Detection of eye movements specific to drowsiness and their relation with subjective assessment of sleepiness in PVT: A cognitive ergonomic approach
Blavier, Adelaïde ; ; Wertz, Jérôme et al
Conference (2014, February 24)
Drowsiness is one of the major factors explaining accidents, particularly in traffic accidents but also in work situations with serious consequences (e.g. medicine). The drowsiness may be assessed by ... [more ▼]
Drowsiness is one of the major factors explaining accidents, particularly in traffic accidents but also in work situations with serious consequences (e.g. medicine). The drowsiness may be assessed by diverse measures that vary from physiological and unconscious data (e.g. EEG) to subjective and conscious evaluation. In their daily life, people are used to evaluate their drowsiness by subjective assessment and research observes a great inter-individual variation in this evaluation. Moreover, the subjective evaluation is dependent on the situation and the risk perceived by the person (e.g., new versus usual situations, simple versus complex environments, etc.). In this theoretical context, our purpose was to investigate the links between 1) objective performance (reaction time) measured by a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), 2) data from eye movements and 3) subjective assessment of drowsiness (measured with Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS). 12 persons, aged from 20 to 56, participated individually. They were asked to respect a 60% sleep deprivation during the night before the experiment and to not drink any energy drinks the day of the experiment. The experiment was conducted between 1 and 3 PM after a heavy lunch in order to increase the circadian effect. Moreover, the temperature of the room was 25° in order to increase drowsiness. Each participant was asked to perform 4 PVT. However, although 100% of participants performed the first two PVT, only 66% were able to perform the third PVT and only 33% of participants performed the fourth and last PVT. Our results showed an effect of time on objective performance, eye movements and subjective assessment of drowsiness in PVT 1 and 2: significant increase of reaction time, increase of eye closure and perclos, reduction of pupil diameter and increase of subjective drowsiness estimation (KSS). Only the frequency and duration of blinks remained constant across time. In PVT 3 and 4, data from eye movements and objective performance (reaction time) did not vary anymore across the time. Only the subjective estimation of drowsiness (KSS) continued to increase. Furthermore, subjective estimation of drowsiness was differently correlated with eye movements and objective performance across the PVT; it was significantly correlated with reaction time (PVT 1,2,3), blink frequency and duration (PVT 1,2,3), perclos (PVT 1,2,3,4), eye closure (PVT 2,3), pupil diameter (PVT 1,2,3,4). These results are discussed and integrated in an ergonomic approach in order to analyze the links between objective performance, eye movements and subjective assessment of drowsiness. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
La psychologie du travail au service de l'approche qualité
Conference (2013, November 26)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
Intervention ergonomique à visée cognitive pour le maintien au travail de patients atteints de sclérose en plaques : construction d’une méthodologie et validation d’un questionnaire
Blavier, Adelaïde ; ; DELRUE, Gaël et al
in Van de Leemput, Cécile (Ed.) Activités humaines, Technologies et Bien-être (2013, July 11)
The purpose of this paper is to present the construction of a questionnaire in order to evaluate the specific work difficulties and compensation mechanisms developed by multiple sclerosis patients (MS ... [more ▼]
The purpose of this paper is to present the construction of a questionnaire in order to evaluate the specific work difficulties and compensation mechanisms developed by multiple sclerosis patients (MS). At the moment, it does not exist any questionnaire that links the patients cognitive deficits with their professional situation. This lack of accurate assessment is detrimental to the patients job retention. Our questionnaire was constructed from review of literature and interviews of patients and experts. Three groups of patients answered the questionnaire: MS patients, diabetics patients and a control group. We controlled the effect of anxiety and depression and we conducted a factorial analysis that showed the existence of 3 factors: the ergonomics factor (that includes cognitive difficulties and resources and adaptation process), the description of work situation and the social support. The three groups of participants obtained similar results for the work description and the social support while the group of patients with MS obtained a higher score than the other 2 groups for the ergonomics factor. These results suggest that our questionnaire is specific to the MS patients population and to their difficulties they met in their work situations. These results offered also some ways to increase job retention in MS patients population. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Influence des communications sur la construction du common ground. Proposition d'une méthodologie d'analyse de la dynamique temporelle des échanges multimodaux.
Defays, Aurore ; Leclercq, Pierre ; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie
in van de Leemput, Cécile; Chauvin, Christine; Hellemans, Catherine (Eds.) Activités humaines, Technologies et Bien-être (EPIQUE 2013) (2013, July)
L’objectif de cette étude est de présenter une méthodologie d’analyse des communications multimodales dans les situations de conception collective. Cette méthodologie permet de décrire quelles sont les ... [more ▼]
L’objectif de cette étude est de présenter une méthodologie d’analyse des communications multimodales dans les situations de conception collective. Cette méthodologie permet de décrire quelles sont les modalités de communication qui supportent particulièrement l’élaboration du common ground, zone de partage indispensable pour l’efficacité de la communication, et donc pour la performance collaborative. La méthode présentée vise également à pouvoir identifier les articulations pertinentes entre modalités de communication, dans le sens où elles favorisent l’élaboration de ce processus. Dans une première phase de notre recherche, nous avons observé et analysé les échanges multimodaux tels qu’ils prennent place en situation « naturelle » (ou non-médiatisée) dans le but de prétester notre méthode, mais également de pouvoir comparer cette situation avec les situations de collaboration distantes et outillées par des nouvelles technologies que nous envisagerons par la suite. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (10 ULg)
Impact of benevolent sexism on assessment of dangerousness by novice and expert policemen: a study by eye tracking
Blavier, Adelaïde ; ; et al
Conference (2013, May 28)
Our aim was to study how professional expertise may influence both visual perception of a scene and verbal judgment and how these 2 components interact and are influenced by benevolent sexism attitude. We ... [more ▼]
Our aim was to study how professional expertise may influence both visual perception of a scene and verbal judgment and how these 2 components interact and are influenced by benevolent sexism attitude. We studied how stereotype (here, benevolent sexism) influences both the eye movements and the verbal judgment according to the expertise. 3 groups of subjects (10 expert policemen-policewomen, 10 novice policemen-policewomen and 10 control subjects) answered to ASI questionnaire and assessed dangerousness of 15 images of domestic violence (individually and randomly presented). Eye movements were recorded while subjects looked at the domestic violence images. Our results showed the more benevolent sexist are the subjects (particularly the women), the more they looked at the victim and the lower they assessed the dangerousness. Moreover, novices answered more slowly and assessed ambiguous situations as more dangerous than experts. The differences between novices and experts were more important for women than for men, suggesting that professional experience has a stronger impact on women than men. Our findings confirm our main hypothesis suggesting sexism influences the visual analysis of a scene and thus the judgment attributed to the scene. Moreover, it seems professional experience does not modify the stereotype, particularly for benevolent sexist men. The discussion of all our results emphasizes their implication for a better understanding of our visual cognitive system (particularly the interaction between low-level visual analysis by eye movements and verbal judgment) and for the training of policemen (by taking into account the importance of their stereotype in complex interventions). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 ULg)
Medical communication at shift change and human error: Could a cognitive support make health care safer?
Gillet, Aline ; Ghuysen, Alexandre ; D'Orio, Vincenzo et al
Conference (2013, May 24)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Gestion du stress et de la fatigue, que nous apprend la simulation
Conference (2013, April 26)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg)
Influence des communications multimodales sur le common ground. Proposition d’une méthodologie d’analyse.
Defays, Aurore ; Leclercq, Pierre ; NYSSEN, Anne-Sophie
in Interfaces Numériques (2013), 2(3), 591-609
The aim of this study is to present a method for analysing multimodal communication in connection with the process of common ground construction, which is an indispensable shared knowledge for effective ... [more ▼]
The aim of this study is to present a method for analysing multimodal communication in connection with the process of common ground construction, which is an indispensable shared knowledge for effective communication and collaboration. This methodology is used to describe qualitatively and quantitatively the role of verbal, visual, gestural and graphic modalities in this collaborative process. Our goal is to better understand how these modalities support the process, whether used alone or in synergy. The originality of this method is to consider the four modalities in an integrated and contextual way and also by respecting the temporal dynamics of their relations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Investigating Expertise, Flexibility and Resilience in Socio-technical Environments : A Case Study in Robotic Surgery.
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ; Blavier, Adelaïde
in Hollnagel, Erik; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Wears, Robert (Eds.) Resilient Health Care (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Entre "bien être" et "bien faire", où va l'ergonomie
in Proceeding du 48 me congrès de la Self (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 ULg)
Nouvelles technologies : vers une conscience virtuelle de la situation
Scientific conference (2012, June 08)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 ULg)
Crisis situations / flexibility/ adaptive or and routine expertise studied in robotic surgery
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ; Blavier, Adelaïde
Scientific conference (2012, June 03)Detailed reference viewed: 20 (5 ULg)
Visual memory of central and marginal items in natural and complex scenes: influence of subjects’ expertise in road traffic.
Blavier, Adelaïde ; ; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie
Conference (2012, May 10)
Our purpose is to study the visual memory (VM) of natural complex scenes in function of subjects’ expertise. 15 subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their level of driving expertise (novices ... [more ▼]
Our purpose is to study the visual memory (VM) of natural complex scenes in function of subjects’ expertise. 15 subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their level of driving expertise (novices, <5 years and >5 years of experience) and were asked to memorize road images (divided into 3 levels of complexity). After each image presentation (5 second presentation), subjects were asked to answer 6 questions, 3 about central information for driving and 3 about marginal items (not relevant for driving) and to estimate their self-confidence. Our results showed an effect of detail type, subjects’ expertise and stimulus complexity: performance was significantly better for central items than for marginal information, for less complex images than for more complex images and with experts (level 2 and 3) than novices (level 1). We observed no interaction between these 3 variables (detail type, image complexity and subjects’ expertise). This finding suggests difference between central and marginal information in VM performance is stable independently of the image complexity and subjects’ expertise. It generalizes results from our previous study with experts in art history and from Melcher’s study (2006) that showed difference between central and marginal information was stable independently of stimulus presentation duration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Cognitive support for a better handoff: does it improve the quality of medical communication at shift change in an emergency department?
Gillet, Aline ; GHUYSEN, Alexandre ; BONHOMME, Suzanne et al
in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012)
AIM: To improve the communication during shift handover in an emergency department. METHODS: We observed the handover process and analysed the discourse between physicians at shift change first, and then ... [more ▼]
AIM: To improve the communication during shift handover in an emergency department. METHODS: We observed the handover process and analysed the discourse between physicians at shift change first, and then we created two cognitive tools and tested their clinical impact on the field. We used different measures to evaluate this impact on the health care process including the frequency and type of information content communicated between physicians, duration of the handoff, physician self-evaluation of the quality of the handoff and a posthandover study of patient handling. RESULTS: Our results showed that the patient's medical history, significant test results, recommendations (treatment plan) and patient follow-up were communicated to a greater extent when the tools are used. We also found that physicians spent more time at the bedside and less time consulting medical records using these tools. CONCLUSION: The present study showed how in-depth observations and analyses of real work processes can be used to better support the quality of patient care. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (13 ULg)
Systèmes de retour d'expérience : "Faut-il vraiment copier l'industrie?"
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ; Gillet, Aline ; et al
in Risques & Qualité (2012), IX(2), 85-91Detailed reference viewed: 52 (11 ULg)
Communication Failure : A case study in hospital. New requirements for the design process
in Holzinger, Andreas; Simonic, Klaus Martin (Eds.) Information Quality in e-Health (2011, November)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (5 ULg)
Emergency physicians’ communication: What about a standardized handover?
Gillet, Aline ; D'ORIO, Vincenzo ; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie
Poster (2011, May 27)
In health care organizations, the need for 24-hour care increases the number of patient’s transfer. Handover and shift changes are now recognized as particularly critical moments for the reliability of ... [more ▼]
In health care organizations, the need for 24-hour care increases the number of patient’s transfer. Handover and shift changes are now recognized as particularly critical moments for the reliability of care. However, few studies focused specifically on how physicians share relevant information during these moments. Moreover, emergency departments are known to be extremely vulnerable to error, because of high time pressure, frequent interruptions, high variability and number of patients, etc. Our study aimed to estimate how emergency physicians share information about a patient during handover, and to evaluate the impact of a procedure of medical handover standardization. To do this, we conducted a pre-post test on completeness of transmissions. We first performed observations of 50 physicians’ shift changes in an emergency department. All of these were video-recorded and then analyzed. We classified communications into seven categories (identifying information, current pathology, patient’s current status, significant patient’s tests results, priority medical interventions, diagnose and recommendations, and dispositions). After these observations, we elaborated and implemented a standardization procedure, according to literature, analyses of our observations and physicians’ recommendations. We finally assessed this procedure by observing and analyzing 40 handovers, using the same method as previously described. We also evaluated the physician’s opinion about the quality of the transmission with a 7-point Likert scale. Our results showed three significant differences before and after the standardization of communications. Physicians share more information about patient’s tests results, priority interventions and dispositions. Moreover, we found a significant difference of the perceived quality of the standardized handover. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (8 ULg)