PLEA 2013 (2013, September)

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for ... [more ▼]

Zero-Energy” Building (ZEB) is arousing more and more interest internationally, both in policies aiming at a more sustainable built environment (such as the European Directive PEB that will require, for example, all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings (nZEB) by 2020) and in the scientific literature. Although Zero-Energy can be considered at different scales, this approach only adopts the perspective of the individual building and neglects phenomena linked to larger scales. Therefore, this paper aims at investigating the “Zero-Energy Neighbourhood” concept. It proposes a calculation method that takes into account three main topics: the energy consumption of buildings, the impact of the location on the energy consumption for daily mobility and the use of renewable energies. An application of this calculation method to two representative case studies (one urban neighbourhood and one suburban neighbourhood) is proposed. Main parameters that act upon the energy balance are highlighted and combined to propose concrete results to improve our built environment and move towards more sustainability. Hourly and monthly balances, the potential of “energy mutualisation” and smart grids are keys challenges that are of crucial importance in the scope of a Zero-Energy objective at the neighbourhood scale. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar buildings and the urban environment
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2013, September)

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See detailOlympic Stadium Design: Past Achievements And Future Challenges
Kiuri, Miranda ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in ArchNet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research (2013), 7(2), 102-117

This article aims to show how the cultural potential of the Olympic stadium can offer new possibilities for its space and its use in relation to the city. The approach considers the UNESCO WCH and the ... [more ▼]

This article aims to show how the cultural potential of the Olympic stadium can offer new possibilities for its space and its use in relation to the city. The approach considers the UNESCO WCH and the Granada Convention criteria for highlighting three specific aspects of its design: innovation through architecture and technologies; influence on the urban environment; role as a cultural space and as part of a cultural territory. The article helps to better define the cultural heritage significance of those emblematic stadiums. [less ▲]

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See detailModels and prospects for a sustainable suburban transition.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This paper addresses the challenges, transformations and conditions of a sustainable suburban transition. Two powerful levers are used: (1) urban form, which is considered in addition to the individual ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the challenges, transformations and conditions of a sustainable suburban transition. Two powerful levers are used: (1) urban form, which is considered in addition to the individual building scale, and (2) mobility, because sprawl spatially separates activities, resulting in an increase in travel distances and energy used in transportation. Two main indicators (the heating needs of different types of suburban forms and a commute performance index) are developed and discussed. Three scenarios focused on the evolution of the existing building stock are modelled and assessed (the retrofitting of existing neighbourhoods, an increase in the built density and demolition / reconstruction) to answer two main questions: "how to intervene in suburban areas?" and" where to intervene? ". These main results focused on energy efficiency are then studied in a larger framework to highlight the opportunities, limitations, constraints and feasibility of each strategy. Concrete prospects and guidelines for policy makers are finally proposed to operationalize a "sustainable suburban renewal". These findings show that, beyond the traditional polarization of the debates on energy efficiency of our built environment between the “compact city” and the “sprawled city”, a new pragmatic paradigm, focused on the transition of suburban areas by densification, can make suburban areas evolve towards more sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailSOlutions for Low Energy Neighbourhoods : Rapport scientifique et technique n°1
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Cuvellier, Simon; de Meester, Tatiana et al

Report (2013)

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See detailPerspectives pour une transition durable des territoires périurbains.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Journées Aperau : Aménager les métropoles. (2013, May)

L’article traite de la transition durable des territoires périurbains. Deux leviers d’action sont mobilisés à cette fin: (1) la forme urbaine et (2) la mobilité. Trois types de scénarios centrés sur une ... [more ▼]

L’article traite de la transition durable des territoires périurbains. Deux leviers d’action sont mobilisés à cette fin: (1) la forme urbaine et (2) la mobilité. Trois types de scénarios centrés sur une évolution du stock bâti existant sont modélisés et évalués (la rénovation énergétique, la densification et la démolition/reconstruction) de façon à répondre à deux questions : « comment intervenir dans les quartiers périurbains existants? » et « où intervenir? ». Ces simulations montrent que le renouvellement périurbain par densification des quartiers les mieux localisés permet de dépasser le clivage traditionnel entre les modèles de la « ville compacte » et de la « ville diffuse », en offrant de véritables opportunités pour la transition durable des territoires périurbains existants. Ces résultats théoriques, et appréhendés du seul point de vue énergétique, sont ensuite recadrés dans un contexte plus large pour mettre en évidence les opportunités, les limitations, les contraintes et la faisabilité de ces scénarios. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (15 ULg)