References of "Nicolas, Jacques"
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See detailOdour emissions impact of on-farm biogas production with co-digestion : a case study in four European farms of the Great Region
Adam, Gilles ULg; Gennen, Jérome; Ubeda Sanchez, Yolanda et al

Conference (2013, December 06)

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See detailRecursive PCA of e-nose data for anaerobic digestion reactor state monitoring
Adam, Gilles ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

Poster (2013, July)

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See detailContinuous odour measurement from fattening pig units
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cobut, pierre et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2013)

A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou/s.pig), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess ... [more ▼]

A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou/s.pig), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean predicted odour emission factor with the pig weight. However, the variation within the same weight class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-method monitoring of odor emissions in agricultural biogas facilities.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Adam, Gilles ULg; Ubeda, Yolanda et al

in Proceedings of the 5th IWA conference on odours and air emissions, San Francisco, USA, March, 4-7, 2013 (2013, March)

The production of farm-based biogas and electricity is an area of alternative-energy interest to many livestock producers. However, it is still insignificant in comparison to the maximum potential of ... [more ▼]

The production of farm-based biogas and electricity is an area of alternative-energy interest to many livestock producers. However, it is still insignificant in comparison to the maximum potential of farms all over the world. Market penetration should involve better confidence in the technique and better understanding of its possible assets and limits. For instance, is the environmental impact of biomethanation positive or negative? What are the possible ways to avoid or to control process imbalances? In the context of a European project, the research group attempted to tackle those questions under the angle of gas emission and more particularly of odor annoyance. A multi-method approach was applied to monitor biogas and odor emissions, both at the laboratory level on pilot plants and at real scale in 4 agricultural biogas facilities, in Belgium, Luxembourg, France and Germany. Results show that digested material is generally less odorant than crude manure or slurry, while preserving all the amendment and fertilizing qualities of the original material. Possible annoyance of agricultural biogas facilities in the surroundings remains limited and can be solved through simple techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of an electronic nose for the early detection of organic overload of anaerobic digesters
Adam, Gilles ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2013), 36(1),

This study aims at the analysis of the utilization of an electronic nose (e-nose) to serve as a specific monitoring tool for anaerobic digestion process, especially for detecting organic overload. An ... [more ▼]

This study aims at the analysis of the utilization of an electronic nose (e-nose) to serve as a specific monitoring tool for anaerobic digestion process, especially for detecting organic overload. An array of non specific metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors were used to detect process faults due to organic overload events in twelve anaerobic semi-continuous reactors of 1.8 L. Three different load strategies were followed (i) a cautious organic load (1.3 gVS•L-1•day-1); (ii), an increasing load strategy (1.3 to 5.3 gVS∙L-1•day-1) and (iii) a cautious organic load with load pulses of up to 12 gVS•L-1•day-1. A first monitoring campaign was conducted with three different substrates : sucrose, maize oil, and a mix of sucrose/oil during 60 days. The second campaign was run with dry sugar beet pulp during 45 days. Hotelling's T²-value and upper control limit to a reference set of digesters fed with a cautious OLR (1.3 gVS•L-1•day-1), was used as indirect state variable of the reactors. Overload situations were identified by the e-nose apparatus with Hotelling’s T²-values at least 4-times higher in magnitude than the upper control limit of 23.7. These results confirmed that the e-nose technology appeared promising for online detection of process imbalances in the domain of anaerobic digestion. [less ▲]

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See detailPOTENTIAL OF A NETWORK OF ELECTRONIC NOSES TO ASSESS IN REAL TIME THE ODOUR ANNOYANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF A COMPOST FACILITY
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cerisier, C; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Del Rosso, Renato (Ed.) Chemical engineering transactions : NOSE2012 International Conference on Environmental Odour (2012, September)

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See detailAN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH OF THE E-NOSE TRAINING PHASE IN ODOUR IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Giuliani, Stefano; Zarra, T; Nicolas, Jacques ULg et al

in Del Rosso, Renato (Ed.) Chemical engineering transactions : NOSE2012 International Conference on Environmental Odour (2012, September)

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See detailImpacts environnementaux des unités de biométhanisation
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Neyrinck, Roland; Cerisier, Christophe et al

Report (2012)

The report presents a study conducted in the frame of a European Interreg project. The role of the research group was to investigate the possible environmental impacts of on-farm biogas production from ... [more ▼]

The report presents a study conducted in the frame of a European Interreg project. The role of the research group was to investigate the possible environmental impacts of on-farm biogas production from anaerobic reactors. The odour impact was chiefly analysed with the aim of assessing the odour generated by farms equipped for biogas production compared to classical farms. Also, the odour levels in the head space of various materials, either prior or after methanation were compared, using different methods. [less ▲]

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See detailPossibilités et limites des nez électroniques pour la mesure des odeurs.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Delva, Julien

Conference (2012, March 15)

The communication aimed at presenting the potential of electronic noses to monitor environmental odours. The advantages and the limits of the concept were presented together with the point of view of a ... [more ▼]

The communication aimed at presenting the potential of electronic noses to monitor environmental odours. The advantages and the limits of the concept were presented together with the point of view of a company specialized in odour measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailScales of spatial and temporal variations in Cryptosporidium and Giardia abundances and genetic diversity in a drinking water reservoir: implications for the risk assessment
Cauchie, Henry-Michel ULg; Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie et al

Conference (2012, February)

A monitoring of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum occurrence was conducted for 2 years in the largest drinking water reservoir of Luxembourg (Esch-sur-Sûre reservoir) using microscopy and qPCR ... [more ▼]

A monitoring of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum occurrence was conducted for 2 years in the largest drinking water reservoir of Luxembourg (Esch-sur-Sûre reservoir) using microscopy and qPCR techniques. Parasite analyses were performed on water samples collected from three sites: site A located at the inlet of the reservoir, site B located 18 km downstream site A, at the inlet of the drinking water treatment plant near the dam of the reservoir and site C where the finished drinking water is injected in the distribution network. The communication presented the main results of the survey and the assessment of risk infection with parasites. [less ▲]

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See detailQuatrième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Champ de Beaumont" à Monceau-sur-Sambre Estimation et monitoring des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Thomas, Jean-François; Delva, Julien et al

Report (2011)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a fourth campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a fourth campaign on the site of "Champ de Beaumont at Monceau-sur-Sambre. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has used electronic noses to monitor the emissions of odours near the source so as the analysis of complaints in the surroundings. [less ▲]

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See detailFinalisation de la formule, applicable en Région wallonne, de la distance minimale d'implantation des porcheries et des poulaillers par rapport aux habitations.
Cobut, Pierre; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Lalande, Dominique et al

Report (2011)

A formulae to calculate the minimum distance between livestock buildings and residential areas was designed by the research group in 2006. This report concerns a study aiming at finalizing the approach ... [more ▼]

A formulae to calculate the minimum distance between livestock buildings and residential areas was designed by the research group in 2006. This report concerns a study aiming at finalizing the approach towards a guideline applicable in Wallonia. Different enhancements to the former formulae are proposed, taking into account recent technical improvements, and a comparison with the odour percentile concept is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe future European standard to determine odour in ambient air by using field inspection
Guillot, Jean-Michel; Bilsen, Ilse; Both, Ralph et al

in Proceedings of the 4th IWA specialized conference on odours and VOCs, Vitoria, Brazil, 17-21 October, 2011. (2011, October)

This paper presents the methodologies to determine odour in ambient air by field inspection that will be a new European standard. The objective is to characterize the odour in a defined area. Without ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the methodologies to determine odour in ambient air by field inspection that will be a new European standard. The objective is to characterize the odour in a defined area. Without making a link with potential annoyance due to the presence of odours, the described methods propose the way to characterize an exposed environment. Two approaches are defined in the new standard: the grid method and the plume method. The grid method can be used determine the exposure to ambient odours in a defined area of study, using direct observation of recognizable odours in the field by human panel members. This method must be applied over a sufficiently long period of time (6 or 12 months) to be representative for the meteorological conditions of that location. The result is the distribution of the frequency of exposure to odours within the assessment area. The plume method can be used to determine the extent of detectable and recognizable odours from a specific source using direct observation in the field by human panel members under specific meteorological conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial and temporal propagation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia at various scales in a drinking water reservoir
Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian et al

Conference (2011, September)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are emergent protozoan parasites of faecal origin causing diarrhoeal diseases throughout the world. Their impact on public health is closely linked to the management of water ... [more ▼]

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are emergent protozoan parasites of faecal origin causing diarrhoeal diseases throughout the world. Their impact on public health is closely linked to the management of water resources and both pathogens are continuously released in the environment by punctual and diffuse faecal pollution sources. With the amendment of the Water Safety Plans published by the World Health Organization in 2005, the assessment of the public health risk associated with the presence of both parasites has extended to watershed scale. In Luxembourg, the Upper-Sûre reservoir provides 50% of the population of the country with drinking water. The presence of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water within the catchment area has been documented earlier. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the propagation of both protozoans within the catchment area over time and space. Integrated into a risk assessment-based approach, the results are intended for establishing an efficient monitoring strategy. Currently, no such strategy is available for water utilities. Though it is a crucial tool for improving the management of drinking water resources because it should alert responsible authorities in case of high contamination risk and prevent from possible waterborne outbreaks. [less ▲]

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See detailTime and space matter when monitoring faecal pollution : searching for efficient sampling designs in relation to hydrological regimes.
Cauchie, Henry-Michel ULg; Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie et al

Poster (2011, September)

Luxembourg (2586 km2) is a rural country with rather small urban areas. Except for one main river basin, the contamination of surface waters and groundwater by faecal material is an episodic event ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg (2586 km2) is a rural country with rather small urban areas. Except for one main river basin, the contamination of surface waters and groundwater by faecal material is an episodic event. Therefore, classical monitoring schemes based on low, fixed sampling frequency turned out to inefficiently estimate the microbial water quality. Several studies have therefore been carried out on important drinking water resources (springs and surface reservoir) in order to understand the link between the faecal contamination events and the hydrology and the hydrology of these waterbodies. Physico-chemical and hydrological variables that could serve as relevant indicators for triggering selective sampling were also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude spatio-temporelle des contaminations microbiologiques des ressources aquatiques du Luxembourg en vue d’une amélioration des programmes de surveillance des eaux destinées à la consommation humaine
Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian et al

Conference (2011, May 05)

The communication relates to the monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water reservoir of Luxemburg.

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See detailGas sensor array applied to the monitoring of biogas process
Adam, Gilles ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2011, May)

There is a lack of simple online monitoring system to control the performances of biogas reactors. The electronic nose technology appears to be an adapted device to deliver fast information about process ... [more ▼]

There is a lack of simple online monitoring system to control the performances of biogas reactors. The electronic nose technology appears to be an adapted device to deliver fast information about process disturbances in anaerobic reactors as it is adequate for online monitoring. In this study, twelve anaerobic mini-reactors were supervised with a home-made e-nose to observe process reaction in relation to organic overloads events. Usually, to avoid overload situations, on farms reactors are not fed at maximum load capacity, resulting in non optimized biogas production. The objective of the experiment was to determine if the gas sensors array feature can be related to the process state and if an indirect state variable, giving early warning of process faults, can be derived from the e-nose response. <br />The results demonstrated that focusing on gas phase of anaerobic reactors with a simple device composed of an array of non-specific gas sensors helped in the warning of disorders of the anaerobic digestion process. Mahalanobis distance from a cautious feeding group (group of observations indicating a good process) can be used as an indirect variable to evaluate the intensity of the state disorder. Euclidean distance has been also calculated but it was less informative than the Mahalanobis distance. [less ▲]

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See detailConvention de sous-traitance "FIDOR-Action" Etude de faisabilité du FIDOR dans le milieu récepteur de différents sites industriels et de sa capacité à agir sur la réduction de l'odeur.
Cerisier, Christophe; Collard, Laurent ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

Report (2011)

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and is the continuation of a former study which was aiming at designing the e-nose network named FIDOR. The ... [more ▼]

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and is the continuation of a former study which was aiming at designing the e-nose network named FIDOR. The present study concerns the ability of the FIDOR concept to forecast the odour annoyance in the surroundings and to control an odour abatement technique. An important part of the report concerns the validation of the predicted odour plume with resident observations. The report is the property of the company Odometric which commissioned the study. [less ▲]

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See detailAnaerobic digestion process monitoring: focus on the gas phase using electronic nose technology
Adam, Gilles ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in GERBIO (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Congress Progress in Biogas 2011 - part 1 (2011, March 31)

Gas phase of four pilot-scale anaerobic reactors was monitored with a gas sensors array, also called electronic nose (e-nose) over three weeks. CH4, CO2, H2S, H2 concentration in the gas phase and biogas ... [more ▼]

Gas phase of four pilot-scale anaerobic reactors was monitored with a gas sensors array, also called electronic nose (e-nose) over three weeks. CH4, CO2, H2S, H2 concentration in the gas phase and biogas production rate were also measured. Reactors were exposed to process disturbances by doubling the organic loading rate and by decreasing the temperature from 38 to 32°C for 24 hours. During these tests, sludge pH and alkalinity were also measured. When organic loading was doubled, no changes were observed in pH and alkalinity, while hydrogen content in gas phase increased by 20% and took 8 hours to recover stable values of 130 ppm. Hydrogen sulphide also increased proportionally to organic loading of the reactors and took two days to return to stable values. Methane and carbon dioxide ratio changed from 1.2 to 0.95. No changes were observed during the temperature drop of the digesters apart from hydrogen concentration which increased sharply several hours. Electronic nose was able to detect variations in organic loading rates for the four anaerobic reactors, with increased signals for higher organic loadings of the pilots. Sensing of gas phase of anaerobic reactors was able to discriminate disorders of operating conditions of anaerobic reactors, especially organic loading. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le centre de compostage de Farciennes. Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Thomas, Jean-François et al

Report (2011)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, which was extended to all biowaste treatment facility. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, which was extended to all biowaste treatment facility. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a first campaign on the composting site of Farciennes. The report firstly introduces the composting process itself so as the potential odour sources on a compost site. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied a dynamic olfactometry on the basis of samples collected through an flux chamber placed on the compost windrows. [less ▲]

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