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See detailElectrooxidation Potential as a Tool in the Early Screening for New Safer Clozapine-Like Analogues
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Kauffmann, J. M.; Petit, C. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 44(5), 769-76

The chemical modification of clozapine (1) has permitted the finding of new analogues, e.g., olanzapine (2), quetiapine (3), 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloropyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate (9 ... [more ▼]

The chemical modification of clozapine (1) has permitted the finding of new analogues, e.g., olanzapine (2), quetiapine (3), 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloropyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate (9), with a clinical or psychopharmacological profile similar to that of clozapine. However, when developing new derivatives, the designers are discouraged by the development of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Different researchers have raised the role played by the oxidizability of the molecule in such a deleterious effect. In the present paper, we examined the oxidation profile (direct scavenging abilities, efficacy in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and electrooxidation potential) of newly developed methoxy and trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy analogues related to clozapine, some of them being described as putative antipsychotic. The oxazepine derivative 7, unlike the other diazepine derivatives (6, 10--12), was not readily oxidized. Using a statistical predictive model for hematotoxicity previously described, 7 was found in the cluster of potentially nontoxic compounds while diazepine derivatives 6 and 10-12 were classified as potentially toxic compounds. Among these original compounds, 7, which presents a preclinical clozapine-like profile and a low sensitivity to oxidation, could be a promising antipsychotic candidate with low side effects. Considering the tricyclic derivatives examined so far, some elements of structure-oxidation relationship (SOR) might be pointed out. Regarding the nature of the tricyclic ring substituent, from the most to the least sensitive to oxidation, the sequence was as follows: HO > Cl > CH(3)O > CF(3)SO(2)O. The nature of the tricyclic ring influenced also the sensitivity to oxidation; the diazepine moiety appeared to be the most reactive ring compared to oxa- and thiazepine congeners. These parameters could be advantageously integrated in the early design of new safer clozapine-like analogues. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidation Sensitivity May Be a Useful Tool for the Detection of the Hematotoxic Potential of Newly Developed Molecules: Application to Antipsychotic Drugs
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Bruhwyler, J.; Petit, C. et al

in Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics (1999), 370(1), 126-37

Some antipsychotic agents have been found to produce agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The oxidation phenomena and/or the formation of free radicals has been suggested to be causally related to various ... [more ▼]

Some antipsychotic agents have been found to produce agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The oxidation phenomena and/or the formation of free radicals has been suggested to be causally related to various hematological disorders, e.g., agranulocytosis. Using five experimental conditions, we tested the oxidative potential of compounds with and without a history of hematological side effects, e.g., agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. A statistical analysis was undertaken for each experimental condition and a multivariate analysis combining all results was performed. Two peroxidase-induced free radical models did not successfully discriminate between drugs with and without a history of causing hematologic problems (<70%). The lipid peroxidation system provided even less satisfactory discrimination, with only 56.25% correct classification. However, an 87.5% correct classification was obtained when using the oxidation potentials of these drugs determined at pH 4.7 and at pH 7.4. A multivariate analysis taking into account the five variables provided 87.5% success in classification. The two clusters were better discriminated in terms of a "distance coefficient." In a second analysis, the putative antipsychotic pyridobenzodiazepine analogues (JL5, JL8, JL18, and JL25) were classified in the cluster of toxic compounds, while the oxa- and thiazepine analogues (JL2, JL3, and JL13) were classified as nontoxic compounds. On the other hand, a few metabolites of clozapine and fluperlapine were classified in the toxic compound group. The procedure described herein is, to our knowledge, the first which classifies molecules of different structures as well as different pharmacological profiles according to their hematotoxic potential. Such a procedure could be used to predict drug-induced hematological side effects. [less ▲]

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See detailHorseradish peroxidase electrode for phenothiazine analysis
Petit, C.; Quilinc, A.; Quilinc, E. et al

in Electroanalysis (1998), 10

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See detailJl 13, a Potential Successor to Clozapine, Is Less Sensitive to Oxidative Phenomena
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Bruhwyler, J. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1997), 238(1), 252-5

The oxidation behaviour of JL 13, a promising antipsychotic, was investigated in comparison with clozapine and loxapine, by measuring their direct "radical scavenging" abilities and their efficacies in ... [more ▼]

The oxidation behaviour of JL 13, a promising antipsychotic, was investigated in comparison with clozapine and loxapine, by measuring their direct "radical scavenging" abilities and their efficacies in inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. In the lipid peroxidation system, the reactivity of these compounds with free radicals produced by gamma-irradiation of linoleic acid may be presented as follows: JL 13 = loxapine < clozapine. In two enzymatic systems (HRP/GSH and HRP/H2O2/ GSH) which generate the thiyl free radicals, clozapine produces a strong enhancement of the thiyl-radical EPR signal intensity while JL 13 and loxapine exhibit no or minimal effect on this signal. The redox potential values for the three derivatives confirm the spectro-photometric and EPR results. Following this study, we show that JL 13, although presenting a preclinical clozapine-like profile, appears less sensitive to oxidation than clozapine. [less ▲]

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