References of "Parmentier, Eric"
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See detailTrait decoupling promotes evolutionary diversification of the trophic and acoustic system of damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Olivier, Damien ULg; Litsios, Glenn et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2014)

Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal ... [more ▼]

Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal diversity. However, few empirical tests of this hypothesis exist. A central prediction, that the tempo of morphological evolution and ecological diversification should increase following decoupling events, remains inadequately tested. In damselfishes (Pomacentridae), a ceratomandibular ligament links the hyoid bar and lower jaws, coupling two main morphofunctional units directly involved in both feeding and sound production. Here, we test the decoupling hypothesis by examining the evolutionary consequences of the loss of the ceratomandibular ligament in multiple damselfish lineages. As predicted, we find that rates of morphological evolution of trophic structures increased following the loss of the ligament. However, this increase in evolutionary rate is not associated with an increase in trophic breadth, but rather with morphofunctional specialization for the capture of zooplanktonic prey. Lineages lacking the ceratomandibular ligament also shows different acoustic signals (i.e. higher variation of pulse periods) from others, resulting in an increase of the acoustic diversity across the family. Our results support the idea that trait decoupling can increase morphological and behavioral diversity through increased specialization rather than the generation of novel ecotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroplastics contamination in two planktivorous and commercial fish species
Collard, France ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Das, Krishna ULg

Poster (2014, May 13)

Plastic pollution is a huge environmental concern and affects each marine ecosystem. Plastics are produced by millions of tonnes each year in the world and finally accumulate in oceans. They adsorb many ... [more ▼]

Plastic pollution is a huge environmental concern and affects each marine ecosystem. Plastics are produced by millions of tonnes each year in the world and finally accumulate in oceans. They adsorb many persistent organic pollutants, cause external and internal wounds and provoke blockage of the digestive tract of marine mammals, birds and turtles. Plastics can also threaten marine organisms of small size class in the same way by fragmenting in smaller parts that result in microplastics of less than five millimetres. These microplastics are of the same order of magnitude than plankton and can thus be ingested by filter-feeders, suspension-filters and planktivorous organisms such as fish. Few studies deal with microplastics ingestion by fish and even less by commercial fish species. The herring (Clupea harengus) and the sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were respectively the third and the eighth most caught fish species in the world in 2009. We focused our research on these two species which are of economic importance. We sampled around thirty individuals of each species in the Channel and in the North Sea in January 2013. The stomach contents were digested by sodium hypochlorite and then analyzed. Microplastics were characterized by size, colour and shape. The results of these analyses will highlight the need for studies about microplastics ingestion by planktivorous species. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the relationships between characteristics of the vertebral column of different cetaceans and their ecology: A preliminary study.
Gillet, Amandine ULg; Ninane, Catherine ULg; Remy, François ULg et al

Poster (2014, April)

Ecomorphology is the study of the relationships between functional design and the environment. One of its aims is to understand how the environmental factors can constraint the performance of an organism ... [more ▼]

Ecomorphology is the study of the relationships between functional design and the environment. One of its aims is to understand how the environmental factors can constraint the performance of an organism or act on its phenotype. Different studies have already showed in different cetaceans that the number and shape of vertebrae can reflect the stiffness of the body and consequently can impact their swimming mode. The aim of this preliminary study is to establish relationships between characteristics of the vertebral column of different cetaceans and their ecology. To this purpose, we have studied meristic and morphometric data on the vertebrae (centrum length, height and width, neural and haemal spine height and the transverse process length) of different species of mysticetes and odontocetes coming from the Aquarium-Museum of Liège and Royal Institute of Natural Sciences of Bruxelles. Preliminary results showed the distinction of three morphotypes: firstly, the active, cruising, fast swimmers with rigid body, secondly, the maneuverers, slow swimmers with flexible body and thirdly, the steady swimmers. [less ▲]

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See detailEcomorphology of the vertebral column: preliminary study
Gillet, Amandine; Ninane, Catherine; Zaeytydt, Esther et al

Poster (2014, April)

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See detailMicroplastics caught in herring gill rakers: illustration by scanning electron microscopy
Collard, France ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

Conference (2014, March 07)

Plastics are produced in huge quantity (280 million of tons in 2012) and more than 10% end up in the oceans. It is estimated that between 60 and 80% of all marine debris are plastics. Plastics are ... [more ▼]

Plastics are produced in huge quantity (280 million of tons in 2012) and more than 10% end up in the oceans. It is estimated that between 60 and 80% of all marine debris are plastics. Plastics are persistent and have accumulated in the oceans for several decades. Plastics may adverse wildlife in many ways: they can be ingested by marine vertebrates and cause internal wounds in the digestive tract. Plastics are also vectors of organic pollutants including. Once ingested, plastics may release these pollutants in the organism. Plastics present in the marine environment fragment in small pieces by mechanical stress and UV radiation leading to the so-called microplastics smaller than 5 mm. Little is known about microplastics ingestion and toxicity in planktivorous fish such as the herring, Clupea harengus. Planktivorous fish have gill rakers, which may function as a trap for microplastics. This study aims to describe and characterise microplastics present on gill rakers of the herring, Clupea harengus. Ten gill cavities were sampled in January 2013 in the Channel and the North Sea during a fishery campaign organized by the IFREMER. Gills cavities were placed in a fixating solution until preparation for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM was used in order to detect microplastics which are too small to be observed by a dissection microscope, to compare them with the distance between gill rakers and to characterise the surface and the shape of microplastics. Scanning electron microscopy revealed large variety of microplastics, which lengths ranged from 0.05 to 5mm. Relationship between microplastics length and distance between gill rakers was analysed on the same branchial arch. The present study revealed the presence of microplastics in an edible species of high economic value and raise question about potential impact on the herring and its consumers, including human beings. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the ultrastructure of sonic muscles: a kind of neoteny?
Millot, Sandie; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2014), 14

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See detailSound production in Sciaenops ocellatus: Preliminary study for the development of acoustic cues in aquaculture
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Tock, Jérémy; Falguière, Jean-Claude et al

in Aquaculture (2014), 432

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See detailContribution to the study of acoustic communication in two Belgian river bullheads (Cottus rhenanus and C. perifretum) with further insight into the sound-producing mechanism
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Salmon, André et al

in Frontiers in Zoology (2013), 10(71),

Background: The freshwater sculpins (genus Cottus) are small, bottom-living fishes widely distributed in North America and Europe. The taxonomy of European species has remained unresolved for a long time ... [more ▼]

Background: The freshwater sculpins (genus Cottus) are small, bottom-living fishes widely distributed in North America and Europe. The taxonomy of European species has remained unresolved for a long time due to the overlap of morphological characters. Sound production has already been documented in some cottid representatives, with sounds being involved in courtship and agonistic interactions. Although the movements associated with sound production have been observed, the underlying mechanism remains incomplete. Here, we focus on two closely related species from Belgium: C. rhenanus and C. perifretum. This study aims 1) to record and to compare acoustic communication in both species, 2) to give further insight into the sound-producing mechanism and 3) to look for new morphological traits allowing species differentiation. Results: Both Cottus species produce multiple-pulsed agonistic sounds using a similar acoustic pattern: the first interpulse duration is always longer, making the first pulse unit distinct from the others. Recording sound production and hearing abilities showed a clear relationship between the sound spectra and auditory thresholds in both species: the peak frequencies of calls are around 150 Hz, which corresponds to their best hearing sensitivity. However, it appears that these fishes could not hear acoustic signals produced by conspecifics in their noisy habitat considering their hearing threshold expressed as sound pressure (~ 125 dB re 1 ␣Pa). High-speed video recordings highlighted that each sound is produced during a complete back and forth movement of the pectoral girdle. Conclusions: Both Cottus species use an acoustic pattern that remained conserved during species diversification. Surprisingly, calls do not seem to have a communicative function. On the other hand, fish could detect substrate vibrations resulting from movements carried out during sound production. Similarities in temporal and spectral characteristics also suggest that both species share a common sound-producing mechanism, likely based on pectoral girdle vibrations. From a morphological point of view, only the shape of the spinelike scales covering the body allows species differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailSound Characteristics and Complex Sonic Apparatus Morphologies in Two Ophidiiformes: Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae) and Onuxodon fowleri (Carapidae)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Lecchini, David et al

Conference (2013, July 14)

Ophidiiformes show complex and highly diverse sonic apparatus morphologies allowing them a great variety of calls. Some Ophidion (Ophidiidae) and all Onuxodon (Carapidae) species have in common, at the ... [more ▼]

Ophidiiformes show complex and highly diverse sonic apparatus morphologies allowing them a great variety of calls. Some Ophidion (Ophidiidae) and all Onuxodon (Carapidae) species have in common, at the front of the swimbladder, a mineralized structure called rocker bone. According to morphological observations, it probably results from adaptive convergence. Its evolutionary advantage remains however to be determined. Sonic apparatus morphology and sound characteristics were examined in Ophidion rochei from Dùlce-Glàva (Croatia) and in Onuxodon fowleri from Makemo (French Polynesia). The rocker bone is only present in males in O. rochei but in both sexes in O. fowleri. Onuxodon fowleri and male O. rochei produce calls that often last more than 1 s. Calls are composed of 1 to 41 pulses lasting for 21±10 ms in O. fowleri and 1 to 55 pulses lasting for 16±13 ms in O. rochei. Mean pulse periods are also relatively long, ca. 95 ms and 125 ms, respectively. Females of O. rochei produce short (ca. 20 ms) hum-like sounds that are characterized by shorter pulses (mean duration: 0.7±0.2 ms) and higher pulse rates (mean pulse period: 4±1 ms). Differences in sound characteristics are likely due to the rocker bone that most probably evolved in response to mechanical constraints acting on the swimbladder in O. fowleri and male O. rochei. Its presence suggests a sustained sound production was crucial in their evolutionary success. However, the sexual dimorphism observed in O. rochei but not in O. fowleri suggests differences in way of life. [less ▲]

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See detailA ligament influences the diversification of damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Olivier, Damien ULg; Litsios, Glenn et al

Conference (2013, June)

The Pomacentridae (damselfishes) is one of the most successful families of reef-associated fishes (386 species). In 1981, Stiassny described a synapomorphic trait of the Pomacentridae: the cerato ... [more ▼]

The Pomacentridae (damselfishes) is one of the most successful families of reef-associated fishes (386 species). In 1981, Stiassny described a synapomorphic trait of the Pomacentridae: the cerato-mandibular ligament (CML) joining the hyoid bar (ceratohyal) to the internal part of the mandible (coronoid process of the articulo-angular). Here, we highlight that this ligament is lacking in at least 18 damselfish species from different subclades (i.e. Chrominae, Abudefdufinae and Pomacentrinae) and we explore the impact of its disappearance on lineage, morphological and ecological diversification through their evolutionary history. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny including 208 species, we found no support for different rates of lineage diversification between species that lack the CML and the others. Yet, the CML clearly governs a part of the morphological diversity in damselfishes. Indeed, the body and mandible shapes differ significantly between species without CML and the others. Evolutionary modeling of some phenotypic traits (i.e. body and mandible shape) mainly supports models with two rates of morphological diversification across the time-tree with the species without CML having a higher rate of morphological diversification than the others. Mapping the diet of all studied species illustrates that damselfishes lacking CML are highly zooplanktivorous species. Their shapes suggest they feed on planktonic copepods with a higher contribution of ram-feeding (i.e. predator movement towards prey) in comparison with the other planktivorous damselfishes. Finally, the CML could have promoted easy shifts among the three main trophic guilds in damselfishes (i.e. grazers, zooplanktivorous and omnivorous) during evolution but the disappearance of the CML allowed a functional specialization linked to prey-capture strategies. These results support the primary role of the CML in the evolution and diversification of pomacentrids. [less ▲]

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See detailBoundary lines in symbiosis forms
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg

in Symbiosis (2013)

Symbiosis can take different forms (parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, etc.) but boundaries between different types of symbiotic interactions are not well defined. The kinds of symbiotic associations ... [more ▼]

Symbiosis can take different forms (parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, etc.) but boundaries between different types of symbiotic interactions are not well defined. The kinds of symbiotic associations between organisms cannot however be restricted to isolated and distinct categories. These associations are part of a broad continuum in which it is difficult to know where one type of association ends and another begins. Moreover, different scientists use the same term to mean different things or different terms tomean the same thing. This can obscure what is biologically important and what is not. This communication proposes a new classification scheme, which simply and comprehensively illustrates relationships between the various kinds of associations. The scheme illustrates relationships clearly and highlights the continuum between types of associations. It further indicates where modifications to the scheme are possible over time. The classification of the association between two organisms can be reduced to two factors: 1) the impact incurred by the host (benefit or damage) and 2) the relative duration of the association (RDA), i.e. the ratio of the duration of the association to the life expectancy of the symbiont. The conceptual figure provides concrete examples and illustrates some relationships that can change during different life stages. This figure should help teachers and students in the understanding of symbiosis, and could be a starting point for future discussions in the continuously developing research fields studying ecological and evolutionary implications of symbiotic relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailKinematic analysis of swimming ontogeny in seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).
Olivier, Damien ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2013)

Swimming has been investigated in multiple species, but few studies consider the establishment of swimming through ontogeny. This study describes the establishment of cyclical swimming in Dicentrachus ... [more ▼]

Swimming has been investigated in multiple species, but few studies consider the establishment of swimming through ontogeny. This study describes the establishment of cyclical swimming in Dicentrachus labrax, a marine fish from cold, temperate waters. The data were compared with results from previous studies on two subtropical freshwater catfish species (Clarias gariepinus and Corydoras aeneus). The three species have different modes of locomotion during their adult stage (anguilliform, subacarangiform and carangiform). The swimming of Dicentrarchus labrax was recorded with a high-speed video camera (500 fps) from 0 to 288 hours and from 960 to 2496 hours post-hatching. Three indices, i.e. coefficient of determination (r²), coefficient of variation (CV), and Strouhal number (St), were used to investigate the establishment and efficiency of swimming. Important differences in the timing of swimming establishment were observed between the seabass and the two catfish species. The two catfish species display a sine-shape swimming mode immediately or soon after hatching, and the efficiency of movement substantially improves during the first days of life. For seabass, however, establishment of swimming is slower during the same developmental period. These differences may be related to a faster developmental rate in the catfishes that allows them to swim rapidly in an intermediate regime flow and to develop the required morphology to establish efficient movements earlier. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production mechanism in Gobius paganellus (Gobiidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Kever, Loïc ULg; Boyle, Kelly ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2013), 216

Gobiidae, the largest fish family (>1500 species), has species from at least 10 genera that produce sounds for communication. Studies focused on goby sound production mechanisms have suggested that sounds ... [more ▼]

Gobiidae, the largest fish family (>1500 species), has species from at least 10 genera that produce sounds for communication. Studies focused on goby sound production mechanisms have suggested that sounds are produced by the forcible ejection of water through small apertures in the opercles (hydrodynamic mechanism). The present study was a multidisciplinary investigation (morphology, muscle histology, high-speed video, sound analysis and electromyography) of the sound emission mechanism in Gobius paganellus, which produces both pulsed and tonal calls. Two populations were used, from Brittany and Venice. In the French population, sounds were accompanied by a suite of coordinated movements of the buccal, branchial and opercular regions. This was not the case in the Venetian population, and thus the direct role of head movements in sound production was rejected. The hydrodynamic mechanism hypothesis was also rejected in G. paganellus on the basis of sound oscillogram shape and because sounds are still produced after the opercles and hyohyoid muscles are cut. The use of both electromyography and electron microscopy showed that the levator pectoralis muscle, which originates on the skull and inserts on the dorsal tip of the cleithrum, is involved in sound production. We propose that the contraction of this muscle and associated vibration of the large radials is used to make sounds. In addition, we propose that different sound types (pulsed sounds and tonal calls) could occur because of differences in fish size. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviours Associated with Acoustic Communication in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Longrie, Nicolas; Poncin, Pascal ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(4), 61467

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See detailFish larvae prefer coral over algal water cues: implications of coral reef degradation
Lecchini, David; Waqalevu, Viliam; Parmentier, Eric ULg et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2013), 475

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See detailEchiodon prionodon, a new species of Carapidae (Pisces, Ophidiiformes) from New Zealand
Parmentier, Eric ULg

in European Journal of Taxonomy (2012), (31),

A new species of pearlfish, Echiodon prionodon, is described from three specimens. This species is diagnosed by having a serrated margin on the posterior edge of the fangs, expanded thoracic plates on ... [more ▼]

A new species of pearlfish, Echiodon prionodon, is described from three specimens. This species is diagnosed by having a serrated margin on the posterior edge of the fangs, expanded thoracic plates on some abdominal vertebrae and ventral swimbladder tunic ridges. This species was only found in coastal waters around the North Island of New Zealand. The diagnosis of Eurypleuron is revised. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview on the diversity of sounds produced by clownfishes (Pomacentridae): importance of acoustic signals in their peculiar way of life.
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(11),

Background: Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) are brightly colored coral reef fishes well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with tropical sea anemones. These fishes live in social groups in which there is a ... [more ▼]

Background: Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) are brightly colored coral reef fishes well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with tropical sea anemones. These fishes live in social groups in which there is a size-based dominance hierarchy. In this structure where sex is socially controlled, agonistic interactions are numerous and serve to maintain size differences between individuals adjacent in rank. Clownfishes are also prolific callers whose sounds seem to play an important role in the social hierarchy. Here, we aim to review and to synthesize the diversity of sounds produced by clownfishes in order to emphasize the importance of acoustic signals in their way of life. Methodology/Principal Findings: Recording the different acoustic behaviors indicated that sounds are divided into two main categories: aggressive sounds produced in conjunction with threat postures (charge and chase), and submissive sounds always emitted when fish exhibited head shaking movements (i.e. a submissive posture). Both types of sounds showed size-related intraspecific variation in dominant frequency and pulse duration: smaller individuals produce higher frequency and shorter duration pulses than larger ones, and inversely. Consequently, these sonic features might be useful cues for individual recognition within the group. This observation is of significant importance due to the size-based hierarchy in clownfish group. On the other hand, no acoustic signal was associated with the different reproductive activities. Conclusions/Significance: Unlike other pomacentrids, sounds are not produced for mate attraction in clownfishes but to reach and to defend the competition for breeding status, which explains why constraints are not important enough for promoting call diversification in this group. [less ▲]

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See detailThe barbel-like specialization of the pelvic fins in Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae)
Codina, Elisabet; Kever, Loïc ULg; Compère, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Morphology (2012), 273(12), 1367-1376

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