Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: Determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination
; ; et al
in Science of the Total Environment (2013), 454-455
Dioxins are harmful Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization ... [more ▼]
Dioxins are harmful Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in WHO 2005-TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of immission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg)
Analysis of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in sewage sludges and general bio-wastes available for agricultural land application in Belgium - comparison between GC-IDHRMS and CALUX results
; Dumortier, Pierre ; Scholl, Georges et al
in Organohalogen Compounds (2012, August), 74Detailed reference viewed: 43 (10 ULg)
Dioxin Compounds Emissions to Agricultural Soils Through the Use of Fertilizers, Soil Conditioners and Sewage Sludge
Dumortier, Pierre ; ; Focant, Jean-François et al
in Organohalogen Compounds (2011), 73Detailed reference viewed: 18 (11 ULg)
PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in home-produced eggs from Belgium: levels, contamination sources and health risks.
; ; et al
in Science of the Total Environment (2009), 407(15), 4419-29
This paper discusses the dioxin TEQ levels as determined by the chemically activated luciferase gene expression assay (CALUX) and by HRGC-HRMS in eggs, soils, faeces and kitchen waste samples obtained in ... [more ▼]
This paper discusses the dioxin TEQ levels as determined by the chemically activated luciferase gene expression assay (CALUX) and by HRGC-HRMS in eggs, soils, faeces and kitchen waste samples obtained in the CONTEGG study. The samples were collected in each Belgian province at private homes and in small gardens where chickens are held. The CALUX levels for eggs sampled in autumn were higher than the levels in eggs obtained at the same locations in spring (median values of 5.86 and 4.08 pg CALUX TEQ/g fat, respectively). The total WHO-TEQ levels in eggs, determined by HRGC-HRMS, ranged from 3.29 to 95.35 pg TEQ/g fat in autumn and from 1.50 to 64.79 pg TEQ/g fat in spring. In the soils on which the chickens forage, levels of 2.51-11.35 pg I-TEQ/g in autumn and 2.00-7.86 pg I-TEQ/g in spring were found. The congener pattern of PCDD/Fs in the eggs, soils and faeces was dominated by OCDD, in addition to 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF. The predominant dioxin-like PCBs were PCB118, PCB 105 and PCB 156. The dioxin-like PCBs contributed on average 47%, 14% and 20% to the total WHO-TEQ in eggs, soils and faeces, respectively. Kitchen waste samples were very low-contaminated with dioxin-like compounds. The present results showed a good agreement between egg and soil TEQ levels for PCDD/Fs but not for dioxin-like PCBs. This study showed that current soil levels found in some private gardens do not lead to egg levels below the current EU maximal level of 6 pg total TEQ/g fat for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. The consumers of the analysed eggs attained 5-79% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ/kg bw for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs by exposure to their home-produced eggs only. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (6 ULg)
Cadmium in the food chain near non-ferrous metal production sites.
; Saegerman, Claude ; et al
in Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A. Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment (2008), 25(3), 293-301
Dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure was estimated for adults living in Cd-contaminated areas close to non-ferrous metal plants and compared with dietary Cd exposure in the general Belgian adult population. To ... [more ▼]
Dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure was estimated for adults living in Cd-contaminated areas close to non-ferrous metal plants and compared with dietary Cd exposure in the general Belgian adult population. To evaluate the contamination levels of locally produced food items, 35 fruit samples, 97 vegetable samples, 98 samples of potatoes and 53 samples of meat, liver and kidney of cattle, which had resided for more than 18 months in the contaminated area, were analyzed for Cd. Mean Cd concentrations in fruit and vegetables were 1.1- to 9-fold higher than in samples from other regions at ambient Cd levels. Mean Cd concentrations in bovine meat, liver and kidney were 2-fold higher compared to samples from animals in other regions of Belgium. The estimated dietary intake was 31.3 and 63.3 microg day(-1) for average and large consumers, respectively, in the contaminated area, compared to 17 and 38.3 microg day(-1), respectively, for the general adult population. Excessive consumption of locally produced food items in areas close to non-ferrous metal plants could result in Cd intake levels exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (3 ULg)
Les dioxines dans la chaîne alimentaire : évaluation du risque dans le cadre normatif et dans le contexte d’un accident ponctuel.
; ; Saegerman, Claude
in Application de l’évaluation des risques dans la chaîne alimentaire (2007)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.
; ; et al
in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2005), 70(4),Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg)