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See detailA multiple-level study of metal tolerance in Salix fragilis and Salix aurita clones
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Printz, Bruno et al

in Journal of Proteomics (2014), 101C

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 ... [more ▼]

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 days, different parameters (biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), pigment and sugar concentrations, electrolyte leakage and proteome-level changes) were analyzed. The growth of Sa was not influenced by metals whereas Sf produced significantly less biomass when exposed to the pollutants. Furthermore, although Sa did not show a growth reduction in the presence of metals, the overall view of the physiological results among others the changes in the accumulation of sugars and pigments indicated that metals had a more severe impact on this clone. The response at the proteome level confirmed these observations. The growth reduction and the proteomic changes in Sf indicate that this clone adjusts its metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Sa on the contrary maintains growth but the physiological and proteomics data suggests that this can only be done at the cost of cellular deregulation. Therefore high biomass is not linked with a good tolerance strategy. In a long-term study the survival of Sa might be compromised making it a poorer candidate for phytoremediation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador et al

in International Journal of Phytoremediation (2014), 16(11), 1148-1169

High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones ... [more ▼]

High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded. [less ▲]

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See detailLa barrière mécanique anti-érosive influence la colonisation des dunes par les espèces végétales
Laminou Manzo, Ousmane; Zaman Allah, Mainassara; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Tropicultura (2013), 31(4), 260-271

Le Sud-est du Niger est soumis au phénomène d’érosion éolienne. Dans la zone de Gouré, les cuvettes oasiennes, principales sources de productions agricoles et de revenus, sont menacées de disparition à ... [more ▼]

Le Sud-est du Niger est soumis au phénomène d’érosion éolienne. Dans la zone de Gouré, les cuvettes oasiennes, principales sources de productions agricoles et de revenus, sont menacées de disparition à cause de l’ensablement. Plusieurs méthodes de fixation des dunes ont été testées mais les résultats restent mitigés. Dans cette étude, une barrière mécanique, à base des palissades confectionnées avec des branchages de Leptadenia pyrotechnica est utilisée pour évaluer son efficacité dans la lutte contre l’érosion du sol et dans la restauration de la végétation. Trois années après la mise en place de cette barrière anti-érosive, une végétation spontanée de 58 espèces appartenant à 20 familles dont 17 pérennes, s’était installée à l’intérieur du clayonnage, soit 42 espèces de plus que dans les zones non traitées. Au fil des ans, la composition floristique s’est progressivement stabilisée, témoignant ainsi d’une réduction notable des perturbations du milieu engendrées par le vent. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals
Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia ULg; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi et al

in Biodegradation (2013)

The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinusL.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum ... [more ▼]

The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinusL.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry.No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels,2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and2.1mg/kgofCdand10.19mg/kgincornshoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro multiplication of an industrial fiber plant: kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)
Arbaoui, Sarra; Campanella, Bruno ULg; Paul, Roger ULg et al

Poster (2012, April 23)

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See detailIMPACT OF HEAVY METALS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PROTEOMIC RESPONSES OF WILLOWS (SALIX SP.)
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador et al

Poster (2012)

In 2010, around 3,800 sites in Wallonia (Belgium) were identified as potentially contaminated by heavy metals, a result of their past industrial and agricultural activities [1]. The technique of using ... [more ▼]

In 2010, around 3,800 sites in Wallonia (Belgium) were identified as potentially contaminated by heavy metals, a result of their past industrial and agricultural activities [1]. The technique of using plants to remediate contaminated sites (phytoremediation) has been studied for over twenty years. In particular, the use of trees (alder, willow, poplar) has been considered because of their large biomass production [2] [3] [4] [5]. The aim of this study was to identify the potential of local willow ecotypes to grow in the presence of heavy metals using lysimeters filled with dredging sludge. Several willow ecotypes were compared realizing morphological and physiological measurements (chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, carbohydrate content). The plant responses to metal stress were also investigated using a proteomic approach. Heavy metals contents in leaves and stems were analysed. With this study, the potential of these trees to valorise contaminated, abandoned sites in Belgium was evaluated. [1] Cellule Etat de l'environnement wallon (2010). Tableau de bord de l'environnement wallon. SPW-DGARNE-DEMNA-DEE. [2] Dickinson N. M. (2000). Strategies for sustainable woodland on contaminated soils. Chemosphere 41(1-2): 259-263. [3] Meers E., Lamsal S., Vervaeke P., Hopgood M., Lust N. and Tack F. M. G. (2005). Availability of heavy metals for uptake by Salix viminalis on a moderately contaminated dredged sediment disposal site. Environ Pollut 137(2): 354-364. [4] Meers E., Vandecasteele B., Ruttens A., Vangronsveld J. and Tack F. M. G. (2007). Potential of five willow species (Salix spp.) for phytoextraction of heavy metals. Environ Exp Bot 60(1): 57-68. [5] Rosselli W., Keller C. and Boschi K. (2003). Phytoextraction capacity of trees growing on a metal contaminated soil. Plant Soil 256(2): 265-272. [less ▲]

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See detailLa phytoremédiation par le saule
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Vanobberghen, Fanny; Campanella, Bruno ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2011), 112(mai/juin), 36-46

En Wallonie, les sites potentiellement contaminés se comptent par milliers. La région subit aujourd’hui les conséquences de son manque historique de législations environnementales. Parmi les contaminants ... [more ▼]

En Wallonie, les sites potentiellement contaminés se comptent par milliers. La région subit aujourd’hui les conséquences de son manque historique de législations environnementales. Parmi les contaminants présents sur ces sites, les plus préoccupants sont certainement les métaux lourds qui s’accumulent dans le sol et menacent l’environnement. Pour remédier à ce problème, certains chercheurs s’intéressent particulièrement à la phytoremédiation, une technologie nouvelle qui exploite le potentiel des végétaux et de leur microflore associée pour extraire, stabiliser ou volatiliser ces métaux lourds. Cette technique biologique s’avère prometteuse et son application à l’aide de ligneux, comme le saule, serait une solution favorable à la préservation de la biodiversité et au développement des matériaux et des énergies renouvelables. [less ▲]

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See detailDesertification of arid Rangelands in Morocco
Mahyou, Hamid ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Paul, Roger ULg et al

Conference (2011, February 24)

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands ... [more ▼]

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands. These areas represent livelihoods for thousands of people and protect the country from desertification. Despite the importance of the rangelands and the threat of desertification, it is surprising that up to date there is no comprehensive assessment of their condition and their evolution, hindering any plan for desertification alleviation. However, the available information on selected pilot areas shows that these rangelands are threatened by desertification. It’s associated with biodiversity loss and contributes to climate change. The leading causes of land degradation are the human actions combined with climate. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system based on remote sensing, biophysics and socio-economic data must be envisaged to provide policymakers with an operational tool adapted to the spatio-temporal monitoring of desertification. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between tree development, mean annual increment and internal wood decay in veteran Tilia trees
Campanella, Bruno ULg; Evlard, Aricia ULg; Toussaint, André ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Belge de Dendrologie = Jaarboek van de Belgische Dendrologische Vereniging (2010)

This study aimed at classifying nineteen veteran lime trees (Tilia cordata Mill., T. platyphyllos scop. and T. x europaea L.) in their development. Tilia spp. was chosen because it is long lived and ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at classifying nineteen veteran lime trees (Tilia cordata Mill., T. platyphyllos scop. and T. x europaea L.) in their development. Tilia spp. was chosen because it is long lived and widely present in Belgium. A classification in five steps (A to E) is proposed, based on crown and trunk status, quantity of decaying wood and mean annual girth increment (MAI) as an additionnal criterion. We tested the relationship between veteran tree development and MAI. Threshold values were determined to help distinguish steps A to E. The relationship between trunk growth dynamics, and crown and root development is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDésertification des parcours arides au Maroc
Mahyou, Hamid ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Balaghi, Riad et al

in Tropicultura (2010), 28(2), 107-114

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands ... [more ▼]

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands. These areas represent livelihoods for thousands of people and protect the country from desertification. Despite the importance of the rangelands and the threat of desertification, it is surprising that up to date there is no comprehensive assessment of their condition and their evolution, hindering any plan for desertification alleviation. However, the available information on selected pilot areas shows that these rangelands are threatened by desertification. It’s associated with biodiversity loss and contributes to climate change. The leading causes of land degradation are the human actions combined with climate. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system based on remote sensing, biophysics and socio-economic data must be envisaged to provide policymakers with an operational tool adapted to the spatio-temporal monitoring of desertification. [less ▲]

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See detailSélection d'espèces ligneuses adaptées à la fixation biologique de dunes au Niger
Laminou Manzo, Ousmane; Campanella, Bruno ULg; Paul, Roger ULg

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2009), 33

Seven woody species, of which five natives (Acacia senegal, A. raddiana, A. nilotica, Bauhinia rufescens, Balanites aegyptiaca) and two imported (Prosopis juliflora and P. chilensis) have been tested in ... [more ▼]

Seven woody species, of which five natives (Acacia senegal, A. raddiana, A. nilotica, Bauhinia rufescens, Balanites aegyptiaca) and two imported (Prosopis juliflora and P. chilensis) have been tested in terms of biological sand dunes fixation in the Southern east of Niger Republic. In nursery, species underwent a water stress by interrupting the watering during six days. Foliar hydration has been determined in order to evaluate their capacity to limit water loss. In a field experiment, species have been planted on a mechanically prefixed sand dune cord in order to test their ability for stabilization of sand dunes. Survival rates during the first three years have been calculated and height growth was measured. In nursery, results showed that, after six days of water stress, Acacia senegal, A. raddiana, P. chilensis and A. nilotica are the four species limiting the best the water losses. Results on site showed that the best combination in sand dunes fixation, in this zone, would be the association of one or the other of Prosopis (high survival rate and fast growth) with A. raddiana and/or A. nilotica (survival and growth relatively substantial and more important economic interest). [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de l'inoculation mycorhizienne du substrat sur la croissance et la résistance au stress hydrique de cinq espèces fixatrices de dunes : Acacia raddiana Savi ; Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del. var. adansonii ; Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ; Prosopis chilensis Stunz. et Bauhinia rufescens Lam..
Laminou Manzo, Ousmane; Ibrahim, D.; Campanella, Bruno ULg et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2009), 33

Effects of the addition of an indigenous mycorrhizal complex, coming from soils of Gouré and of Glomus intraradices in a non sterile culture substrate were assessed on five woody species, among which 3 ... [more ▼]

Effects of the addition of an indigenous mycorrhizal complex, coming from soils of Gouré and of Glomus intraradices in a non sterile culture substrate were assessed on five woody species, among which 3 acacias (A. nilotica, A. raddiana, A. senegal), Bauhinia rufescens and Prosopis chilensis, in a tree nursery and on a sand dune of Gouré. In the nursery, species underwent a water stress by interrupting the watering during six days. Foliar hydration has been determined in order to evaluate the respective effects of the mycorrhizal inoculation for water loss limitation. Mycorrhizal root colonization has been determined as well as plant height and total biomass. In a field experiment, inoculated and non inoculated species have been planted on a mechanically prefixed sand dune portion in order to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal inoculations on growth in the field. Results in nursery showed that (i) the non sterile soil would contain some endogenous AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) as infectious as those in soils with mycorrhizal additions; (ii) addition of Glomus intraradices would be efficient to stimulate total biomass and (iii) natural mycorhization would be as efficient as both mycorrhizal addition for growth stimulation and water loss limitation by transpiration. Results on site confirm the comparable effectiveness of the natural mycorhization and mycorrhizal additions. Although the addition of G. intraradices appears to be slightly superior by some aspects on some species, the observed effects do not justify preferring it, when compared to indigenous composite inoculum or to natural mycorhization in this zone. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-term economical consequences of roadside tree topping
Campanella, Bruno ULg; Toussaint, André ULg; Paul, Roger ULg

in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2009), 8

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See detailPerspectives - Quel avenir pour les cuvettes oasiennes dans le Niger oriental ?
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ambouta, Karimou Jean-Marie; Ozer, André ULg et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2009), 33

The oasian interdunal depressions of eastern Niger are areas of life providing refuge to agro-pastoral activities in a generally hostile environment. The inter-university Targeted Program (ITP) funded by ... [more ▼]

The oasian interdunal depressions of eastern Niger are areas of life providing refuge to agro-pastoral activities in a generally hostile environment. The inter-university Targeted Program (ITP) funded by the Coopération Universitaire au Développement (CUD) called "Invasion of circular lowlands (cuvettes) of south-eastern Niger by aeolian deposits: processes, impacts and means of struggle" has studied the problem of silting of these refuge areas and proposed technical means, including physical and biological fixation of dunes that threaten the villages and interdunal depressions. Given the increasing human pressure and the present climate context that seems to move towards dryer conditions, environmental degradation of the study area should be investigated more broadly. Set up of strategies to allow people to adapt their conditions of life to an environment increasingly rough should also be considered. This paper presents some possible options for adaptation and examines the question of the very future of these interdunal depressions. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion communale du patrimoine arboré non forestier: apperçu des moyens disponibles
Campanella, Bruno ULg; Empain, Céline; Toussaint, André ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12

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