References of "Oskinova, L. M"
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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa
Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Morel, Thierry ULg et al

in ArXiv e-prints (in press), 1411

Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 ... [more ▼]

Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60<Bd<230 G within 1 sigma), below what is typically found for other magnetic massive stars. For epsilon CMa we could only determine a lower limit on the dipolar magnetic field strength of 13 G. For this star, we determine that the rotation period ranges between 1.3 and 24 days. Both stars are expected to have a dynamical magnetosphere. We also conclude that both stars are most likely core hydrogen burning and that they have spent more than 2/3 of their main sequence lifetime. A histogram of the distribution of the dipolar magnetic field strength for the magnetic massive stars known to date does not show the magnetic field "desert" observed instead for intermediate-mass stars. The biases involved in the detection of (weak) magnetic fields in massive stars with the currently available instrumentation and techniques imply that weak fields might be more common than currently observed. Our results show that, if present, even relatively weak magnetic fields are detectable in massive stars and that more observational effort is probably still needed to properly access the magnetic field incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of X-Ray Emission from Young Suns in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Oskinova, L. M.; Sun, W.; Evans, C. J. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2013), 765

We report the discovery of extended X-ray emission within the young star cluster NGC 602a in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of extended X-ray emission within the young star cluster NGC 602a in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. X-ray emission is detected from the cluster core area with the highest stellar density and from a dusty ridge surrounding the H II region. We use a census of massive stars in the cluster to demonstrate that a cluster wind or wind-blown bubble is unlikely to provide a significant contribution to the X-ray emission detected from the central area of the cluster. We therefore suggest that X-ray emission at the cluster core originates from an ensemble of low- and solar-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, each of which would be too weak in X-rays to be detected individually. We attribute the X-ray emission from the dusty ridge to the embedded tight cluster of the newborn stars known in this area from infrared studies. Assuming that the levels of X-ray activity in young stars in the low-metallicity environment of NGC 602a are comparable to their Galactic counterparts, then the detected spatial distribution, spectral properties, and level of X-ray emission are largely consistent with those expected from low- and solar-mass PMS stars and young stellar objects (YSOs). This is the first discovery of X-ray emission attributable to PMS stars and YSOs in the SMC, which suggests that the accretion and dynamo processes in young, low-mass objects in the SMC resemble those in the Galaxy. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars: II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars
Hubrig, S.; Schoeller, M.; Ilyin, I. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 551

Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. To ... [more ▼]

Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FORS2 (FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and HARPS mounted at the ESO 3.6m between 2008 and 2011. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the highest quality kinematic and photometric data currently available. The presence of a magnetic field is confirmed in nine stars previously observed with FORS1/2: HD36879, HD47839, CPD-282561, CPD-472963, HD93843, HD148937, HD149757, HD328856, and HD164794. New magnetic field detections at a significance level of at least 3sigma were achieved in five stars: HD92206c, HD93521, HD93632, CPD-468221, and HD157857. Among the stars with a detected magnetic field, five stars belong to open clusters with high membership probability. According to previous kinematic studies, five magnetic O-type stars in our sample are candidate runaway stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic field studies of massive main sequence stars
Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I. et al

in American Institute of Physics Conference Series (2012, May 01)

We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric observations of massive stars. During the last years, we have discovered magnetic fields in many objects of the upper main sequence, including Be stars ... [more ▼]

We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric observations of massive stars. During the last years, we have discovered magnetic fields in many objects of the upper main sequence, including Be stars, β Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B stars, and a dozen O stars. Since the effects of those magnetic fields have been found to be substantial by recent models, we are looking into their impact on stellar rotation, pulsation, and stellar winds. Accurate studies of the age, environment, and kinematic characteristics of the magnetic stars are also promising to give us new insight into the origin of the magnetic fields. Furthermore, longer time series of magnetic field measurements allow us to observe the temporal variability of the magnetic field and to deduce the stellar rotation periods and the magnetic field geometry. Studies of the magnetic field in massive stars are indispensable to understand the conditions controlling the presence of those fields and their implications for the stellar physical parameters and evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic field studies of massive main sequence stars
Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I. et al

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2011), 332

We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric observations of massive stars. During the last years, we have discovered magnetic fields in many objects of the upper main sequence, including Be stars ... [more ▼]

We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric observations of massive stars. During the last years, we have discovered magnetic fields in many objects of the upper main sequence, including Be stars, β Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B stars, and a dozen O stars. Since the effects of those magnetic fields have been found to be substantial by recent models, we are looking into their impact on stellar rotation, pulsation, stellar winds, and chemical abundances. Accurate studies of the age, environment, and kinematic characteristics of the magnetic stars are also promising to give us new insight into the origin of the magnetic fields. Furthermore, longer time series of magnetic field measurements allow us to observe the temporal variability of the magnetic field and to deduce the stellar rotation period and the magnetic field geometry. Studies of the magnetic field in massive stars are indispensable to understand the conditions controlling the presence of those fields and their implications on the stellar physical parameters and evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Introduction to the Chandra Carina Complex Project
Townsley, Leisa K; Broos, Patrick S; Corcoran, Michael F et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2011), 194

The Great Nebula in Carina provides an exceptional view into the violent massive star formation and feedback that typifies giant H II regions and starburst galaxies. We have mapped the Carina star-forming ... [more ▼]

The Great Nebula in Carina provides an exceptional view into the violent massive star formation and feedback that typifies giant H II regions and starburst galaxies. We have mapped the Carina star-forming complex in X-rays, using archival Chandra data and a mosaic of 20 new 60 ks pointings using the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, as a testbed for understanding recent and ongoing star formation and to probe Carina's regions of bright diffuse X-ray emission. This study has yielded a catalog of properties of >14,000 X-ray point sources; >9800 of them have multiwavelength counterparts. Using Chandra's unsurpassed X-ray spatial resolution, we have separated these point sources from the extensive, spatially-complex diffuse emission that pervades the region; X-ray properties of this diffuse emission suggest that it traces feedback from Carina's massive stars. In this introductory paper, we motivate the survey design, describe the Chandra observations, and present some simple results, providing a foundation for the 15 papers that follow in this special issue and that present detailed catalogs, methods, and science results. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray Emission from the Double-binary OB-star System QZ Car (HD 93206)
Parkin, E. R.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2011), 194

X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9 ... [more ▼]

X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9.7 I+b2 v, P [SUB]A[/SUB] = 21 days) and B (O8 III+o9 v, P [SUB]B[/SUB] = 6 days) are reasonably well sampled by the observations, allowing the origin of the X-ray emission to be examined in detail. The X-ray spectra can be well fitted by an attenuated three-temperature thermal plasma model, characterized by cool, moderate, and hot plasma components at kT ~= 0.2, 0.7, and 2 keV, respectively, and a circumstellar absorption of sime0.2 × 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]. Although the hot plasma component could be indicating the presence of wind-wind collision shocks in the system, the model fluxes calculated from spectral fits, with an average value of sime7 × 10[SUP]-13[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP], do not show a clear correlation with the orbits of the two constituent binaries. A semi-analytical model of QZ Car reveals that a stable momentum balance may not be established in either system A or B. Yet, despite this, system B is expected to produce an observed X-ray flux well in excess of the observations. If one considers the wind of the O8 III star to be disrupted by mass transfer, the model and observations are in far better agreement, which lends support to the previous suggestion of mass transfer in the O8 III + o9 v binary. We conclude that the X-ray emission from QZ Car can be reasonably well accounted for by a combination of contributions mainly from the single stars and the mutual wind-wind collision between systems A and B. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray spectroscopy of early-type stars: The present and the future
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Oskinova, L. M.

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2008), 329(2), 222-225

XMM-Newton and Chandra have boosted our knowledge about the X-ray emission of early-type stars (spectral types OB and Wolf-Rayet). However, there are still a number of open questions that need to be ... [more ▼]

XMM-Newton and Chandra have boosted our knowledge about the X-ray emission of early-type stars (spectral types OB and Wolf-Rayet). However, there are still a number of open questions that need to be addressed in order to fully understand the X-ray spectra of these objects. Many of these issues require high-resolution spectroscopy or monitoring of a sample of massive stars. Given the moderate X-ray brightness of these targets, rather long exposure times are needed to achieve these goals. In this contribution, we review our current knowledge in this field and present some hot topics that could ideally be addressed with XMM-Newton over the next decade. (C) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. [less ▲]

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