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See detailPotential of the Electronic Nose as a Tool for the Detection of Disturbances in Anaerobic Digestion Processes
Adam, Gilles ULg; Neyrinck, Roland ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien et al

in IWWG (Ed.) Venice 2010 Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste (2010, November)

Most of agricultural biogas plants do not operate at optimum loading rate to avoid overload and process failure. This study aims at the development of an electronic nose technology to serve as a specific ... [more ▼]

Most of agricultural biogas plants do not operate at optimum loading rate to avoid overload and process failure. This study aims at the development of an electronic nose technology to serve as a specific monitoring tool for anaerobic digestion processes. Twelve semi-continuous anaerobic mini-digesters (1.6 L useful capacity) were fed with three different substrates: sucrose, maize oil and a mix 1:1 of sucrose and maize oil. Two feeding strategies were followed (i) a cautious organic load (1.3 gVS.L-1.day-1) and (ii) an increasing load strategy (1.3 to 5.33 gVS.L-1.day-1). Digesters were monitored during two months by analysing the biogas composition and collecting electronic nose measurements. The electronic nose was able to detect the impact of organic load variations. Overload situations were distinguished by the e-nose apparatus and the different feeding substrates induced distinct responses from the e-nose system. [less ▲]

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See detailOdour evaluation of a dairy farm with anaerobic digestion
Ubeda, Yolanda; Neyrinck, Roland ULg; Calvet, S. et al

Conference (2010, September)

The present work focuses on odour evaluation of a dairy farm with anaerobic digestion, located in the Luxembourg province (Belgium). This study pursues three main goals: 1.- To evaluate the effect of the ... [more ▼]

The present work focuses on odour evaluation of a dairy farm with anaerobic digestion, located in the Luxembourg province (Belgium). This study pursues three main goals: 1.- To evaluate the effect of the anaerobic digestion process on the odour level in the farm, 2.- To compare field and laboratory odour measurement techniques and 3.-To study the influence of the meteorological observation frequency on the odour plume, through the use of dispersion models. Three different approaches were used to characterize the odour: dynamic and field olfactometry and sniffing team method. Odour emissions from all sources were measured by duplicated through dynamic chamber and olfactometric analysis in two different situations: in normal conditions and after stirring the odour source. Two odour field measurement campaigns were conduced in the surroundings of the farm, and meteorological conditions were recorded two times per minute with a weather station. After comparing odour emissions with field measurements through dispersion modeling, we concluded that the best results were obtained using minimum and averaged odour emission rates. Emission rates measured in stirring conditions overestimated the reach of odour perceived in the field in three field campaigns. Overall odour emitted from the farm increased with the anaerobic digestion process. Although odour emission from digested manure is reduced in comparison with non-treated manure, the presence of agricultural wastes increases global odour emission. Finally, meteorological data were averaged each one, five and fifteen minutes. Odour shape was thinner and more extended with 15-minutes data, whereas it was larger and shorter with 30-secondes records. One minute and 5-minute values showed intermediate situations. In conclusion, different techniques to measure odours were compared in this study and, according to the results, field techniques seemed to be more realistic than dynamic olfactometry. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary study of effects of anaerobic digestion of manure on VFA content and Odor concentration
Ubeda, Yolanda; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Calvet, S. et al

Conference (2010, September)

In this study, the potential reduction of odor of anaerobic digestion has been evaluated in three commercial facilities located in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. Odor concentrations were measured by ... [more ▼]

In this study, the potential reduction of odor of anaerobic digestion has been evaluated in three commercial facilities located in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. Odor concentrations were measured by olfactometric analyses in two different situations: at normal conditions and after the stirring the odor source. Parallel to these measures, representative samples were taken for digested and untreated manure and other co-substrates present in the facilities. Volatile solids, total solids, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, soluble chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total kjeldhal nitrogen, volatile fatty acids, and pH were determined in laboratory. The performance of anaerobic digestion in terms of VFA concentration reduction achieved values of 77-96%. Odor concentration was reduced by anaerobic digestion in the two studied scenarios: at normal conditions and after the stirring the odor source. No significant effect of anaerobic digestion on chemical analyses was observed, except for an increase in the ammonia nitrogen content. Significant correlations were found between the logarithm of odor concentration and different odor compounds (VFA, acetic, butyric, isobutyric, isovaleric). Correlations between odor concentration, VFA and other parameters (VS, VSS and pH) were also obtained. These results confirm that anaerobic digestion may reduce odor annoyance potential and VFA concentrations. In addition, odor concentration seems to be related with other chemical parameters, therefore more research is needed to obtain further conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mesure des émissions gazeuses, et plus particulièrement des odeurs, comme outil de caractérisation de matériaux et de processus
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe et al

Conference (2009, September)

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le ... [more ▼]

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le marché des matériaux (dont les "bio-matériaux") dont les émissions atmosphériques demeurent dans des limites acceptables. Plusieurs initiatives, essentiellement volontaires, existent au niveau européen pour évaluer ces émissions. Un des objectifs de la directive européenne des produits de construction (CPD) est d'harmoniser les méthodes d'évaluation. La comparaison de 4 chambres d'émission, de tailles différentes, l'usage de méthodes d'évaluation physico-chimiques couplées à des méthodes sensitives de mesure des odeurs et l'utilisation de la technique des nez électroniques constituent l'originalité de la démarche du projet mené par l'université de Liège en collaboration avec deux autres institutions belges. Plus généralement, le nez électronique représente un outil particulièrement bien adapté au suivi d'ambiances gazeuses au cours du temps. L'odeur émise peut ainsi servir comme "variable de process" pour suivre en continu, voire contrôler, des processus utilisant la bio dégradation de produits, comme le compostage, la bio méthanisation ou le bio séchage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (19 ULg)