References of "Radioti, Aikaterini"
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See detailRecurrent pulsations in Saturn’s high latitude magnetosphere
Mitchell, D.G.; Carbary, J.F.; Bunce, E.J. et al

in Icarus (in press)

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See detailSaturn’s auroral morphology and field-aligned currents during a solar wind compression
Badman, S.V.; Provan, G.; Bunce, E.J. et al

in Icarus (in press)

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See detailThe Main Auroral Emission at Jupiter: Altitude profile and Dawn-Dusk Asymmetry
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 04)

The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally forms a quasi-continuous curtain around each magnetic poles. This emission magnetically maps to the middle magnetosphere and is related to the corotation ... [more ▼]

The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally forms a quasi-continuous curtain around each magnetic poles. This emission magnetically maps to the middle magnetosphere and is related to the corotation enforcement of the plasma originating from the volcanic satellite Io. The first models of corotation enforcement current system at Jupiter assumed symmetry around the magnetic axis. However, observations and further development of these models outlined the importance of local time variability of such currents. In this presentation, we show the results of two studies of this local time variability relying on the large dataset of Far-UV observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Knight’s theory of field aligned current predicts that the auroral precipitating energy flux and the energy of the precipitating electrons are correlated. Since the altitude of the auroral emissions decreases as the energy increases, it is thus expected that the altitude of the auroral brightness peak varies as a function of the local time following the variations of the field aligned currents. We compare the altitude of the main emission on the post-dusk side as seen in the visible domain by Galileo’s Solid State Imager and the same altitude for the night side as seen by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST in the Far-UV domain. We show some significant differences between the two data sets. Unfortunately, a careful analysis involving both spectral observations and simulations indicates that the Far-UV vertical profiles are hampered by observational ambiguities due to absorption by hydrocarbon molecules. Only additional and judiciously designed new observations could reveal the actual amount of methane along the line of sight. The second study consists in a comparison of the emitted power in local time sectors corresponding to dawn and dusk. Results in the northern hemisphere are difficult to interpret because the magnetic anomaly probably causes a decrease of the auroral brightness in regions of strong magnetic field. In the southern hemisphere, where the field magnitude is more uniform along the main oval, the dusk sector is ~3 times brighter than the dawn sector. In accordance with measurements of magnetic field divergence in the equatorial plane by Galileo, these results suggest the presence of a partial ring current in the night side of the magnetosphere with upward currents in the dawn side and downward currents in the dusk side. [less ▲]

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See detailHubble spectral observations of the Jovian aurora: precipitated flux and electron mean energy
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 02)

The FUV Jovian aurora is excited by collisions of energetic electrons accelerated along the magnetic field lines with the ambient upper atmosphere. The emission is dominated by the H2 Lyman and Werner ... [more ▼]

The FUV Jovian aurora is excited by collisions of energetic electrons accelerated along the magnetic field lines with the ambient upper atmosphere. The emission is dominated by the H2 Lyman and Werner bands extending from the extreme ultraviolet to about 170 nm. The wavelengths below about 135 nm are partly absorbed by the methane layer overlying the auroral emission layer. The long wavelength intensity is proportional to the precipitated energy flux carried by the auroral electrons. Spectral observations with the Hubble Space Telescope were made in 2014 using the long slit of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in the timetag mode. During these observations, the slit projection scanned the polar region down to mid-latitudes. The combination of spectral and temporal measurements was used to build up the first spectral maps of the FUV Jovian aurora. The two-dimensional distribution of the intensity ratio of the two spectral regions has been obtained by combining spectral emissions in these wavelength ranges. They show that the amount of absorption by methane varies significantly between the different components of the aurora and in the polar region. Outputs from an electron transport model are used to create maps of the distribution of the characteristic electron energies. Using model atmospheres adapted to auroral conditions, we conclude that electron energies generally range between a few tens to several hundred keV. In this presentation, we analyze the relationship between the precipitated electron energy flux and the mean electron energy derived from these observations. Although globally, no correlation can be found, we show that the two quantities co-vary in some auroral components such as in the morning sector or in the striations observed along the main emission. By contrast, the auroral input in some high-latitude regions show no correlation with the electron characteristic energy. These aspects will be quantitatively discussed and possible processes explaining this dichotomy will be proposed. Comparisons of derived energies are in general agreement with those calculated from magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling models, but they locally exceed current model predictions. These results provide a basis for three-dimensional modeling of the distribution of particle heat sources into the high-latitude Jovian upper atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailAuroral emission at Jupiter, through Juno's UVS eyes
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gladstone, G. et al

Conference (2015, June 02)

Juno’s orbit insertion around Jupiter will take place in little bit more than one year (July 2016). After a 107-day capture orbit (Oct. 2016), it will perform a series of 33 eleven-day science polar ... [more ▼]

Juno’s orbit insertion around Jupiter will take place in little bit more than one year (July 2016). After a 107-day capture orbit (Oct. 2016), it will perform a series of 33 eleven-day science polar orbits offering unprecedented views of the auroral regions of Jupiter. The science payload of Juno includes an UltraViolet Spectrograph (UVS) that will characterize the UV auroral emissions of Jupiter over all science orbits. It will obtain high-resolution images and spectra that will provide context for Juno’s in situ particles and fields measurements in the larger polar magnetosphere with Juno’s JADE and JEDI detectors. At the same time, the MAG instrument will accurately constrain magnetic field models, which will provide the connection between Juno and its field line footprint in the Jovian aurora. The UVS instrument consists of a solar blind MCP detector with a “dog-bone” shape FOV of 0.2°x2.5°+0.025°x2°+0.2°x2.5° providing a spatial resolution of 125 km from 1RJ above the aurora and a spectral resolution of ~0.5 nm (~2 nm for extended sources). It is sensitive to EUV-FUV radiation ranging from 70 nm to 205 nm. Juno is a spin-stabilized spacecraft and is rotating at a frequency of 2 RPM. UVS will take advantage of this motion to scan the auroral regions in the direction perpendicular to the slit, while its steerable pickup mirror (±30° from the spin plane) will make it possible to point at specific regions of the aurora. Juno’s highly eccentric science orbits have a perijove close to 1.05 RJ (~5000 km above cloud deck) and an apojove at ~38 RJ. These orbits approximately lie in the Dawn meridian plane and are such that each successive pass is at a Jovian longitude displaced by 204° from the previous perijove. At perijove, Juno’s velocity will be ~60 km/s and about 20 km/s above the poles, meaning that the spacecraft will move over the northern and southern auroral regions in approximately two hours. In this study, we are using existing HST STIS time-tag sequences of Jupiter’s UV aurorae in order to simulate the expected measurements through UVS FOV along Juno’s predicted trajectory. The simulations account for realistic instrumental specifications and pointing and for the temporal and spatial variability of the aurora. We show the results of image reconstruction obtained from scanning the auroral region with UVS slit and provide some limits on the expected data quality as a function of the location of Juno along its orbit. We also suggest portions of the science orbits for which supporting HST observations will be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for Satellite Effects on Saturn's Auroras in Cassini UVIS Data
Pryor, Wayne; Espositio, Larry; Jouchoux, Alain et al

Poster (2015, June)

The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has been obtaining Saturn auroral images since 2004. We have previously reported instances when the main auroral oval brightened briefly in a quasi ... [more ▼]

The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has been obtaining Saturn auroral images since 2004. We have previously reported instances when the main auroral oval brightened briefly in a quasi-periodic fashion near the sub-Mimas longitude. Here we examine the large set of UVIS auroral images obtained from close range and high sub-spacecraft latitudes. We will plot the brightness of the individual auroral measurements (and binned auroral measurements) as a function of local time, and as a function of the location of Mimas and other moons to test for any correlations. Mimas, while a relatively small moon, exerts a strong influence on Saturn's ring system. Mimas creates the Cassini Division between the A and B rings and forces a non-circular shape to the outer edge of Saturn's B ring that is partially locked to Mimas phase. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's equatorward auroral features
Dumont, Maïté ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 13)

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See detailMagnetosphere-ionosphere mapping at Jupiter: Quantifying the effects of using different internal field models
Vogt, Marissa; Bunce, Emma; Kivelson, Margaret et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2015), 120

The lack of global field models accurate beyond the inner magnetosphere (<30 RJ) makes it difficult to relate Jupiter's polar auroral features to magnetospheric source regions. We recently developed a ... [more ▼]

The lack of global field models accurate beyond the inner magnetosphere (<30 RJ) makes it difficult to relate Jupiter's polar auroral features to magnetospheric source regions. We recently developed a model that maps Jupiter's equatorial magnetosphere to the ionosphere using a flux equivalence calculation that requires equal flux at the equatorial and ionospheric ends of flux tubes. This approach is more accurate than tracing field lines in a global field model but only if it is based on an accurate model of Jupiter's internal field. At present there are three widely used internal field models—Voyager Io Pioneer 4 (VIP4), the Grodent Anomaly Model (GAM), and VIP Anomaly Longitude (VIPAL). The purpose of this study is to quantify how the choice of an internal field model affects the mapping of various auroral features using the flux equivalence calculation. We find that different internal field models can shift the ionospheric mapping of points in the equatorial plane by several degrees and shift the magnetospheric mapping to the equator by ~30 RJ radially and by less than 1 h in local time. These shifts are consistent with differences in how well each model maps the Ganymede footprint, underscoring the need for more accurate Jovian internal field models. We discuss differences in the mapping of specific auroral features and the size and location of the open/closed field line boundary. Understanding these differences is important for the continued analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images and in planning for Juno's arrival at Jupiter in 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-situ & remote sensing studies of outer planet aurora
Badman, S.V.; Baines, K.H.; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg et al

Conference (2015)

The combination of in situ and remote sensing measurements of auroral processes has yielded a wealth of information about solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at the giant planets. Results from ... [more ▼]

The combination of in situ and remote sensing measurements of auroral processes has yielded a wealth of information about solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at the giant planets. Results from the 2014 joint HST-Cassini Saturn auroral campaign are highlighted to demonstrate some of the interesting features observed in situ and their auroral counterparts, including: (1) perturbations on tens of minutes timescales in the high latitude ion fluxes, magnetic field, broadband plasma waves, and auroral intensity; (2) corotating auroral intensifications and their correspondence with models of the planetary period oscillations based on magnetic field perturbations; and (3) sub-corotating auroral features and their relationship to ring current enhancements observed in Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) observations [less ▲]

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See detailAuroral spirals at Saturn
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2015)

We report Cassini/UVIS observations of auroral vortices at Saturn propagating from midnight to noon via dawn. The emission in the dawn auroral sector is observed to consist of several detached features ... [more ▼]

We report Cassini/UVIS observations of auroral vortices at Saturn propagating from midnight to noon via dawn. The emission in the dawn auroral sector is observed to consist of several detached features that swirl with time. They have a diameter of 6000 km in the ionosphere, which would correspond to plasma vortices in the magnetosphere of 12 to 15 Rs. ENA enhancements are observed simultaneously. However, they do not show any clear vortices. We estimate the velocity of the UV auroral feature to decrease from 85% of rigid corotation (28o/h) in the most equatorward part of the aurora to 68% of rigid corotation (22o/h) in the poleward part and we demonstrate that such velocity gradient could result in swirling auroral features. Particle velocities derived from magnetospheric data in previous studies, confirm large variations of the corotation fraction as a function of radial distance. We suggest that the auroral vortices could be the ionospheric footprints of hot dynamic populations containing strong velocity gradients. Alternatively, we consider another scenario that could generate auroral vortices based on field line deformation from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, like it is proposed for the Earth. In that case the auroral spiral is the result of some processes that occurred in the transition region between the centers of vortices where strong shear flows existed. Finally, a third possibility is considered, according to which the auroral vortices reported here are the direct optical signatures of the plasma vortical flows in the magnetopause related to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. However, this might be less possible due to the very different spatial scales of the auroral features (12-15 Rs) and the observed plasma vortices in the magnetopause (1 Rs). [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale magnetotail reconnection event at Saturn and associated flows: Cassini/UVIS auroral observations
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Jia, X. et al

Conference (2015)

We present high-resolution Cassini/UVIS (Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) observations of Saturn's aurora during May 2013 (DOY 140-141). The observations reveal an enhanced auroral activity in the ... [more ▼]

We present high-resolution Cassini/UVIS (Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) observations of Saturn's aurora during May 2013 (DOY 140-141). The observations reveal an enhanced auroral activity in the midnight-dawn quadrant in an extended local time sector (~02 to 05 LT), which rotates with an average velocity of ~ 45% of rigid corotation. The auroral dawn enhancement reported here, given its observed location and brightness, is most probably due to hot tenuous plasma carried inward in fast moving flux tubes returning from a tail reconnection site to the dayside. These flux tubes could generate intense field-aligned currents that would cause aurora to brighten. However, the origin of tail reconnection (solar wind or internally driven) is uncertain. Based mainly on the flux variations, which do not demonstrate flux closure, we suggest that the most plausible scenario is that of internally driven tail reconnection which operates on closed field lines. The observations also reveal multiple intensifications within the enhanced region suggesting an x-line in the tail, which extends from 02 to 05 LT. The localised enhancements evolve in arc and spot-like small scale features, which resemble vortices mainly in the beginning of the sequence. These auroral features could be related to plasma flows enhanced from reconnection which diverge into multiple narrow channels then spread azimuthally and radially. We suggest that the evolution of tail reconnection at Saturn may be pictured by an ensemble of numerous narrow current wedges or that inward transport initiated in the reconnection region could be explained by multiple localised flow burst events. The formation of vortical-like structures could then be related to field-aligned currents, building up in vortical flows in the tail. An alternative, but less plausible, scenario could be that the small scale auroral structures are related to viscous interactions involving small-scale reconnection. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EChO science case
Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2015), 1502

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general ... [more ▼]

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? What causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) has been designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large and diverse planet sample within its four-year mission lifetime. EChO can target the atmospheres of super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300K-3000K) of F to M-type host stars. Over the next ten years, several new ground- and space-based transit surveys will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment, as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. A 1m class telescope is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision. The spectral coverage (0.5-11 micron, goal 16 micron) and SNR to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would enable a very accurate measurement of the atmospheric composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailBridging Space Weather to Planetary Environments
Plainaki; Milillo; Andriopoulou et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailTransient small-scale structure in the main auroral emission at Jupiter
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2014), 119

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See detailSolar Wind Interaction with the Magnetosphere of Jupiter : Impact on the Magnetopause and the Aurorae
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 20)

The outcome of the interaction between the solar wind and the Jovian magnetic field bears many differences compared to the Earth's case. At Earth, the solar wind is the major particle and energy source in ... [more ▼]

The outcome of the interaction between the solar wind and the Jovian magnetic field bears many differences compared to the Earth's case. At Earth, the solar wind is the major particle and energy source in the magnetosphere. At Jupiter, the tremendous volcanism on the moon Io is the main plasma source and Jupiter's rapid rotation (relative to its size) is the main energy source for the particles populating its magnetosphere. Combined with a weaker solar wind pressure and a larger Alfvén Mach number as the distance from the Sun increases, all these parameters modify the relative importance of large scale Dungey reconnection and viscous interaction at the magnetopause. In order to study these differences, here we present a statistical analysis of magnetopause waves and flux tube event on the Jovian magnetopause, based on in-situ measurement from the spacecraft that flew-by or orbited around Jupiter. Moreover, variations of the solar wind have significant impact on the Jovian magnetospheric current systems and such changes reflect on the aurora. In this presentation, we will also review the recent findings concerning the aurora at Jupiter and their relationship with the solar wind. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for Satellite Effects on Saturn's Auroras in Cassini UVIS Data
Pryor, Wayne R.; Esposito, Larry; Jouchoux, Alain et al

in AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (2014, November 01)

The Cassini UVIS has been obtaining Saturn auroral images since 2004. We have previously reported instances when the main auroral oval brightened briefly in a quasi-periodic fashion near the sub-Mimas ... [more ▼]

The Cassini UVIS has been obtaining Saturn auroral images since 2004. We have previously reported instances when the main auroral oval brightened briefly in a quasi-periodic fashion near the sub-Mimas longitude. Here we examine the large set of auroral images obtained from close range and high sub-spacecraft latitudes. We will plot the brightness of the individual auroral measurements as a function of local time, and as a function of the location of Mimas and other moons to test for any correlations. [less ▲]

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See detailSpace Weather at Saturn - Auroral observations
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2014, November)

Unlike to Earth, Saturn is a fast rotator and its magnetosphere is dominated by fast planetary rotation and internally driven processes. However, the interaction of the solar wind with Saturn’s ... [more ▼]

Unlike to Earth, Saturn is a fast rotator and its magnetosphere is dominated by fast planetary rotation and internally driven processes. However, the interaction of the solar wind with Saturn’s magnetosphere is not negligible and it is manifested among others in the auroral region. The interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the dayside magnetopause at Saturn and results in enhancements in the auroral emission accompanied by entry of significant amount of open flux in the magnetosphere. The solar wind affects also the nightside magnetosphere. Dramatic enhancements of the nightside-dawn auroral emissions have been attributed to solar wind-induced auroral storms. Additionally, recent auroral observations revealed the presence of a transpolar arc at Saturn, one of the most spectacular auroral features at Earth, which could be possibly related to solar wind driven tail reconnection. Finally, there is evidence of viscous interaction of the solar wind with Saturn’s magnetosphere, which involves magnetic reconnection on a small scale. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the electron energy in Jupiter’s aurora: Hubble spectral observations
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2014), 119

Far ultraviolet spectral observations have been made with the Hubble Space Telescope in the time-tag mode using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long slit. The telescope was slewed in such ... [more ▼]

Far ultraviolet spectral observations have been made with the Hubble Space Telescope in the time-tag mode using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long slit. The telescope was slewed in such a way that the slit projection scanned from above the polar limb down to midlatitudes, allowing us to build up the first spectral maps of the FUV Jovian aurora. The shorter wavelengths are partly absorbed by the methane layer overlying part of the auroral emission layer. The long-wavelength intensity directly reflects the precipitated energy flux carried by the auroral electrons. Maps of the intensity ratio of the two spectral regions have been obtained by combining spectral emissions in two wavelength ranges. They show that the amount of absorption by methane varies significantly between the different components of the aurora and inside the main emission region. Some of the polar emissions are associated with the hardest precipitation, although the auroral regions of strong electron precipitation do not necessarily coincide with the highest electron energies. Outputs from an electron transport model are used to create maps of the distribution of the characteristic electron energies. Using model atmospheres adapted to auroral conditions, we conclude that electron energies range between a few tens to several hundred keV. Comparisons of derived energies are in general agreement with those calculated from magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling models, with values locally exceeding the standard model predictions. These results will provide useful input for three-dimensional modeling of the distribution of particle heat sources into the high-latitude Jovian upper atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter’s magnetopause: A search for wave and reconnection signatures
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K. et al

Conference (2014, September 12)

Surface waves and magnetic reconnection are two key processes taking place at the planetary magnetopause. They allow the coupling, through energy (and particle) transfer, of the interplanetary medium and ... [more ▼]

Surface waves and magnetic reconnection are two key processes taking place at the planetary magnetopause. They allow the coupling, through energy (and particle) transfer, of the interplanetary medium and the magnetosphere. The relative importance of large scale Dungey reconnection and viscous interaction (including small-scale intermittent reconnection associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices) are expected to be different at Jupiter compared to the Earth’s case. Such differences would be due to the combination of a) a weaker solar wind pressure and Alfvén velocity as the distance to the Sun increases, b) a high-β plasma sheet, originating from Io’s outgassing, which inflates the Jovian magnetosphere, c) the rapid rotation of the planet relative to its size (e.g. Desroche et al. 2012). Here we analyse the signatures of wave activity and reconnection on the magnetopause of Jupiter, based on magnetic field and energetic particle measurements from the successive spacecraft that explored the Jovian system. Up to now, 7 spacecraft equipped with a magnetometer have crossed the Jovian magnetopause: Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Ulysses, Galileo and Cassini. We make use of several normal direction finding techniques, such as the Minimum Variance Analysis, in order to identify waves and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. As far as the reconnection is concerned, small scale signatures of flux-tube events (FTEs) had been identified by Walker and Russell (1985), based on a limited data-set from the Pioneers’ and Voyagers’ fly-bys. Here we will extend this search to the extensive dataset from all the missions that explored Jupiter’s system. [less ▲]

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