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See detailMatrix metalloproteinase-2 governs lymphatic vessel formation as an interstitial collagenase.
Detry, Benoît ULg; Erpicum, Charlotte ULg; Paupert, Jenny ULg et al

in Blood (2012), 119(21), 5048-56

Lymphatic dysfunctions are associated with several human diseases, including lymphedema and metastatic spread of cancer. Although it is well recognized that lymphatic capillaries attach directly to ... [more ▼]

Lymphatic dysfunctions are associated with several human diseases, including lymphedema and metastatic spread of cancer. Although it is well recognized that lymphatic capillaries attach directly to interstitial matrix mainly composed of fibrillar type I collagen, the interactions occurring between lymphatics and their surrounding matrix have been overlooked. In this study, we demonstrate how matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)–2 drives lymphatic morphogenesis through Mmp2-gene ablation in mice, mmp2 knockdown in zebrafish and in 3D-culture systems, and through MMP2 inhibition. In all models used in vivo (3 murine models and thoracic duct development in zebrafish) and in vitro (lymphatic ring and spheroid assays), MMP2 blockage or down-regulation leads to reduced lymphangiogenesis or altered vessel branching. Our data show that lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration through collagen fibers is affected by physical matrix constraints (matrix composition, density and cross-linking). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal reflection microscopy using DQ-collagen highlight the contribution of MMP2 to mesenchymal-like migration of LEC associated with collagen fiber remodeling. Our findings provide new mechanistic insight into how LEC negotiate an interstitial type I collagen barrier and reveal an unexpected MMP2-driven collagenolytic pathway for lymphatic vessel formation and morphogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailVEGF-D deficiency in mice does not affect embryonic or postnatal lymphangiogenesis but reduces lymphatic metastasis.
Koch, M.; Dettori, D.; Van Nuffelen, A. et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2009), 219(3), 356-364

Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) is one of the two ligands of the VEGFR-3 receptor on lymphatic endothelial cells. Gene-silencing studies in mice and Xenopus tadpoles recently showed that the ... [more ▼]

Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) is one of the two ligands of the VEGFR-3 receptor on lymphatic endothelial cells. Gene-silencing studies in mice and Xenopus tadpoles recently showed that the role of endogenous VEGF-D in lymphatic development is moderate. By contrast, exogenous VEGF-D is capable of stimulating lymphangiogenesis. Nonetheless, its endogenous role in pathological conditions remains largely unknown. Hence, we reassessed its role in disease, using Vegf-dnull mice. Vegf-dnull mice were generated that, under physiological conditions, displayed normal embryonic and postnatal lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodelling, efficient lymphatic functioning and normal health. Vegf-dnull mice also reponded normally in models of skin wound healing and healing of infarcted myocardium, despite enhanced expression of VEGF-D in these models in wild-type mice. In contrast, Vegf-dnull mice displayed reduced peritumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model. Together, our data indicate that endogenous VEGF-D in mice is dispensible for lymphangiogenesis during development, in postnatal and adult physiology and in several pathological conditions, but significantly contributes to lymphatic metastasis. [less ▲]

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See detailReevaluation of the role of VEGF-B suggests a restricted role in the revascularization of the ischemic myocardium .
Li, X.; Tjwa, M.; Van Hove, I. et al

in Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis : A Journal of Vascular Biology (2008), 28(9), 1614-20

OBJECTIVE: The endogenous role of the VEGF family member vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) in pathological angiogenesis remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the role of VEGF-B in ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The endogenous role of the VEGF family member vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) in pathological angiogenesis remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the role of VEGF-B in various models of pathological angiogenesis using mice lacking VEGF-B (VEGF-B(-/-)) or overexpressing VEGF-B(167). After occlusion of the left coronary artery, VEGF-B deficiency impaired vessel growth in the ischemic myocardium whereas, in wild-type mice, VEGF-B(167) overexpression enhanced revascularization of the infarct and ischemic border zone. By contrast, VEGF-B deficiency did not affect vessel growth in the wounded skin, hypoxic lung, ischemic retina, or ischemic limb. Moreover, VEGF-B(167) overexpression failed to enhance vascular growth in the skin or ischemic limb. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-B appears to have a relatively restricted angiogenic activity in the ischemic heart. These insights might offer novel therapeutic opportunities [less ▲]

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See detailRevascularization of ischemic tissues by PDGF-CC via effects on endothelial cells and their progenitors
Li, X. R.; Tjwa, M.; Moons, L. et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (2005), 115(1), 118-127

The angiogenic mechanism and therapeutic potential of PDGF-CC, a recently discovered member of the VEGF/PDGF superfamily, remain incompletely characterized. Here we report that PDGF-CC mobilized ... [more ▼]

The angiogenic mechanism and therapeutic potential of PDGF-CC, a recently discovered member of the VEGF/PDGF superfamily, remain incompletely characterized. Here we report that PDGF-CC mobilized endothelial progenitor cells in ischemic conditions; induced differentiation of bone marrow cells into ECs; and stimulated migration of ECs. Furthermore, PDGF-CC induced the differentiation of bone marrow cells into smooth muscle cells and stimulated their growth during vessel sprouting. Moreover, delivery of PDGF-CC enhanced postischemic revascularization of the heart and limb. Modulating the activity of PDGF-CC may provide novel opportunities for treating ischemic diseases. [less ▲]

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