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See detailInositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate controls proapoptotic Bim gene expression and survival in B cells.
Maréchal, Y.; Pesesse, X.; Jia, Y. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2007), 104

The contribution of the B isoform of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] 3-kinase (or Itpkb) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4)], its reaction product, to B cell function ... [more ▼]

The contribution of the B isoform of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] 3-kinase (or Itpkb) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4)], its reaction product, to B cell function and development remains unknown. Here, we show that mice deficient in Itpkb have defects in B cell survival leading to specific and intrinsic developmental alterations in the B cell lineage and antigen unresponsiveness in vivo. The decreased B cell survival is associated with a decreased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and increased Bim gene expression. B cell survival, development, and antigen responsiveness are normalized in parallel to reduced expression of Bim in Itpkb(-/-) Bim(+/-) mice. Analysis of the signaling pathway downstream of Itpkb revealed that Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) regulates subcellular distribution of Rasa3, a Ras GTPase-activating protein acting as an Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) receptor. Together, our results indicate that Itpkb and Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) mediate a survival signal in B cells via a Rasa3-Erk signaling pathway controlling proapoptotic Bim gene expression [less ▲]

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See detailSHIP2 controls PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PKB activity in response to oxidative stress
Zhang, J.; Liu, Z.; Rasschaert, J. et al

in Cellular Signalling (2007), 19

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in redox signalling pathways that may contribute to normal cell function as well as disease progression. The tumour suppressor PTEN and the inositol ... [more ▼]

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in redox signalling pathways that may contribute to normal cell function as well as disease progression. The tumour suppressor PTEN and the inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP2 are critical enzymes in the control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) level. It has been reported that oxidants, including those produced in cells such as macrophages, can activate downstream signalling via the inactivation of PTEN. The present study evaluates the potential impact of SHIP2 on phosphoinositides in cells exposed to sodium peroxide. We used a model of SHIP2 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) stimulated by H(2)O(2): at 15 min, PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) was markedly increased in SHIP2 -/- cells as compared to +/+ cells. In contrast, no significant increase in PtdIns(3,4)P(2) could be detected at 15 or 120 min incubation of the cells with H(2)O(2) (0.6 mM). PKB activity was also upregulated in SHIP2 -/- cells as compared to +/+ cells in response to H(2)O(2). SHIP2 add back experiments in SHIP2 -/- cells confirm its critical role as a lipid phosphatase in the control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) level in response to H(2)O(2). We conclude that SHIP2 lipid phosphatase activity plays an important role in the metabolism PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) which is demonstrated in oxygen stressed cells [less ▲]

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See detailThe absence of expression of the three isoenzymes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase does not prevent the formation of inositol pentakisphosphate and hexakisphosphate in mouse embryonic fibroblasts
Leyman, A.; Pouillon, V.; Bostan, A. et al

in Cellular Signalling (2007), 19

The activation of phospholipase C leads to the formation of both I(1,4,5)P(3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). I(1,4,5)P(3) can be metabolized by dephosphorylation catalyzed by Type I I(1,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase ... [more ▼]

The activation of phospholipase C leads to the formation of both I(1,4,5)P(3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). I(1,4,5)P(3) can be metabolized by dephosphorylation catalyzed by Type I I(1,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase and by enzymatic phosphorylation to various inositol phosphates. This last step is catalyzed by three mammalian isoenzymes that specifically phosphorylate the 3-phosphate position of the inositol ring Itpka, Itpkb and Itpkc and a less specific enzyme Ipmk (or inositol multikinase) that phosphorylates I(1,4,5)P(3) at the D-3 and D-6 positions. This study was performed in mice cells in order to understand the synthetic pathway of IP5 and IP6 following PLC stimulation and possible link with Itpk activity. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from Itpkb(-/-) Itpkc(-/-) mice. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis show that the cells do not express Itpka. In contrast, they do express Ipmk. The cells still produce IP5 and IP6. Our data show that the absence of expression of the three isoenzymes of Itpk does not prevent the formation of IP5 and IP6, at least in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The nuclear Ipmk plays therefore a critical role in the metabolism of I(1,4,5)P(3) and production of highly phosphorylated IP5 and IP6 [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate modulation in Ship2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts
Blero, D.; Zhang, J.; Pesesse, X. et al

in FEBS Journal (2005), 272

SHIP2, the ubiquitous SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatase, includes a series of protein interacting domains and has the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns ... [more ▼]

SHIP2, the ubiquitous SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatase, includes a series of protein interacting domains and has the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] in vitro. The present study, which was undertaken to evaluate the impact of SHIP2 on PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels, was performed in a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) model using SHIP2 deficient (– ⁄ –) MEF cells derived from knockout mice. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was upregulated in serum stimulated – ⁄ – MEF cells as compared to +⁄+ MEF cells. Although the absence of SHIP2 had no effect on basal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels, we show here that this lipid was significantly upregulated in SHIP2 – ⁄ – cells but only after short-term (i.e. 5–10 min) incubation with serum. The difference in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels in heterozygous fibroblast cells was intermediate between the +⁄+ and the – ⁄ – cells. In our model, insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation did not show this upregulation. Serum stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity appeared to be comparable between +⁄+ and – ⁄ – cells. Moreover, protein kinase B, but not mitogen activated protein kinase activity, was also potentiated in SHIP2 deficient cells stimulated by serum. The upregulation of protein kinase B activity in serum stimulated cells was totally reversed in the presence of the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002, in both +⁄+ and – ⁄ – cells. Altogether, these data establish a link between SHIP2 and the acute control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels in intact cells [less ▲]

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See detailCorrigenda: The lipid phosphatase SHIP2 controls insulin sensitivity
Clément, S.; Krause, U.; Desmedt, F. et al

in Nature (2004), 431

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See detailSH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 in blood platelets: interaction and respective role in the control of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels
Giuriato, S.; Pesesse, X.; Bodin, S. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 376

Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHIP1 and SHIP2) are capable of dephosphorylating the second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) and ... [more ▼]

Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHIP1 and SHIP2) are capable of dephosphorylating the second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) and interacting with several signalling proteins. SHIP1 is essentially expressed in haematopoietic cells, whereas SHIP2, a closely related enzyme, is ubiquitous. In the present study, we show that SHIP1 and SHIP2 are expressed as functional PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 5-phosphatases in human blood platelets and are capable of interacting when these two lipid phosphatases are co-expressed, either naturally (platelets and A20 B lymphoma cells) or artificially (COS-7 cells). Using COS-7 cells transfected with deletion mutants of SHIP2, we demonstrate that the Src homology domain 2 of SHIP2 is the minimal and sufficient protein motif responsible for the interaction between the two phosphatases. These results prompted us to investigate the relative importance of SHIP1 and SHIP2 in the control of PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 levels in platelets using homozygous or heterozygous SHIP1- or SHIP2-deficient mice. Our results strongly suggest that SHIP1, rather than SHIP2, plays a major role in controlling PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 levels in response to thrombin or collagen activation of mouse blood platelets [less ▲]

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See detailThe lipid phosphatase SHIP2 controls insulin sensitivity
Clément, S.; Krause, U.; Desmedt, F. et al

in Nature (2001), 409

Insulin is the primary hormone involved in glucose homeostasis, and impairment of insulin action and/or secretion has a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Type-II SH2-domain ... [more ▼]

Insulin is the primary hormone involved in glucose homeostasis, and impairment of insulin action and/or secretion has a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Type-II SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase, or 'SHIP2', is a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. In vitro studies have shown that SHIP2, in response to stimulation by numerous growth factors and insulin, is closely linked to signalling events mediated by both phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase. Here we report the generation of mice lacking the SHIP2 gene. Loss of SHIP2 leads to increased sensitivity to insulin, which is characterized by severe neonatal hypoglycaemia, deregulated expression of the genes involved in gluconeogenesis, and perinatal death. Adult mice that are heterozygous for the SHIP2 mutation have increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity associated with an increased recruitment of the GLUT4 glucose transporter and increased glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles. Our results show that SHIP2 is a potent negative regulator of insulin signalling and insulin sensitivity in vivo [less ▲]

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