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See detailEvolution of Bovine herpesvirus 4: recombination and transmission between African buffalo and cattle
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Thirion, Muriel ULg; Markine-Goriaynoff, N. et al

in Journal of General Virology (2006), 87(Pt 6), 1509-1519

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world, but virological and serological studies have suggested that the African buffalo is also a natural host for this virus. It ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world, but virological and serological studies have suggested that the African buffalo is also a natural host for this virus. It has previously been found that the Bo17 gene of BoHV-4 was acquired from an ancestor of the African buffalo, probably around 1.5 million years ago. Analysis of the variation of the Bo17 gene sequence among BoHV-4 strains suggested a relatively ancient transmission of BoHV-4 from the buffalo to the Bos primigenius lineage, followed by a host-dependent split between zebu and taurine BoHV-4 strains. In the present study, the evolutionary history of BoHV-4 was investigated by analysis of five gene sequences from each of nine strains representative of the viral species: three isolated from African buffalo in Kenya and six from cattle from Europe, North America and India. No two gene sequences had the same evolutionary tree, indicating that recombination has occurred between divergent lineages; six recombination events were delineated for these sequences. Nevertheless, exchange has been infrequent enough that a clonal evolutionary history of the strains could be discerned, upon which the recombination events were superimposed. The dates of divergence among BoHV-4 lineages were estimated from synonymous nucleotide-substitution rates. The inferred evolutionary history suggests that African buffalo were the original natural reservoir of BoHV-4 and that there have been at least three independent transmissions from buffalo to cattle, probably via intermediate hosts and - at least in the case of North American strains - within the last 500 years. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the susceptibility of human cell lines to bovine herpesvirus 4 infection: Demonstration that human cells can support a nonpermissive persistent infection which protects them against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis
Gillet, Laurent ULg; Minner, F.; Detry, Bruno et al

in Journal of Virology (2004), 78(5), 2336-2347

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus that has a worldwide distribution in the population of cattle. Many factors make human contamination by BoHV-4 likely to occur. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus that has a worldwide distribution in the population of cattle. Many factors make human contamination by BoHV-4 likely to occur. In this study, we performed in vitro experiments to assess the risk and the consequences of human infection by BoHV-4. First, by using a recombinant BoHV-4 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, we tested 21 human cell lines for their sensitivity and their permissiveness to BoHV-4 infection. These experiments revealed that human cell lines from lymphoid and myeloid origins were resistant to infection, whereas epithelial cells, carcinoma cells, or adenocarcinoma cells isolated from various organs were sensitive but poorly permissive to BoHV-4 infection. Second, by using the HeLa cell line as a model of human cells sensitive but not permissive to BoHV-4 infection, we investigated the resistance of infected cells to apoptosis and the persistence of the infection through cellular divisions. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. (i) BoHV-4 nonpermissive infection of HeLa cells protects them against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. (ii) BoHV-4 infection of HeLa cells persists in cell culture; however, the percentage of infected cells decreases with time due to erratic transmission of the viral genome through cell division. (iii) BoHV-4 infection has no effect on the rate of HeLa cell division. Altogether, these data suggest that BoHV-4 could infect humans. This study also stresses the importance of considering the insidious effects of nonpermissive infection when the biosafety of animal gammaherpesviruses for humans is being considered. [less ▲]

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See detailL’herpèsvirus bovin 4
Markine-Goriaynoff, N.; Minner, F.; De Fays, K. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(4), 215-247

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) belongs to the Herpesviridae family, Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, Rhadinovirus genus like human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. BoHV-4 has a ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) belongs to the Herpesviridae family, Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, Rhadinovirus genus like human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. BoHV-4 has a worldwide distribution in the cattle population. It has been isolated from cattle showing various clinical signs as well as from healthy cattle. The interest of the scientific community for BoHV-4 is explained by two reasons. Firstly, BoHV-4 represents an homologous virus/host species model to study the biology of gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, the use of BoHV-4 as a recombinant vector for expression both in vitro and in vivo has been proposed. For these reasons, a considerable amount of data has been collected on this virus. In the present paper, the authors will present a general overview of the literature published on this virus addressing clinical, epidemiological and fundamental aspects of BoHV-4. Finally, in the light of their recent phylogenetic data, the authors will discuss the origin and the host species of BoHV-4 leading to the conclusion that this virus should be considered as a virus of the African buffalo rather than cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutive nuclear factor-kappa B activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes by controlling the expression of distinct Bcl-2 family proteins
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Jaspar, Fabrice ULg et al

in Blood (2002), 99(10), 3683-3691

Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activity protects quiescent mature Immune cells from spontaneous apoptosis. Here, we examined whether NF-kappaB exerts its antiapoptotic function in these ... [more ▼]

Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activity protects quiescent mature Immune cells from spontaneous apoptosis. Here, we examined whether NF-kappaB exerts its antiapoptotic function in these cells through the control of Bcl-2 family proteins. Specific pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-kappaB were used to achieve total NF-kappaB inactivation In quiescent human blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes. NF-kappaB inhibition induced drastic lymphocyte and granulocyte apoptosis, but only moderate monocyte apoptosis. T- and B-cell apoptosis was slow and associated with a gradual down-regulation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-X-L and BcI-2, respectively. By contrast, granulocyte apoptosis was fast and accompanied by a rapid cellular accumulation of Bcl-x(s), the proapoptotic Bcl-x isoform that is generated from alternative splicing of the bcl-x pre-mRNA. Finally, antisense bci-x(L) and bcl-2 knockdown in T and B cells, respectively, and induction of Bcl-xs expression in granulocytes through antisense oligonucleotide-mediated redirection of bcl-x pre-mRNA splicing were sufficient to induce significant apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results reveal that basal NF-kappaB activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes through regulation of distinct members of the Bcl-2 family. This study sheds light on the constitutive mechanisms by which NF-kappaB maintains defense integrity. (C) 2002 by The American Society of Hematology. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutive NF-kappaB activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes by controlling the expression of distinct Bcl-2 family proteins
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Jaspar, F. et al

in Proceedings: International Symposium: NF-kappaB: Regulation, Gene Expression & Disease (2001)

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