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See detailCardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with albuminuria and impaired renal function in insulin-treated diabetes.
Doggen, Kris; Nobels, Frank; SCHEEN, André ULg et al

in Journal of Diabetes & its Complications (2013)

AIMS: To establish the association between albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors as well as micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, both in the presence ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To establish the association between albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors as well as micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, both in the presence and in the absence of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 7640 insulin-treated diabetic patients (33% type 1) treated in specialist diabetes centers. Albuminuria was defined as >/=30mg/g, 20mg/L, 20mug/min or 30mg/24h. Reduced eGFR was defined as <60mL/min/1.73m2 (CKD-EPI equations). RESULTS: Albuminuria, reduced eGFR or a combination was more prevalent in type 2 (21.5%, 15.9% and 16.5%) than in type 1 diabetes (16.1%, 4.7% and 4.0%, all P<0.001 vs. type 2). Albuminuria was associated with poorer control of blood pressure, blood lipids and glycemia as well as higher prevalence of retinopathy and macrovascular disease, regardless of preserved/reduced eGFR or diabetes type. Reduced eGFR was associated with higher prevalence of micro- and macrovascular complications especially in type 2 diabetes. Combined presence of albuminuria and reduced eGFR was associated with the worst cardiovascular outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Albuminuria and impaired renal function are prevalent in type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Albuminuria, but also normoalbuminuric renal impairment, is associated with micro- and macrovascular complications. [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between disease phenotype and HLA-DQ genotype in diabetic patients diagnosed in early adulthood
Weets, Ilse; Siraux, Valérie; Daubresse, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(6), 2597-2605

We investigated inaugural disease phenotype in relation to the presence or absence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ risk genotypes in adult-onset diabetic ... [more ▼]

We investigated inaugural disease phenotype in relation to the presence or absence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ risk genotypes in adult-onset diabetic patients. Blood samples and questionnaires were obtained from 1584 recent-onset Belgian Caucasian patients (age 15-39 yr at diagnosis of primary diabetes) who were recruited by the Belgian Diabetes Registry over an 11-yr period. At clinical diagnosis, antibody-positive patients (n = 1198) were on average younger and had more symptoms, a more acute disease onset, lower body mass index, and random C-peptide levels, but higher insulin needs, glycemia, and prevalence of ketonuria, HLA-DQ, and 5' insulin gene susceptibility genotypes (P < 0.001 vs. antibody-negative patients; n = 386). In antibody-positive patients, these characteristics did not differ according to HLA-DQ genotype. However, in antibody-negative subjects, we found that patients were younger (P = 0.001); had a lower body mass index (P < 0.001), higher insulin needs (P = 0.014), and amylasemia (P = 0.001); and tended to have a higher glycemia and lower C-peptide in the presence of susceptible HLA-DQ genotypes. Differences according to HLA-DQ genotype subsisted after careful age-matching. In conclusion, we found no relation between initial disease phenotype and HLA-DQ genotype in antibody-positive diabetic young adults. In contrast, antibody-negative patients displayed more type I-like features when carrying susceptible HLA-DQ genotypes known to promote the development of antibody-positive diabetes. The overrepresentation of these susceptibility genotypes in antibody-negative patients suggests the existence of an immune-mediated disease process with as yet unidentified immune markers in a subgroup of seronegative patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCabergoline in the treatment of acromegaly: a study in 64 patients.
Abs, Roger; Verhelst, Johan; Maiter, Dominique et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1998), 83(2), 374-8

Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the ... [more ▼]

Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the medical management of acromegaly, cabergoline might be a useful treatment. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of long term administration of cabergoline in a large group of unselected acromegalic patients. Sixty-four patients were included in a multicenter, prospective, open labeled study. A subgroup of 16 patients had GH-/PRL-cosecreting pituitary adenomas. Cabergoline was started at a dose of 1.0 mg/week and was gradually increased until normalization of plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, occurrence of unacceptable side-effects, or a maximal weekly dose of 3.5 mg (7.0 mg in 1 case) was reached. Treatment with cabergoline suppressed plasma IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L in 39% of cases and between 300-450 micrograms/L in another 28%. With pretreatment plasma IGF-I concentrations less than 750 micrograms/L, a suppression of IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L was obtained in 53% of cases, and a suppression between 300-450 micrograms/L was obtained in another 32%. By contrast, with pretreatment plasma IGF-I concentrations above 750 micrograms/L, only 17% of cases showed a suppression of IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L, and there was IGF-I suppression between 300-450 micrograms/L in another 21%. In GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenomas, 50% of cases suppressed plasma IGF-I levels below 300 micrograms/L, and another 31% did so between 300-450 micrograms/L, in contrast to only 35% and 27%, respectively in GH-secreting adenomas. Similar results were obtained concerning the secretion of GH. Tumor shrinkage was demonstrated in 13 of 21 patients, with a mass reduction by more than half in 5 GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenomas. Except for slight gastrointestinal discomfort and orthostatic hypotension in a few patients at the beginning of therapy, cabergoline treatment was well tolerated. Only 2 patients stopped medication because of nausea. The weekly dose of cabergoline ranged between 1.0-1.75 mg. A further increase in the dose was only effective in 1 GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenoma. The results of this study suggest that cabergoline is an effective, well tolerated therapy that should be considered in the management of acromegaly, especially if the pituitary adenoma cosecretes GH and PRL or if pretreatment plasma IGF-I levels are below 750 micrograms/L. [less ▲]

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