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See detailAlteration of Right Ventricular-Pulmonary Vascular Coupling in a Porcine Model of Progressive Pressure Overloading
Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg et al

in Shock (Augusta, Ga.) (2008), 29(2), 197-204

In acute pulmonary embolism, right ventricular (RV) failure may result from exceeding myocardial contractile resources with respect to the state of vascular afterload. We investigated the adaptation of RV ... [more ▼]

In acute pulmonary embolism, right ventricular (RV) failure may result from exceeding myocardial contractile resources with respect to the state of vascular afterload. We investigated the adaptation of RV performance in a porcine model of progressive pulmonary embolism. Twelve anesthetized pigs were randomly divided into two groups: gradual pulmonary arterial pressure increases by three injections of autologous blood clot (n = 6) or sham-operated controls (n = 6). Right ventricular pressure-volume (PV) loops were recorded using a conductance catheter. Right ventricular contractility was estimated by the slope of the end-systolic PV relationship (Ees). Afterload was referred to as pulmonary arterial elastance (Ea) and assessed using a four-element Windkessel model. Right ventricular-arterial coupling (Ees/Ea) and efficiency of energy transfer (from PV area to external mechanical work [stroke work]) were assessed at baseline and every 30 min for 4 h. Eaincreased progressively after embolization, from 0.26 +/- 0.04 to 2.2 +/- 0.7 mmHg mL (P < 0.05). Ees increased from 1.01 +/-0.07 to 2.35 +/- 0.27 mmHg mL (P < 0.05) after the first two injections but failed to increase any further. As a result, Ees/Ea initially decreased to values associated with optimal SW, but the last injection was responsible for Ees/Ea values less than 1, decreased stroke volume, and RV dilation. Stroke work/PV area consistently decreased with each injection from 79% +/- 3% to 39% +/- 11% (P < 0.05). In response to gradual increases in afterload, RV contractility reserve was recruited to a point of optimal coupling but submaximal efficiency. Further afterload increases led to RV-vascular uncoupling and failure. [less ▲]

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