References of "Quertemont, Etienne"
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See detailLa psychothérapie institutionnelle : un processus thérapeutique au service de la régulation émotionnelle et de l'empathie
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Delphine; Servais, Catherine et al

in Encéphale (L') (2016)

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See detailDifferential effects of context on psychomotor sensitization to ethanol and cocaine
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Caroline; Dieupart, Julie et al

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2016), 27(2 & 3), 173-181

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to ... [more ▼]

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to cocaine is context dependent as its expression is reduced in an environment that was not paired with cocaine administration. In contrast, the effects of the test context on ethanol sensitization remain unclear. In the present study, female OF1 mice were repeatedly injected with 1.5 g/kg ethanol to test for both the effects of context novelty/familiarity and association on ethanol sensitization. A first group of mice was extensively pre-exposed to the test context before ethanol sensitization and ethanol injections were paired with the test context (familiar and paired group). A second group was not pre-exposed to the test context, but ethanol injections were paired with the test context (nonfamiliar and paired group). Finally, a third group of mice was not pre-exposed to the test context and ethanol was repeatedly injected in the home cage (unpaired group). Control groups were similarly exposed to the test context, but were injected with saline. In a second experiment, cocaine was used as a positive control. The same behavioral procedure was used, except that mice were injected with 10 mg/kg cocaine instead of ethanol. The results show a differential involvement of the test context in the sensitization to ethanol and cocaine. Cocaine sensitization is strongly context dependent and is not expressed in the unpaired group. In contrast, the expression of ethanol sensitization is independent of the context in which it was administered, but is strongly affected by the relative novelty/familiarity of the environment. Extensive pre-exposure to the test context prevented the expression of ethanol sensitization. One possible explanation is that expression of ethanol sensitization requires an arousing environment. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between ethanol behavioral sensitization and midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity to ethanol
Didone, Vincent ULg; Masson, Sébastien; Quoilin, Caroline et al

in Addiction Biology (2016), 21(2), 387-396

Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral ... [more ▼]

Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral sensitization. The aim of the present study was to test whether in vivo ethanol locomotor sensitization correlates with changes in either basal- or ethanol evoked firing rates of dopamine neurons in vitro. Female Swiss mice were daily injected with 2.5 g/kg ethanol (or saline in the control group) for 7 days and their locomotor activity was recorded. At the end of the sensitization procedure, extracellular recordings were made from dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slices from these mice. Significantly higher spontaneous basal firing rates of dopamine neurons were recorded in ethanol-sensitized mice relative to control mice, but without correlations with the behavioral effects. The superfusion of sulpiride, a dopamine D2 antagonist, induced a stronger increase of dopamine neuron firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. This shows that the D2 feedback in dopamine neurons is preserved after chronic ethanol administration and argues against a reduced D2 feedback as an explanation for the increased dopamine neuron basal firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. Finally, ethanol superfusion (10–100 mM) significantly increased the firing rates of dopamine neurons and this effect was of higher magnitude in ethanol-sensitized mice. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between such a sensitization of dopamine neuron activity and ethanol behavioral sensitization. These results support the hypothesis that changes in brain dopamine neuron activity contribute to the behavioral sensitization of the stimulant effects of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse to novely and cocaine stimulant effects: lack of stability across environments in female Swiss mice
Nyssen, Laura ULg; Brabant, Christian ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (2016), 233

Rationale: In humans, novelty/sensation seeking is seen as a personality trait with a positive relationship with addiction vulnerability. In animal studies, one of the standard proce-dures to model ... [more ▼]

Rationale: In humans, novelty/sensation seeking is seen as a personality trait with a positive relationship with addiction vulnerability. In animal studies, one of the standard proce-dures to model novelty seeking is the "response to novelty," i.e., the levels of locomotor activity in a new environment. In rodents, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the response to novelty and several effects of drugs, especially the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Objectives: The present study was designed to test in mice whether the response to novelty is stable across environments and whether its relationship with the stimulant effects of cocaine is altered by environmental changes. Experiment 1 assessed the responses to novelty of the same mice in two different novel environments. Experiment 2 tested the correlation between response to novelty and acute stimulant effects of cocaine recorded in two distinct environments. Results: The results show a weak correlation only during the first 5 min of the session between the responses to novelty measured in two distinct environments. Experiment 2 demonstrates that novelty responses and stimulant effects of cocaine are positively correlated only when both behavioral responses are measured in the same environment. In contrast, the relationship between response to novelty and acute stimulant effects of cocaine is completely lost when the behavioral responses are recorded in two different environments. Conclusions: The present results question the usual interpretation of the correlation between the response to novelty and the stimulant effects of cocaine as reflecting a relationship between two underlying individual stable characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailLe binge drinking (biture expresse) est-il un phénomène récent ?
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline; Quertemont, Etienne (Eds.) L'alcool en questions (2015)

L’alcool remonte le moral. Une petite cuite n’a jamais tué personne. Boire un café atténue l’effet de l’alcool. Le binge drinking est un fléau nouveau… De nombreuses idées reçues, certaines fondées ... [more ▼]

L’alcool remonte le moral. Une petite cuite n’a jamais tué personne. Boire un café atténue l’effet de l’alcool. Le binge drinking est un fléau nouveau… De nombreuses idées reçues, certaines fondées, d’autres pas, sont véhiculées à propos de l’alcool et de ses conséquences. L’alcool soulève aussi de multiples questions : L’alcool est-il une drogue ? L’alcool est-il aphrodisiaque ? L’alcoolisme est-il héréditaire ? Combien l’alcool coûte/rapporte-t-il à la société ? Peut-on guérir de l’alcoolisme ?… Ce livre a pour but de démont(r)er certaines idées reçues sur l’alcool et d’apporter des réponses aux questions que chacun se pose. Les auteurs ne se bornent pas à répondre par vrai ou faux, ils fournissent les explications, appuyées sur l’état des connaissances scientifiques actuelles, qui permettent d’infirmer ou de confirmer ces idées reçues ou de répondre à ces questions. Ils nuancent le propos lorsque la réponse n’est pas de l’ordre du tout ou rien. Il est indéniable que l’excès d’alcool est nuisible à la santé. Il existe cependant une littérature scientifique démontrant des effets positifs sur la santé de la consommation en quantités modérées de certaines boissons alcoolisées. Ce mélange d’effets positifs et négatifs explique que le public a développé une relation d’amour-haine avec l’alcool. Ainsi, les abstinents complets sont parfois qualifiés de rabat-joie. Les alcooliques chroniques (5 à 10 % des occidentaux, selon les études épidémiologiques !) sont, quant à eux, souvent trop vite jugés. Ce qui est certain c’est que l’alcoolo-dépendance est source de beaucoup de souffrances pour la personne et son entourage. Ces 41 réponses à des questions sur l’alcool visent à donner des balises au lecteur, littérature scientifique à l’appui. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of heroin-assisted treatment in Belgium: a randomised controlled trial
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Litran, Géraldine et al

in European Addiction Research (2015), 21(4), 179-187

Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT ... [more ▼]

Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT to existing methadone maintenance treatment. Methods: In this randomised controlled trial, HAT was limited to 12 months. Participants were assessed every 3 months. They were responders if they showed improvement on the level of street heroin use, health or criminal involvement. Results: 74 participants were randomised in the trial. The experimental group (n=36) counted 30% of responders more than the control group (n=38) at each assessment point (p<0.05), except at 12 months where the difference (11%) was no longer significant (p=0.35). Still, after 12 months, participants in the experimental group reported significantly greater improvements (p<0.05) than the control group on the level of street heroin use and on the level of physical and mental health. Both groups reported significantly less criminal facts after 12 months (p<0.001), but with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: This trial confirms the short-term efficacy of HAT for severe heroin addicts, who already failed methadone treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailRetirement age and the age of onset of Alzheimer’s disease: Results from the ICTUS study
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Letenneur, Luc; Bonsang, Eric ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(2), 0115056

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See detailExplicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: Differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood
Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(Article n°1773), 1-9

Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly ... [more ▼]

Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old), young adult (17-18 year old), and adult (35-55 year old) participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT = 7) or problem (AUDIT = 11) drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of "stimulation" and "sedation". Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age. Conclusion: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults, and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain Activation Associated with Automatic Processing of Alcohol-Related Cues in Young Heavy Drinkers and Its Modulation by Alcohol Administration
Kreusch, Fanny; Goffaux, Valérie; Siep, Nicolette et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2015), 39(10), 1957-1966

Background: While the automatic processing of alcohol-related cues by alcohol abusers is well established in experimental psychopathology approaches, the cerebral regions involved in this phenomenon and ... [more ▼]

Background: While the automatic processing of alcohol-related cues by alcohol abusers is well established in experimental psychopathology approaches, the cerebral regions involved in this phenomenon and the influence of alcohol intake on this process remain unknown. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of task-irrelevant alcohol-related stimuli in young heavy drinkers and their modulation by alcohol administration. Methods: Twelve heavy drinking male participants were scanned on 2 separate days; once after a low dose of alcohol intake (0.4 g/kg), and once after a placebo intake, in balanced order. Images of alcoholic drinks, soft drinks, or neutral objects were shown while participants' neural activity was recorded through fMRI. Moreover, participants' attentional focus was manipulated using a task which required them to process the central images of interest (focus alcohol condition) or a center unattended task (focus not on alcohol condition). Results: Results indicated that an explicit judgment on beverage-related cues increased activation in the prefrontal area compared with the judgment of neutral objects. By comparison with that of task-irrelevant neutral cues, the processing of task-irrelevant alcohol-related cues increased the activation in a large network of cerebral areas including visual and temporal regions, the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the putamen. Moreover, in the condition with focus not on alcohol, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was particularly activated by the presentation of (task-irrelevant) alcohol-related cues compared to task-irrelevant soft-drink-related cues. Conclusions: The VTA was especially involved in the automatic processing of alcohol-related cues in young heavy drinkers. Low dose of alcohol did not modulate the neural substrates involved in the processing of salient alcohol-related cues. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociation between implicit and explicit expectancies of cannabis use in adolescence
Schmits, Emilie ULg; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain et al

in Psychiatry Research (2015), 230

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See detailL'alcool en questions
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Book published by Mardaga (2015)

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See detailNear-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies.
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Jourdan, Jean-Pierre; Thonnard, Marie ULg et al

Poster (2014, September 16)

Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. Empirical studies of NDEs have mostly been ... [more ▼]

Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. Empirical studies of NDEs have mostly been conducted in patients with life threatening situations such as cardiac arrest [1-5] or (albeit more rarely) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury[6]. To the best of our knowledge, no study has formally compared the influence of the cause of coma to the intensity or content of the NDE. Using the Greyson NDE scale [7], the present retrospective study aimed at: (1) exploring the NDE intensity and content in “NDE-like” accounts following non-life-threatening events versus “real NDE” following coma; (2) comparing the “real NDE” characteristics according to the etiology of the brain damage (anoxic, traumatic or other) and; (3) comparing our retrospectively obtained data in anoxic coma to historical previously published prospectively collected post-anoxic NDEs. [less ▲]

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See detailCannabis use initiation among adolescents: the predictive role of peers, alcohol, expectancies and internalizing factors.
Schmits, Emilie ULg; Mathys, Cécile ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Conference (2014, September 05)

Theoretical background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers. Initiation is influenced by environmental factors and personal characteristics, events or experiences. An early ... [more ▼]

Theoretical background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers. Initiation is influenced by environmental factors and personal characteristics, events or experiences. An early initiation increases the risks of problems related to cannabis use (e.g. negative psychosocial effects, delinquent behaviors, mental disorders). Prevent initiation, through the identification of risk/protective factors and their interaction, seems crucial in terms of public health. Research question and significance: This study aimed to examine the progression of use, to identify protective and risk factors of cannabis initiation (including peers, alcohol, expectancies and internalizing factors) and to specifically focus on the influence of social anxiety and its moderators/mediators. Methods: A questionnaire was administered twice to 877 teenagers (49.94% female, M=15.61) with one year interval. Sex, age, demographic variables, peer cannabis use, cannabis-related variables (lifetime, frequency, problems and expectancies), alcohol use, social anxiety, trait-anxiety and depression were assessed through validated scales. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyzes were performed. Results: During the follow-up period, 12.89% of the young participants initiated cannabis use. Several factors significantly predict initiation: alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement and craving effect expectancies. Others factors significantly protect from initiation: negative behavioral effect expectancies and social anxiety. Gender, age, relaxation/social facilitation and cognitive impairment effect expectancies, trait-anxiety and depression do not significantly influence cannabis use initiation. In moderated mediation model, after controlling for relevant variables, social anxiety protected from initiation trough the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving effect expectancies. The number of peer users and alcohol use do not moderate this mediation. Negative behavioral effect expectancies do not significantly mediate the relation between social anxiety and cannabis initiation. Interpretation of findings: Through low positive expectancies, adolescents with social anxiety symptoms are less likely to initiate cannabis use than the others, whatever the number of peer users and the alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protective characteristics of relevant factors, in an overall and evolutionary approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of internalizing profile of adolescents concerned by prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailAre expectancies and peers involved in the relation between depressive mood, anxiety and cannabis use in adolescence?
Schmits, Emilie ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Boulard, Aurore ULg

Poster (2014, July 15)

Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers and depression is one of the most common psychopathologies in adolescence. The specific symptom of depressive mood is present in ... [more ▼]

Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers and depression is one of the most common psychopathologies in adolescence. The specific symptom of depressive mood is present in 30% to 40% of adolescents in regular school settings. Links between cannabis use and depression have been highlighted, especially in adolescence. But questions remain about the strength of the association between lifetime cannabis use, depressive mood and anxiety, and about the mechanism underpinning the link. Aim: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between depressive mood and lifetime cannabis use in adolescents, particularly through the mediating role of anxiety and cannabis use effect expectancies, and the moderating role of peer cannabis use. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 1,246 Belgian teenagers aged 16–17 years. ANOVA, chi-square, logistic regressions and mediation/moderation analyses were carried out to model lifetime cannabis use. Results: Depressive mood was positively correlated with lifetime cannabis use. Social anxiety, trait-anxiety and cognitive impairment effect expectancies mediated the effect of depression on lifetime cannabis use. The direct effect of depression on lifetime cannabis use increased when mediators were introduced into the relation, revealing their suppressive effects. The number of peer cannabis users moderated this model. Conclusion: Findings are discussed in terms of potential risk factors (depressive mood) or protective factors (anxiety and expectancies) for lifetime cannabis use, including the self-medication hypothesis. [less ▲]

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