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See detailDUSP3 genetic deletion confers M2-like−macrophage-dependent tolerance to septic shock
Singh, Pratibha; Dejager, Lien; Amand, Mathieu ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (2015)

DUSP3 is a small dual-specificity protein phosphatase with an unknown physiological function. We report that DUSP3 is strongly expressed in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages and that its ... [more ▼]

DUSP3 is a small dual-specificity protein phosphatase with an unknown physiological function. We report that DUSP3 is strongly expressed in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages and that its deficiency in mice promotes tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock and to polymicrobial septic shock following cecal ligation and puncture. By using adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that resistance to endotoxin is macrophage-dependent and transferable and that this protection is associated with a striking increase of M2-like macrophages in DUSP3-/- mice in both the LPS and cecal ligation and puncture models. We show that the altered response of DUSP3-/- mice to sepsis is reflected in decreased TNF production and impaired ERK1/2 activation. Our results demonstrate that DUSP3 plays a key and non-redundant role as a regulator of innate immune responses by mechanisms involving the control of ERK1/2 activation, TNF secretion and macrophage polarization. [less ▲]

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limit Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Musumeci, Lucia ULg; Kuijpers, Marijke; Gilio, Karen et al

in Circulation (2015), 131(7), 656-68

Background A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet ... [more ▼]

Background A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is of importance for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. Methods and Results This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated through the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism, compared to wild-type mice, and showed severely impaired thrombus formation upon ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen and CLEC-2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. Conclusions DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and CLEC-2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a PTP, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. [less ▲]

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See detailDUSP3/VHR is a pro-angiogenic atypical dual-specificity phosphatase
Amand, Mathieu ULg; Erpicum, Charlotte ULg; BAJOU, Khalid ULg et al

in Molecular Cancer (2014)

Background DUSP3 phosphatase, also known as Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) phosphatase, encoded by DUSP3/Dusp3 gene, is a relatively small member of the dual-specificity protein phosphatases. In vitro studies ... [more ▼]

Background DUSP3 phosphatase, also known as Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) phosphatase, encoded by DUSP3/Dusp3 gene, is a relatively small member of the dual-specificity protein phosphatases. In vitro studies showed that DUSP3 is a negative regulator of ERK and JNK pathways in several cell lines. On the other hand, DUSP3 is implicated in human cancer. It has been alternatively described as having tumor suppressive and oncogenic properties. Thus, the available data suggest that DUSP3 plays complex and contradictory roles in tumorigenesis that could be cell type-dependent. Since most of these studies were performed using recombinant proteins or in cell-transfection based assays, the physiological function of DUSP3 has remained elusive. Results Using immunohistochemistry on human cervical sections, we observed a strong expression of DUSP3 in endothelial cells (EC) suggesting a contribution for this phosphatase to EC functions. DUSP3 downregulation, using RNA interference, in human EC reduced significantly in vitro tube formation on Matrigel and spheroid angiogenic sprouting. However, this defect was not associated with an altered phosphorylation of the documented in vitro DUSP3 substrates, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and EGFR but was associated with an increased PKC phosphorylation. To investigate the physiological function of DUSP3, we generated Dusp3-deficient mice by homologous recombination. The obtained DUSP3-/- mice were healthy, fertile, with no spontaneous phenotype and no vascular defect. However, DUSP3 deficiency prevented neo-vascularization of transplanted b-FGF containing Matrigel and LLC xenograft tumors as evidenced by hemoglobin (Hb) and FITC-dextran quantifications. Furthermore, we found that DUSP3 is required for b-FGF-induced microvessel outgrowth in the aortic ring assay. Conclusions All together, our data identify DUSP3 as a new important player in angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic interaction between lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase and C-terminal Src kinase controls T cell activation
Tautz, Lutz; Vang, Torkel; Liu, Wallace et al

in FASEB Journal (2012, April), 26

Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) and C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) are negative regulators of signaling mediated through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and are thought to act in a cooperative manner ... [more ▼]

Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) and C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) are negative regulators of signaling mediated through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and are thought to act in a cooperative manner when forming a complex. Here, we show that dissociation of the LYP/CSK complex is necessary for recruitment of LYP to lipid rafts, where it down-modulates TCR-mediated signaling. Our findings may also explain the reduced TCR signaling associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism, which confers increased risk for autoimmunity and results in the expression of a LYP allele that can no longer bind CSK. Development of a potent and selective chemical probe of LYP allowed us to confirm that the observed down-modulation of TCR-induced signaling was due to the LYP catalytic activity. Our compound also represents a starting point for the development of a LYP-based treatment of autoimmunity. [less ▲]

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See detailLYP inhibits T-cell activation when dissociated from CSK
Vang; Liu, Wallace H; Delacroix, Laurence ULg et al

in Nature Chemical Biology (2012)

Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) and C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) are negative regulators of signaling mediated through the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and are thought to act in a cooperative manner ... [more ▼]

Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) and C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) are negative regulators of signaling mediated through the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and are thought to act in a cooperative manner when forming a complex. Here we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of the LYP–CSK complex in T cells. We demonstrate that dissociation of this complex is necessary for recruitment of LYP to the plasma membrane, where it downmodulates TCR signaling. Development of a potent and selective chemical probe of LYP confirmed that LYP inhibits T-cell activation when removed from CSK. Our findings may explain the reduced TCR-mediated signaling associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism that confers increased risk for certain autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, and results in expression of a mutant LYP that is unable to bind CSK. Our compound also represents a starting point for the development of a LYP-based treatment of autoimmunity. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidentate small-molecule inhibitors of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase decrease proliferation of cervix cancer cells.
Wu, Shuangding; Vossius, Sofie ULg; Rahmouni, Souad ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2009), 52(21), 6716-23

Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is ... [more ▼]

Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is upregulated in several cervix cancer cell lines as well as in carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Here we report the development of multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of VHR that inhibit its enzymatic activity at nanomolar concentrations and exhibit antiproliferative effects on cervix cancer cells. Chemical library screening was used to identify hit compounds, which were further prioritized in profiling and kinetic experiments. SAR analysis was applied in the search for analogs with improved potency and selectivity, resulting in the discovery of novel inhibitors that are able to interact with both the phosphate-binding pocket and several distinct hydrophobic regions within VHR’s active site. This multidentate binding mode was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitors decreased the proliferation of cervix cancer cells, while growth of primary normal keratinocytes was not affected. These compounds may be a starting point to develop drugs for the treatment of cervical cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-Molecule Inhibitors of Vaccinia-H1-Related Phosphatase VHR.
Tautz, lutz; Mustelin, Tomas; Wu, Shuangding et al

Report (2009)

Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) protein tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylates and thereby inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinases Erk1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases Jnk1/2. These mitogen-activated ... [more ▼]

Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) protein tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylates and thereby inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinases Erk1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases Jnk1/2. These mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases mediate major signaling pathways triggered by extracellular growth factor, stress, or cytokines and regulate cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Unlike many MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs), VHR expression is not induced in response to activation of MAP kinases, but is instead regulated during cell cycle progression. The loss of VHR causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells without detrimental effects on normal cells. Here we report the development of multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of VHR that inhibit its enzymatic activity at nanomolar concentrations and are selective for VHR over HePTP and MKP-1. This novel small molecular probe, ML113 (CID-6161281) appears to interact with both the phosphate-binding pocket and several distinct hydrophobic regions within VHR's active site. As a result, it will serve as a useful tool in probing these interactions and elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying the selectivity against this phosphatase, in addition to providing greater understanding of the functional consequences for cancer biology. [less ▲]

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See detailKCTD5, a putative substrate adaptor for cullin3 ubiquitin ligases
Bayón, Yolanda; Trinidad, Antonio G.; de la Puerta, María L et al

in FEBS Journal (2008), 275(15), 3900-3910

Potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) proteins contain a bric-a-brac, tramtrak and broad complex (BTB) domain that is most similar to the tetramerization domain (T1) of voltage-gated potassium ... [more ▼]

Potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) proteins contain a bric-a-brac, tramtrak and broad complex (BTB) domain that is most similar to the tetramerization domain (T1) of voltage-gated potassium channels. Some BTB-domain-containing proteins have been shown recently to participate as substrate-specific adaptors in multimeric cullin E3 ligase reactions by recruiting proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Twenty-two KCTD proteins have been found in the human genome, but their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized KCTD5, a new KCTD protein found in the cytosol of cultured cell lines. The expression of KCTD5 was upregulated post-transcriptionally in peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated through the T-cell receptor. KCTD5 interacted specifically with cullin3, bound ubiquitinated proteins, and formed oligomers through its BTB domain. Analysis of the interaction with cullin3 showed that, in addition to the BTB domain, some amino acids in the N-terminus of KCTD5 are required for binding to cullin3. These findings suggest that KCTD5 is a substrate-specific adaptor for cullin3-based E3 ligases. [less ▲]

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See detailCervix carcinoma is associated with an up-regulation and nuclear localization of the dual-specificity protein phosphatase VHR.
Henkens, Rachel ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Arafa, Mohammad et al

in BMC Cancer (2008), 8

BACKGROUND: The 21-kDa Vaccinia virus VH1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein phosphatase (encoded by the DUSP3 gene) plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and is itself regulated during the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The 21-kDa Vaccinia virus VH1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein phosphatase (encoded by the DUSP3 gene) plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and is itself regulated during the cell cycle. We have previously demonstrated using RNA interference that cells lacking VHR arrest in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle and show signs of beginning of cell senescence. METHODS: In this report, we evaluated successfully the expression levels of VHR protein in 62 hysterectomy or conization specimens showing the various (pre) neoplastic cervical epithelial lesions and 35 additional cases of hysterectomy performed for non-cervical pathologies, from patients under 50 years of age. We used a tissue microarray and IHC technique to evaluate the expression of the VHR phosphatase. Immunofluorescence staining under confocal microscopy, Western blotting and RT-PCR methods were used to investigate the localization and expression levels of VHR. RESULTS: We report that VHR is upregulated in (pre) neoplastic lesions (squamous intraepithelial lesions; SILs) of the uterine cervix mainly in high grade SIL (H-SIL) compared to normal exocervix. In the invasive cancer, VHR is also highly expressed with nuclear localization in the majority of cells compared to normal tissue where VHR is always in the cytoplasm. We also report that this phosphatase is highly expressed in several cervix cancer cell lines such as HeLa, SiHa, CaSki, C33 and HT3 compared to primary keratinocytes. The immunofluorescence technique under confocal microscopy shows that VHR has a cytoplasmic localization in primary keratinocytes, while it localizes in both cytoplasm and nucleus of the cancer cell lines investigated. We report that the up-regulation of this phosphatase is mainly due to its post-translational stabilization in the cancer cell lines compared to primary keratinocytes rather than increases in the transcription of DUSP3 locus. CONCLUSION: These results together suggest that VHR can be considered as a new marker for cancer progression in cervix carcinoma and potential new target for anticancer therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of the VHR dual-specific phosphatase causes cell-cycle arrest and senescence
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Cerignoli, Fabio; Alonso, Andres et al

in Nature Cell Biology (2006), 8(5), 524-178

Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate important processes in eukaryotic cells and have critical functions in many human diseases including diabetes to cancer(1-3). Here, we report that the human Vaccinia ... [more ▼]

Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate important processes in eukaryotic cells and have critical functions in many human diseases including diabetes to cancer(1-3). Here, we report that the human Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates cell-cycle progression and is itself modulated during the cell cycle. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that cells lacking VHR arrest at the G1-S and G2-M transitions of the cell cycle and show the initial signs of senescence, such as flattening, spreading, appearance of autophagosomes, beta-galactosidase staining and decreased telomerase activity. In agreement with this notion, cells lacking VHR were found to upregulate p21(Cip-Waf1), whereas they downregulated the expression of genes for cell-cycle regulators, DNA replication, transcription and mRNA processing. Loss of VHR also caused a several-fold increase in serum-induced activation of its substrates, the mitogen-activated protein ( MAP) kinases Jnk and Erk. VHR-induced cell-cycle arrest was dependent on this hyperactivation of Jnk and Erk, and was reversed by Jnk and Erk inhibition or knock-down. We conclude that VHR is required for cell-cycle progression as it modulates MAP kinase activation in a cell-cycle phase-dependent manner. [less ▲]

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See detailLipid raft targeting of hematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase by protein kinase C theta-mediated phosphorylation.
Nika, Konstantina; Charvet, Celine; Williams, Scott et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2006), 26(5), 1806-16

Protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) is unique among PKC isozymes in its translocation to the center of the immune synapse in T cells and its unique downstream signaling. Here we show that the hematopoietic ... [more ▼]

Protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) is unique among PKC isozymes in its translocation to the center of the immune synapse in T cells and its unique downstream signaling. Here we show that the hematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) also accumulates in the immune synapse in a PKC theta-dependent manner upon antigen recognition by T cells and is phosphorylated by PKC theta at Ser-225, which is required for lipid raft translocation. Immune synapse translocation was completely absent in antigen-specific T cells from PKC theta-/- mice. In intact T cells, HePTP-S225A enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced NFAT/AP-1 transactivation, while the acidic substitution mutant was as efficient as wild-type HePTP. We conclude that HePTP is phosphorylated in the immune synapse by PKC theta and thereby targeted to lipid rafts to temper TCR signaling. This represents a novel mechanism for the active immune synapse recruitment and activation of a phosphatase in TCR signaling. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of MAP kinases by the VHR dual-specific phosphatase: implications for cell growth and differentiation.
Cerignoli, Fabio; Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Ronai, Ze'ev et al

in Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (2006), 5(19), 2210-5

Although it is well established that a transient activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk and Jnk is a crucial step in most growth promoting signaling pathways, it has also been ... [more ▼]

Although it is well established that a transient activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk and Jnk is a crucial step in most growth promoting signaling pathways, it has also been demonstrated that a prolonged activation of these kinases can induce differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and cell senescence. We recently found that the expression of the 21-kDa human Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) dual-specific phosphatase fluctuates during cell cycle progression and affects Erk and Jnk activity in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Cells lacking VHR arrested at the G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions of the cell cycle and exhibited senescence phenotypes. Cells lacking VHR upregulated p21(Cip/Waf1) and downregulated many genes for cell cycle regulators, DNA replication, transcription, and mRNA processing. In the absence of VHR, the serum-induced activation of Jnk and Erk was further elevated and was required for the G(1)/S and G(2)/M blocks, which were attenuated upon Jnk and Erk inhibition. Collectively, VHR provides a long sought layer in the regulation of Jnk and Erk during cell cycle progression thereby contributing to cell cycle arrest, differentiation or senescence. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-Molecular-Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases of Bacillus subtilis
Musumeci, Lucia ULg; Bongiorni, Cristina; Tautz, Lutz et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2005), 187(14), 4945-4956

In gram-negative organisms, enzymes belonging to the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) family are involved in the regulation of important physiological functions, including stress ... [more ▼]

In gram-negative organisms, enzymes belonging to the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) family are involved in the regulation of important physiological functions, including stress resistance and synthesis of the polysaccharide capsule. LMPTPs have been identified also in gram-positive bacteria, but their functions in these organisms are presently unknown. We cloned two putative LMPTPs from Bacillus subtilis, YfkJ and YwlE, which are highly similar to each other in primary structure as well as to LMPTPs from gram-negative bacteria. When purified from overexpressing Escherichia coli strains, both enzymes were able to dephosphorylate p-nitrophenyl-phosphate and phosphotyrosine-containing substrates in vitro but showed significant differences in kinetic parameters and sensitivity to inhibitors. Transcriptional analyses showed that yfkJ was transcribed at a low level throughout the growth cycle and underwent a σB-dependent transcriptional upregulation in response to ethanol stress. The transcription of ywlE was growth dependent but stress insensitive. Genomic deletion of each phosphatase-encoding gene led to a phenotype of reduced bacterial resistance to ethanol stress, which was more marked in the ywlE deletion strain. Our study suggests that YfkJ and YwlE play roles in B. subtilis stress resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro characterization of the Bacillus subtilis protein tyrosine phosphatase YwqE
Mijakovic, Ivan; Musumeci, Lucia ULg; Tautz, Lutz et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2005), 187(10), 3384-90

Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria possess protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) with a catalytic Cys residue. In addition, many gram-positive bacteria have acquired a new family of PTPs, whose ... [more ▼]

Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria possess protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) with a catalytic Cys residue. In addition, many gram-positive bacteria have acquired a new family of PTPs, whose first characterized member was CpsB from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacillus subtilis contains one such CpsB-like PTP, YwqE, in addition to two class II Cys-based PTPs, YwlE and YfkJ. The substrates for both YwlE and YfkJ are presently unknown, while YwqE was shown to dephosphorylate two phosphotyrosine-containing proteins implicated in UDP-glucuronate biosynthesis, YwqD and YwqF. In this study, we characterize YwqE, compare the activities of the three B. subtilis PTPs (YwqE, YwlE, and YfkJ), and demonstrate that the two B. subtilis class II PTPs do not dephosphorylate the physiological substrates of YwqE. [less ▲]

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See detailRemoval of C-terminal Src kinase from the immune synapse by a new binding protein
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Vang, Torkel; Alonso, Andres et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2005), 25(6), 2227-2241

The Csk tyrosine kinase negatively regulates the Src family kinases Lek and Fyn in T cells. Engagement of the T-cell antigen receptor results in a removal of Csk from the lipid raft-associated ... [more ▼]

The Csk tyrosine kinase negatively regulates the Src family kinases Lek and Fyn in T cells. Engagement of the T-cell antigen receptor results in a removal of Csk from the lipid raft-associated transmembrane protein PAG/Cbp. Instead, Csk becomes associated with an similar to72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, which we identify here as G3BP, a phosphoprotein reported to bind the SH3 domain of Ras GTPase-activating protein. G3BP reduced the ability of Csk to phosphorylate Lek at Y505 by decreasing the amount of Csk in lipid rafts. As a consequence, G3BP augmented T-cell activation as measured by interleukin-2 gene activation. Conversely, elimination of endogenous G3BP by RNA interference increased Lek Y505 phosphorylation and reduced TCR signaling. In antigen-specific T cells, endogenous G3BP moved into a intracellular location adjacent to the immune synapse, but deeper inside the cell, upon antigen recognition. Csk colocalization with G3BP occurred in this "parasynaptic" location. We conclude that G3BP is a new player in T-cell-antigen receptor signaling and acts to reduce the amount of Csk in the immune synapse. [less ▲]

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See detailAutoimmune-associated lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is a gain-of-function variant.
Vang, Torkel; Congia, Mauro; Macis, Maria Doloretta et al

in Nature genetics (2005), 37(12), 1317-9

A SNP in the gene PTPN22 is associated with type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Graves thyroiditis, Addison disease and other autoimmune disorders. T cells from carriers of the predisposing ... [more ▼]

A SNP in the gene PTPN22 is associated with type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Graves thyroiditis, Addison disease and other autoimmune disorders. T cells from carriers of the predisposing allele produce less interleukin-2 upon TCR stimulation, and the encoded phosphatase has higher catalytic activity and is a more potent negative regulator of T lymphocyte activation. We conclude that the autoimmune-predisposing allele is a gain-of-function mutant. [less ▲]

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See detailYersinia phosphatase induces mitochondrially dependent apoptosis of T cells.
Bruckner, Shane; Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Tautz, Lutz et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(11), 10388-94

To evade the immune system, the etiologic agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, injects an exceptionally active tyrosine phosphatase called YopH into host cells using a type III secretion system. We recently ... [more ▼]

To evade the immune system, the etiologic agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, injects an exceptionally active tyrosine phosphatase called YopH into host cells using a type III secretion system. We recently reported that YopH acutely inhibits T cell antigen receptor signaling by dephosphorylating the Lck tyrosine kinase. Here, we show that prolonged presence of YopH in primary T cells or Jurkat T leukemia cells causes apoptosis, detected by annexin V binding, mitochondrial breakdown, caspase activation, and internucleosomal fragmentation. YopH also causes cell death when expressed in HeLa cells, and this cell death was inhibited by YopH-specific small molecule inhibitors. Cell death induced by YopH was also prevented by caspase inhibition or co-expression of Bcl-xL. We conclude that YopH not only paralyzes T cells acutely, but also ensures that the cells will not recover to induce a protective immune response but instead undergo mitochondrially regulated programmed cell death. [less ▲]

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See detailRemoval of C-terminal Src kinase from the immune synapse by a new binding protein
Mustelin, Tomas; Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Alonso, Andres et al

in Cancer Research (2004), 45

The Csk tyrosine kinase negatively regulates the Src family kinases Lck and Fyn in T cells. Engagement of the T cell antigen receptor results in a removal of Csk from the lipid raft-associated ... [more ▼]

The Csk tyrosine kinase negatively regulates the Src family kinases Lck and Fyn in T cells. Engagement of the T cell antigen receptor results in a removal of Csk from the lipid raft-associated transmembrane protein PAG/Cbp. Instead, Csk becomes associated with a ∼72-kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein, which we here identify as G3BP, a phosphoprotein reported to bind the SH3 domain of Ras GTPase activating protein. G3BP reduced the ability of Csk to phosphorylate Lck at Y505 by decreasing the amount of Csk in lipid rafts. As a consequence, G3BP augmented T cell activation as measured by IL-2 gene activation. Conversely, elimination of endogenous G3BP by RNA interference reduced TCR signaling. In antigen-specific T cells, endogenous G3BP moved into a intracellular location adjacent to the immune synapse, but well inside the cell, upon antigen recognition. Csk co-localization with G3BP occurred in this ‘parasynaptic’ location. We conclude that G3BP is a new player in TCR signaling that acts to reduce the amount of Csk in the immune synapse. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase.
Huynh, Huong; Bottini, Nunzio; Williams, Scott et al

in Nature cell biology (2004), 6(9), 831-9

The tyrosine phosphatase PTP-MEG2 is targeted by its amino-terminal Sec14p homology domain to the membrane of secretory vesicles. There it regulates vesicle size by promoting homotypic vesicle fusion by a ... [more ▼]

The tyrosine phosphatase PTP-MEG2 is targeted by its amino-terminal Sec14p homology domain to the membrane of secretory vesicles. There it regulates vesicle size by promoting homotypic vesicle fusion by a mechanism that requires its catalytic activity. Here, we identify N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), a key regulator of vesicle fusion, as a substrate for PTP-MEG2. PTP-MEG2 reduced the phosphotyrosine content of NSF and co-localized with NSF and syntaxin 6 in intact cells. Furthermore, endogenous PTP-MEG2 co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous NSF. Phosphorylation of NSF at Tyr 83, as well as an acidic substitution at the same site, increased its ATPase activity and prevented alphaSNAP binding. Conversely, expression of a Y83F mutant of NSF caused spontaneous fusion events. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanism by which PTP-MEG2 promotes secretory vesicle fusion involves the local release of NSF from a tyrosine-phosphorylated, inactive state. This represents a novel mechanism for localized regulation of NSF and the first demonstrated role for a protein tyrosine phosphatase in the regulated secretory pathway. [less ▲]

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