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Active exploration by searching for experiments that falsify the computed control policy Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning (ADPRL-11) (2011, April) We propose a strategy for experiment selection - in the context of reinforcement learning - based on the idea that the most interesting experiments to carry out at some stage are those that are the most ... [more ▼] We propose a strategy for experiment selection - in the context of reinforcement learning - based on the idea that the most interesting experiments to carry out at some stage are those that are the most liable to falsify the current hypothesis about the optimal control policy. We cast this idea in a context where a policy learning algorithm and a model identiﬁcation method are given a priori. Experiments are selected if, using the learnt environment model, they are predicted to yield a revision of the learnt control policy. Algorithms and simulation results are provided for a deterministic system with discrete action space. They show that the proposed approach is promising. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 32 (8 ULg)Towards min max generalization in reinforcement learning Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Filipe, Joaquim; Fred, Ana; Sharp, Bernadette (Eds.) Agents and Artificial Intelligence: International Conference, ICAART 2010, Valencia, Spain, January 2010, Revised Selected Papers (2011) In this paper, we introduce a min max approach for addressing the generalization problem in Reinforcement Learning. The min max approach works by determining a sequence of actions that maximizes the worst ... [more ▼] In this paper, we introduce a min max approach for addressing the generalization problem in Reinforcement Learning. The min max approach works by determining a sequence of actions that maximizes the worst return that could possibly be obtained considering any dynamics and reward function compatible with the sample of trajectories and some prior knowledge on the environment. We consider the particular case of deterministic Lipschitz continuous environments over continuous state spaces, nite action spaces, and a nite optimization horizon. We discuss the non-triviality of computing an exact solution of the min max problem even after reformulating it so as to avoid search in function spaces. For addressing this problem, we propose to replace, inside this min max problem, the search for the worst environment given a sequence of actions by an expression that lower bounds the worst return that can be obtained for a given sequence of actions. This lower bound has a tightness that depends on the sample sparsity. From there, we propose an algorithm of polynomial complexity that returns a sequence of actions leading to the maximization of this lower bound. We give a condition on the sample sparsity ensuring that, for a given initial state, the proposed algorithm produces an optimal sequence of actions in open-loop. Our experiments show that this algorithm can lead to more cautious policies than algorithms combining dynamic programming with function approximators. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULg)Model-free Monte Carlo–like policy evaluation Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Proceedings of Conférence Francophone sur l'Apprentissage Automatique (CAp) 2010 (2010, May) We propose an algorithm for estimating the finite-horizon expected return of a closed loop control policy from an a priori given (off-policy) sample of one-step transitions. It averages cumulated rewards ... [more ▼] We propose an algorithm for estimating the finite-horizon expected return of a closed loop control policy from an a priori given (off-policy) sample of one-step transitions. It averages cumulated rewards along a set of “broken trajectories” made of one-step transitions selected from the sample on the basis of the control policy. Under some Lipschitz continuity assumptions on the system dynamics, reward function and control policy, we provide bounds on the bias and variance of the estimator that depend only on the Lipschitz constants, on the number of broken trajectories used in the estimator, and on the sparsity of the sample of one-step transitions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 25 (10 ULg)Model-free Monte Carlo-like policy evaluation Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS 2010) (2010, May) We propose an algorithm for estimating the finite-horizon expected return of a closed loop control policy from an a priori given (off-policy) sample of one-step transitions. It averages cumulated rewards ... [more ▼] We propose an algorithm for estimating the finite-horizon expected return of a closed loop control policy from an a priori given (off-policy) sample of one-step transitions. It averages cumulated rewards along a set of “broken trajectories” made of one-step transitions selected from the sample on the basis of the control policy. Under some Lipschitz continuity assumptions on the system dynamics, reward function and control policy, we provide bounds on the bias and variance of the estimator that depend only on the Lipschitz constants, on the number of broken trajectories used in the estimator, and on the sparsity of the sample of one-step transitions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 82 (17 ULg)Generating informative trajectories by using bounds on the return of control policies Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Proceedings of the Workshop on Active Learning and Experimental Design 2010 (in conjunction with AISTATS 2010) (2010, May) We propose new methods for guiding the generation of informative trajectories when solving discrete-time optimal control problems. These methods exploit recently published results that provide ways for ... [more ▼] We propose new methods for guiding the generation of informative trajectories when solving discrete-time optimal control problems. These methods exploit recently published results that provide ways for computing bounds on the return of control policies from a set of trajectories. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 37 (12 ULg)A cautious approach to generalization in reinforcement learning Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (2010, January) In the context of a deterministic Lipschitz continuous environment over continuous state spaces, finite action spaces, and a finite optimization horizon, we propose an algorithm of polynomial complexity ... [more ▼] In the context of a deterministic Lipschitz continuous environment over continuous state spaces, finite action spaces, and a finite optimization horizon, we propose an algorithm of polynomial complexity which exploits weak prior knowledge about its environment for computing from a given sample of trajectories and for a given initial state a sequence of actions. The proposed Viterbi-like algorithm maximizes a recently proposed lower bound on the return depending on the initial state, and uses to this end prior knowledge about the environment provided in the form of upper bounds on its Lipschitz constants. It thereby avoids, in way depending on the initial state and on the prior knowledge, those regions of the state space where the sample is too sparse to make safe generalizations. Our experiments show that it can lead to more cautious policies than algorithms combining dynamic programming with function approximators. We give also a condition on the sample sparsity ensuring that, for a given initial state, the proposed algorithm produces an optimal sequence of actions in open-loop. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 130 (25 ULg)Inferring bounds on the performance of a control policy from a sample of trajectories Fonteneau, Raphaël ; ; Wehenkel, Louis et al in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning (ADPRL-09) (2009) We propose an approach for inferring bounds on the finite-horizon return of a control policy from an off-policy sample of trajectories collecting state transitions, rewards, and control actions. In this ... [more ▼] We propose an approach for inferring bounds on the finite-horizon return of a control policy from an off-policy sample of trajectories collecting state transitions, rewards, and control actions. In this paper, the dynamics, control policy, and reward function are supposed to be deterministic and Lipschitz continuous. Under these assumptions, a polynomial algorithm, in terms of the sample size and length of the optimization horizon, is derived to compute these bounds, and their tightness is characterized in terms of the sample density. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 37 (10 ULg) |
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