Numerical simulation of bone regeneration in a bone chamber.
Geris, Liesbet ; ; et al
in Journal of Dental Research (2009), 88(2), 158-63
While mathematical models are able to capture essential aspects of biological processes like fracture healing and distraction osteogenesis, their predictive capacity in peri-implant osteogenesis remains ... [more ▼]
While mathematical models are able to capture essential aspects of biological processes like fracture healing and distraction osteogenesis, their predictive capacity in peri-implant osteogenesis remains uninvestigated. We tested the hypothesis that a mechano-regulatory model has the potential to predict bone regeneration around implants. In an in vivo bone chamber set-up allowing for controlled implant loading (up to 90 microm axial displacement), bone tissue formation was simulated and compared qualitatively and quantitatively with histology. Furthermore, the model was applied to simulate excessive loading conditions. Corresponding to literature data, implant displacement magnitudes larger than 90 microm predicted the formation of fibrous tissue encapsulation of the implant. In contradiction to findings in orthopedic implant osseointegration, implant displacement frequencies higher than 1 Hz did not favor the formation of peri-implant bone in the chamber. Additional bone chamber experiments are needed to test these numerical predictions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
The influence of micro-motion on the tissue differentiation around immediately loaded cylindrical turned titanium implants.
; ; Geris, Liesbet et al
in Archives of Oral Biology (2006), 51(1), 1-9
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various degrees of implant displacement on the tissue differentiation around immediately loaded cylindrical turned titanium implants. DESIGN ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various degrees of implant displacement on the tissue differentiation around immediately loaded cylindrical turned titanium implants. DESIGN: The experiments were conducted in repeated sampling bone chambers placed in the tibia of 10 rabbits. Tissues could grow into the bone chambers via perforations. Due to its double structure, tissues inside the chamber could be harvested leaving the chamber intact. This allowed several experiments within the same animal. The chambers contained a cylindrical turned titanium implant that was loaded in a well-controlled manner. In each of the 10 chambers, four experiments were conducted with the following test conditions: immediate implant loading by inducing 0 (control), 30, 60 and 90 microm implant displacement, 800 cycles per day at a frequency of 1 Hz, twice a week during a period of 6 weeks. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses were performed on methylmethacrylate histological sections. An ANOVA was conducted on the dataset. RESULTS: The total tissue volume was significantly lowest in the unloaded control condition. The bone volume fraction on the other hand, was significantly larger in the unloaded and 90 microm implant displacement, compared to the 30 microm implant displacement. Bone density increased with increasing micro-motion with significantly higher values for the 60 microm- and 90 microm-test conditions compared to the unloaded situation. The chance to have bone-to-implant contact decreased in case of micro-motion at the tissues-implant interface. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of implant displacement had a statistically significant effect on the tissue differentiation around immediately loaded cylindrical turned titanium implants. Implant micro-motion had a detrimental effect on the bone-to-implant contact in an immediate loading regimen. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)
Numerical simulation of tissue differentiation around loaded titanium implants in a bone chamber.
Geris, Liesbet ; ; et al
in Journal of Biomechanics (2004), 37(5), 763-9
The application of a bone chamber provides a controlled environment for the study of tissue differentiation and bone adaptation. The influence of different mechanical and biological factors on the ... [more ▼]
The application of a bone chamber provides a controlled environment for the study of tissue differentiation and bone adaptation. The influence of different mechanical and biological factors on the processes can be measured experimentally. The goal of the present work is to numerically model the process of peri-implant tissue differentiation inside a bone chamber, placed in a rabbit tibia. 2D and 3D models were created of the tissue inside the chamber. A number of loading conditions, corresponding to those applied in the rabbit experiments, were simulated. Fluid velocity and maximal distortional strain were considered as the stimuli that guide the differentiation process of mesenchymal cells into fibroblasts, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Mesenchymal cells migrate through the chamber from the perforations in the chamber wall. This process is modelled by the diffusion equation. The predicted tissue phenotypes as well as the process of tissue ingrowth into the chamber show a qualitative agreement with the results of the rabbit experiments. Due to the limited number of animal experiments (four) and the observed inter-animal differences, no quantitative comparison could be made. These results however are a strong indication of the feasibility of the implemented theory to predict the mechano-regulation of the differentiation process inside the bone chamber. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Assessment of mechanobiological models for the numerical simulation of tissue differentiation around immediately loaded implants.
Geris, Liesbet ; ; et al
in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2003), 6(5-6), 277-88
Nowadays, there is a growing consensus on the impact of mechanical loading on bone biology. A bone chamber provides a mechanically isolated in vivo environment in which the influence of different ... [more ▼]
Nowadays, there is a growing consensus on the impact of mechanical loading on bone biology. A bone chamber provides a mechanically isolated in vivo environment in which the influence of different parameters on the tissue response around loaded implants can be investigated. This also provides data to assess the feasibility of different mechanobiological models that mathematically describe the mechanoregulation of tissue differentiation. Before comparing numerical results to animal experimental results, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the different model parameters on the outcome of the simulations. A 2D finite element model of the tissue inside the bone chamber was created. The differentiation models developed by Prendergast, et al. ["Biophysical stimuli on cells during tissue differentiation at implant interfaces", Journal of Biomechanics, 30(6), (1997), 539-548], Huiskes et al. ["A biomechanical regulatory model for periprosthetic fibrous-tissue differentiation", Journal of Material Science: Materials in Medicine, 8 (1997) 785-788] and by Claes and Heigele ["Magnitudes of local stress and strain along bony surfaces predict the course and type of fracture healing", Journal of Biomechanics, 32(3), (1999) 255-266] were implemented and integrated in the finite element code. The fluid component in the first model has an important effect on the predicted differentiation patterns. It has a direct effect on the predicted degree of maturation of bone and a substantial indirect effect on the simulated deformations and hence the predicted phenotypes of the tissue in the chamber. Finally, the presence of fluid also causes time-dependent behavior. Both models lead to qualitative and quantitative differences in predicted differentiation patterns. Because of the different nature of the tissue phenotypes used to describe the differentiation processes, it is however hard to compare both models in terms of their validity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg)