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See detailMechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resistance to human serum.
Uzureau, Pierrick; Uzureau, Sophie; Lecordier, Laurence et al

in Nature (2013), 501(7467), 430-4

The African parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 97% of human sleeping sickness cases. T. b. gambiense resists the specific human innate immunity acting against several other tsetse-fly ... [more ▼]

The African parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 97% of human sleeping sickness cases. T. b. gambiense resists the specific human innate immunity acting against several other tsetse-fly-transmitted trypanosome species such as T. b. brucei, the causative agent of nagana disease in cattle. Human immunity to some African trypanosomes is due to two serum complexes designated trypanolytic factors (TLF-1 and -2), which both contain haptoglobin-related protein (HPR) and apolipoprotein LI (APOL1). Whereas HPR association with haemoglobin (Hb) allows TLF-1 binding and uptake via the trypanosome receptor TbHpHbR (ref. 5), TLF-2 enters trypanosomes independently of TbHpHbR (refs 4, 5). APOL1 kills trypanosomes after insertion into endosomal/lysosomal membranes. Here we report that T. b. gambiense resists TLFs via a hydrophobic beta-sheet of the T. b. gambiense-specific glycoprotein (TgsGP), which prevents APOL1 toxicity and induces stiffening of membranes upon interaction with lipids. Two additional features contribute to resistance to TLFs: reduction of sensitivity to APOL1 requiring cysteine protease activity, and TbHpHbR inactivation due to a L210S substitution. According to such a multifactorial defence mechanism, transgenic expression of T. b. brucei TbHpHbR in T. b. gambiense did not cause parasite lysis in normal human serum. However, these transgenic parasites were killed in hypohaptoglobinaemic serum, after high TLF-1 uptake in the absence of haptoglobin (Hp) that competes for Hb and receptor binding. TbHpHbR inactivation preventing high APOL1 loading in hypohaptoglobinaemic serum may have evolved because of the overlapping endemic area of T. b. gambiense infection and malaria, the main cause of haemolysis-induced hypohaptoglobinaemia in western and central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailINPP5E mutations cause primary cilium signaling defects, ciliary instability and ciliopathies in human and mouse
Jacoby, Monique; Cox, James J.; Gayral, Stéphanie et al

in Nature Genetics (2009), 41

The primary cilium is an antenna-like structure that protrudes from the cell surface of quiescent/differentiated cells and participates in extracellular signal processing1–3. Here, we report that mice ... [more ▼]

The primary cilium is an antenna-like structure that protrudes from the cell surface of quiescent/differentiated cells and participates in extracellular signal processing1–3. Here, we report that mice deficient for the lipid 5-phosphatase Inpp5e develop a multiorgan disorder associated with structural defects of the primary cilium. In ciliated mouse embryonic fibroblasts, Inpp5e is concentrated in the axoneme of the primary cilium. Inpp5e inactivation did not impair ciliary assembly but altered the stability of pre-established cilia after serum addition. Blocking phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity or ciliary platelet-derived growth factor receptor a (PDGFRa) restored ciliary stability. In human INPP5E, we identified a mutation affecting INPP5E ciliary localization and cilium stability in a family with MORM syndrome, a condition related to Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Together, our results show that INPP5E plays an essential role in the primary cilium by controlling ciliary growth factor and PI3K signaling and stability, and highlight the consequences of INPP5E dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailApolipoprotein L-1 Promotes Trypanosome Lysis By Forming Pores In Lysosomal Membranes
Perez-Morga, David; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Paturiaux-Hanocq, Françoise et al

in Science (2005), 309(5733), 469-72

Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanolytic factor of human serum. Here we show that this protein contains a membrane pore-forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins, flanked by a ... [more ▼]

Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanolytic factor of human serum. Here we show that this protein contains a membrane pore-forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins, flanked by a membrane-addressing domain. In lipid bilayer membranes, apolipoprotein L-I formed anion channels. In Trypanosoma brucei, apolipoprotein L-I was targeted to the lysosomal membrane and triggered depolarization of this membrane, continuous influx of chloride, and subsequent osmotic swelling of the lysosome until the trypanosome lysed. [less ▲]

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