Non-random genomic integration - an intrinsic property of retrogenes in Drosophila?
Metta, Muralidhar ;
in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2010), 10(1), 114
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Drosophila X-chromosome shows a significant underrepresentation of genes with male-biased gene expression (demasculinization). This trend is matched by retrogenes, which ... [more ▼]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Drosophila X-chromosome shows a significant underrepresentation of genes with male-biased gene expression (demasculinization). This trend is matched by retrogenes, which typically have a male biased gene expression pattern and show a significant movement bias from X-chromosomes to autosomes. It is currently assumed that these patterns are best explained by selection, either mediated by male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) or sexually antagonistic forces. We scrutinized the evolutionary dynamics of retroposition by focusing on retrogenes for which the parental copy has degenerated. RESULTS: Consistent with a functional substitution of the degenerated gene by the retrogene, patterns of sequence evolution and gene expression were similar between retroposed and parental genes. Like previous studies, our set of retrogenes showed a significant movement off the X-chromosome. In contrast to data sets where retroposition caused gene duplication, the genes in our study showed primarily female-biased or unbiased gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, the biased transposition pattern cannot be explained by MSCI and probably not by sexual antagonism. Rather, we propose that the movement away from the X-chromosome represents a general property of retroposition in Drosophila. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg)
Genetic evidence from Indian red jungle fowl corroborates multiple domestication of modern day chicken.
; Metta, Muralidhar ; et al
in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2008), 8
BACKGROUND: Domestication of chicken is believed to have occurred in Southeast Asia, especially in Indus valley. However, non-inclusion of Indian red jungle fowl (RJF), Gallus gallus murghi in previous ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Domestication of chicken is believed to have occurred in Southeast Asia, especially in Indus valley. However, non-inclusion of Indian red jungle fowl (RJF), Gallus gallus murghi in previous studies has left a big gap in understanding the relationship of this major group of birds. In the present study, we addressed this issue by analyzing 76 Indian birds that included 56 G. g. murghi (RJF), 16 G. g. domesticus (domestic chicken) and 4 G. sonneratii (Grey JF) using both microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D-loop sequences. We also compared the D-loop sequences of Indian birds with those of 779 birds obtained from GenBank. RESULTS: Microsatellite marker analyses of Indian birds indicated an average FST of 0.126 within G. g. murghi, and 0.154 within G. g. domesticus while it was more than 0.2 between the two groups. The microsatellite-based phylogenetic trees showed a clear separation of G. g. domesticus from G. g. murghi, and G. sonneratii. Mitochondrial DNA based mismatch distribution analyses showed a lower Harpending's raggedness index in both G. g. murghi (0.001515) and in Indian G. g. domesticus (0.0149) birds indicating population expansion. When meta analysis of global populations of 855 birds was carried out using median joining haplotype network, 43 Indian birds of G. g. domesticus (19 haplotypes) were distributed throughout the network sharing haplotypes with the RJFs of different origins. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the domestication of chicken has occurred independently in different locations of Asia including India. We found evidence for domestication of Indian birds from G. g. spadiceus and G. g. gallus as well as from G. g. murghi, corroborating multiple domestication of Indian and other domestic chicken. In contrast to the commonly held view that RJF and domestic birds hybridize in nature, the present study shows that G. g. murghi is relatively pure. Further, the study also suggested that the chicken populations have undergone population expansion, especially in the Indus valley. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Male-biased genes are overrepresented among novel Drosophila pseudoobscura sex-biased genes.
Metta, Muralidhar ;
in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2008), 8
BACKGROUND: The origin of functional innovation is among the key questions in biology. Recently, it has been shown that new genes could arise from non-coding DNA and that such novel genes are often ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: The origin of functional innovation is among the key questions in biology. Recently, it has been shown that new genes could arise from non-coding DNA and that such novel genes are often involved in male reproduction. RESULTS: With the aim of identifying novel genes, we used the technique "generation of longer cDNA fragments from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags for gene identification (GLGI)" to extend 84 sex-biased 3'end SAGE tags that previously could not be mapped to the D. pseudoobscura transcriptome. Eleven male-biased and 33 female-biased GLGI fragments were obtained, of which 5 male-biased and 3 female-biased tags corresponded to putatively novel genes. This excess of novel genes with a male-biased gene expression pattern is consistent with previous results, which found novel genes to be primarily expressed in male reproductive tissues. 5' RACE analysis indicated that these novel transcripts are very short in length and could contain introns. Interspecies comparisons revealed that most novel transcripts show evidence for purifying selection. CONCLUSION: Overall, our data indicate that among sex-biased genes a considerable number of novel genes (approximately 2-4%) exist in D. pseudoobscura, which could not be predicted based on D. melanogaster gene models. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
No accelerated rate of protein evolution in male-biased Drosophila pseudoobscura genes.
Metta, Muralidhar ; ; et al
in Genetics (2006), 174(1), 411-20
Sexually dimorphic traits are often subject to diversifying selection. Genes with a male-biased gene expression also are probably affected by sexual selection and have a high rate of protein evolution. We ... [more ▼]
Sexually dimorphic traits are often subject to diversifying selection. Genes with a male-biased gene expression also are probably affected by sexual selection and have a high rate of protein evolution. We used SAGE to measure sex-biased gene expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Consistent with previous results from D. melanogaster, a larger number of genes were male biased (402 genes) than female biased (138 genes). About 34% of the genes changed the sex-related expression pattern between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. Combining gene expression with protein divergence between both species, we observed a striking difference in the rate of evolution for genes with a male-biased gene expression in one species only. Contrary to expectations, D. pseudoobscura genes in this category showed no accelerated rate of protein evolution, while D. melanogaster genes did. If sexual selection is driving molecular evolution of male-biased genes, our data imply a radically different selection regime in D. pseudoobscura. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Genetic characterization of the Indian cattle breeds, Ongole and Deoni (Bos indicus), using microsatellite markers - a preliminary study.
Metta, Muralidhar ; ; et al
in BMC Genetics (2004), 5
BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization of cattle breeds is important for the prevention of germplasm erosion by cross breeding. The Indian zebu cattle have their significant role in evolution of present ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization of cattle breeds is important for the prevention of germplasm erosion by cross breeding. The Indian zebu cattle have their significant role in evolution of present day cattle breeds and development of some of the exotic breeds. Microsatellites are the best available molecular tools for characterization of cattle breeds. The present study was carried out to characterize two Indian cattle breeds, Ongole and Deoni, using microsatellite markers. RESULTS: Using 5 di- and 5 tri-nucleotide repeat loci, 17 Ongole and 13 Deoni unrelated individuals were studied. Of the ten loci, eight revealed polymorphism in both the breeds. The di-nucleotide repeat loci were found to be more polymorphic (100%) than tri-nucleotide repeat loci (60%). A total of 39 polymorphic alleles were obtained at 4.5 alleles per locus in Ongole and 4.1 in Deoni. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.46 (+/-0.1) and 0.50 (+/-0.1) in Ongole and Deoni breeds, respectively. The PIC values of the polymorphic loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.79 in Ongole and 0.13 to 0.80 in Deoni breeds. Six Ongole specific and three Deoni specific alleles were identified. The two breeds showed a moderate genetic relationship between themselves with a FST value of 0.117 (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study shows that microsatellite markers are useful in distinguishing the two zebu breeds namely, Ongole and Deoni. Further studies of other zebu breeds using many microsatellite loci with larger sample sizes can reveal the genetic relationships of Indian breeds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)