References of "Messmer, Bruno J"
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See detailPrevalence of and risk factors for perioperative arrhythmias in neonates and children after cardiopulmonary bypass: continuous holter monitoring before and for three days after surgery.
Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Kreitz, Suzanna; Grabitz, Ralph G et al

in Journal of cardiothoracic surgery (2010), 5

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of postoperative arrhythmias following surgery for congenital heart disease by continuous Holter monitoring has not been carried out. We aimed, firstly, to establish ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of postoperative arrhythmias following surgery for congenital heart disease by continuous Holter monitoring has not been carried out. We aimed, firstly, to establish the time course of pre- and early postoperative arrhythmias by beat-to-beat analysis following cardiopulmonary bypass and, secondly, to examine which surgical procedures present risk factors for specific arrhythmias. METHODS: 494 consecutive patients, including 96 neonates, were studied with serial 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms before as well as uninterruptedly during the first 72 hours after surgery and prior to discharge. RESULTS: Within 24 hours of surgery 59% of the neonates and 79% of the older children developed arrhythmias. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurred in 9% of neonates and 5% of non-neonates and ventricular tachycardia in 3% and 15%, respectively.For neonates, male sex and longer cross-clamping time independently increased the risk for arrhythmias (odds ratios 2.83 and 1.96/minute, respectively). Ventricular septal defect repair was a strong risk factor for junctional ectopic tachycardia in neonates and in older children (odds ratios 18.8 and 3.69, respectively). For infants and children, older age (odds ratio 1.01/month) and closure of atrial septal defects (odds ratio 2.68) predisposed to arrhythmias of any type. CONCLUSIONS: We present the largest cohort of neonates, infants and children that has been prospectively studied for the occurrence of arrhythmias after cardiac surgery. Postoperative arrhythmias are a frequent and transient phenomenon after cardiopulmonary bypass, provoked both by mechanical irritation of the conduction system and by humoral factors. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term outcome of speech and language in children after corrective surgery for cyanotic or acyanotic cardiac defects in infancy.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Bauer, Sebastian B; Schnitker, Ralph et al

in European Journal of Paediatric Neurology : Official Journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society (2008), 12(5), 378-386

The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether outcome of speech and language in children 5-10 years after corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or ventricular septal defect (VSD ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether outcome of speech and language in children 5-10 years after corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy was influenced by the preoperative condition of hypoxemia or cardiac insufficiency and whether it was associated with perioperative risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome. A total of 35 unselected children, 19 with TOF and hypoxemia and 16 with VSD and cardiac insufficiency, operated with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass at mean age 0.7+/-0.3 (mean+/-standard deviation) years, underwent, at mean age 7.4+/-1.6 years, standardized evaluation of speech and language functions. Results were compared between subgroups and related to perioperative factors, sociodemographic and neurodevelopmental status. Age at testing, socioeconomic status and history of speech and language development were not different between the subgroups. In contrast, total scores on oral and speech motor control functions (TFS) as well as on oral and speech apraxia (Mayo Test) were significantly reduced (p<0.02 to <0.05), and scores on anatomical oral structures tended to be lower (p<0.09) in the TOF group as compared to the VSD group. No differences were found for auditory word recognition and phonological awareness as assessed by the Auditory Closure subtest of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and the test of auditory analysis skills, respectively. In all children, higher age at testing and better socioeconomic status were associated with better results in all domains of assessment (p<0.001 to <0.04). Consistent impairments of all oral and speech motor control functions (TFS and Mayo Test) were present in 29% of all children with a mean age of 6.5 years in contrast to 43% with normal performance and a mean age of 8.3 years. On the receptive speech tasks, only 6% scored below the normal range of their age group. TFS subscores were significantly correlated with age, bypass duration and motor function, but not correlated with socioeconomic status, duration of cardiac arrest, intelligence and academic achievement. Children with preoperative hypoxemia due to cyanotic cardiac defects in infancy are at higher risk for dysfunction in speech and language than those with cardiac insufficiency due to acyanotic heart defects. Age at testing, socioeconomic status, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass influenced test results. Long-term outcome in speech and language functions can be considered as a sensitive indicator of overall child development after cardiac surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional dysfunction in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Konrad, Kerstin; Skorzenski, Daniela et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2007), 83(4), 1425-1430

BACKGROUND: Attentional dysfunction in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy has rarely been evaluated and is the topic of the present work. METHODS: Forty unselected children, 20 with ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Attentional dysfunction in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy has rarely been evaluated and is the topic of the present work. METHODS: Forty unselected children, 20 with tetralogy of Fallot and hypoxemia and 20 with ventricular septal defect and cardiac insufficiency, operated on at a mean age 0.7 (SD 0.3) years with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass, were evaluated at mean age 7.4 (SD 1.6) years by the computerized form of the Attention Network Test providing performance measures of three networks of attention: alerting, orienting, and executive control. Parental ratings of attentional dysfunction were derived from the Child Behavior Checklist. Results were compared with healthy controls, between patient groups, and correlated with perioperative risk factors and current neurodevelopmental status. RESULTS: Executive control was reduced in the tetralogy of Fallot group, alerting and orienting were found normal and not different between patient groups. Durations of aortic cross clamping inversely correlated with orienting; durations of cardiopulmonary bypass correlated with mean reaction time and inversely correlated with executive control. Motor function and acquired abilities correlated with executive control and orienting. Parent-reported problems on the Child Behavior Checklist inversely correlated with executive control and mean accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Children with preoperative hypoxemia in infancy due to cyanotic cardiac defects are at increased risk for attentional dysfunction in the field of executive control, compared with normal children and with those who have acyanotic heart defects. Besides unfavorable perioperative influences, preoperative hypoxemia is considered responsible for additional damage to the highly oxygen sensitive regions of the prefrontal cortex and striate body assumed to be associated with the executive control network of attention. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects show imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity.
Heying, Ruth; van Oeveren, Wim; Wilhelm, Stefanie et al

in Critical Care (2006), 10(6), 165

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with the activation of inflammatory mediators that possess prothrombotic activity and could cause postoperative haemostatic ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with the activation of inflammatory mediators that possess prothrombotic activity and could cause postoperative haemostatic disorders. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cardiac surgery on prothrombotic activity in children undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects. METHODS: Eighteen children (ages 3 to 163 months) undergoing univentricular palliation with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) (n = 10) or a biventricular repair (n = 8) for complex cardiac defects were studied. Prothrombotic activity was evaluated by measuring plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Anti-thrombotic activity was evaluated by measuring levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) before, during, and after cardiac surgery. RESULTS: In all patients, cardiac surgery was associated with a significant but transient increase of F1+2, TxB2, TFPI, and MCP-1. Maximal values of F1+2, TxB2, and MCP-1 were found at the end of CPB. In contrast, maximal levels of TFPI were observed at the beginning of CPB. Concentrations of F1+2 at the end of CPB correlated negatively with the minimal oesophageal temperature during CPB. Markers of prothrombotic activity returned to preoperative values from the first postoperative day on. Early postoperative TFPI levels were significantly lower and TxB2 levels significantly higher in patients with TCPC than in those with biventricular repair. Thromboembolic events were not observed. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that children with complex cardiac defects undergoing cardiac surgery show profound but transient imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity, which could lead to thromboembolic complications. These alterations are more important after TCPC than after biventricular repair but seem to be determined mainly by low antithrombin III. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term neurodevelopmental outcome and exercise capacity after corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot or ventricular septal defect in infancy.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Konrad, Kerstin; Skorzenski, Daniela et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2006), 81(3), 958-66

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether neurodevelopmental status and exercise capacity of children 5 to 10 years after corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot or ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether neurodevelopmental status and exercise capacity of children 5 to 10 years after corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot or ventricular septal defect in infancy was different compared with normal children and influenced by the preoperative condition of hypoxemia or cardiac insufficiency. METHODS: Forty unselected children, 20 with tetralogy of Fallot and hypoxemia and 20 with ventricular septal defect and cardiac insufficiency, operated on with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass at a mean age of 0.7 +/- 0.3 years (mean +/- SD), underwent, at mean age 7.4 +/- 1.6 years, standardized evaluation of neurologic status, gross motor function, intelligence, academic achievement, language, and exercise capacity. Results were compared between the groups and related to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative status and management. RESULTS: Rate of mild neurologic dysfunction was increased compared with normal children, but not different between the groups. Exercise capacity and socioeconomic status were not different compared with normal children and between the groups. Compared with the normal population, motor function, formal intelligence, academic achievement, and expressive and receptive language were significantly reduced (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) in the whole group and in the subgroups, except for normal intelligence in ventricular septal defect patients. Motor dysfunction was significantly higher in the Fallot group compared with the ventricular septal defect group (p < 0.01) and correlated with neurologic dysfunction, lower intelligence, and reduced expressive language (p < 0.05 each). Reduced New York Heart Association functional class was correlated with lower exercise capacity and longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (p < 0.05 each). Reduced socioeconomic status significantly influenced dysfunction in formal intelligence (p < 0.01) and academic achievement (p < 0.05). Preoperative risk factors such as prenatal hypoxia, perinatal asphyxia, and preterm birth, factors of perioperative management such as cardiac arrest, lowest nasopharyngeal temperature, and age at surgery, and postoperative risk factors as postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency and duration of mechanical ventilation were not different between the groups and had no influence on outcome. Degree of hypoxemia in Fallot patients and degree of cardiac insufficiency in ventricular septal defect patients did not influence the outcome within the subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Children with preoperative hypoxemia in infancy are at higher risk for motor dysfunction than children with cardiac insufficiency. Corrective surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot or ventricular septal defect with combined circulatory arrest and low flow bypass is associated with reduced neurodevelopmental outcome, but not with reduced exercise capacity in childhood. In our experience, the general risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is related to unfavorable effects of the global perioperative management. Socioeconomic status influences cognitive capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term results of cardiac and general health status in children after neonatal arterial switch operation.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Ma, Qing et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2003), 75(3), 935-43

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess cardiac and general health status 8 to 14 years after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. METHODS: Sixty ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess cardiac and general health status 8 to 14 years after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. METHODS: Sixty unselected children with intact ventricular septum (78.3%) or ventricular septal defect (21.7%) without or with aortic isthmic stenosis (5.1%) were examined 10.5 +/- 1.6 (mean +/- SD) years after neonatal switch and 5.3 +/- 1.6 years after mid-term evaluation. Complete clinical examination, standard and 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram, M-mode, 2D-, Doppler, and color Doppler echocardiography were performed. Results were compared with normal values and to mid-term follow-up results. RESULTS: Rates of reoperation after arterial switch operation and operation to correct concomitant coarctation were 3.3% and 5.1%, respectively. No patient needed medication, and 93.3% had no limitation of physical activity. All children had normal height and weight; 31.6% had abnormal thoracic configuration after median sternotomy. Most patients (91.7%) were in sinus rhythm. Incidence of complete right bundle branch block (10.0%) was unchanged, as was prevalence of ectopic activity (occasional atrial ectopy 20.0%, ventricular ectopy: occasional 21.7%; frequent 1.7%). Left ventricular dimensions and shortening fraction did not change over time. Diameters of neo-aortic valve annulus and neo-aortic root did not increase, and z-scores decreased between mid-term and present evaluation. Incidence of neo-aortic insufficiency was 13.3% and remained unchanged in comparison with the pre-examination value. Neo-aortic stenosis was not seen. Compared with mid-term follow-up, incidence (41.6%) and degree of supravalvular pulmonary stenosis increased. CONCLUSIONS: Good cardiac results persist 10 years after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. Encouraging findings include preservation of left ventricular function, low incidence of rhythm disturbances, lack of further neo-aortic root dilatation, and unchanged incidence of neo-aortic insufficiency compared with mid-term follow-up. Increased incidence and degree of supravalvular pulmonary stenosis are of concern. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of proinflammatory cytokines and myocardial dysfunction after arterial switch operation in neonates with transposition of the great arteries.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F; Silvestri, Anna et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (2002), 124(4), 811-20

OBJECTIVE: Neonates undergoing cardiac surgery have a systemic inflammatory reaction with release of proinflammatory cytokines, which could be responsible for myocardial dysfunction as a result of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Neonates undergoing cardiac surgery have a systemic inflammatory reaction with release of proinflammatory cytokines, which could be responsible for myocardial dysfunction as a result of myocardial cell damage. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the production of proinflammatory cytokines during cardiac surgery would be associated with myocardial dysfunction after the arterial switch operation in neonates. METHODS: A total of 63 neonates with transposition of the great arteries were operated on with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass at a median age of 7 days. Perioperative plasma concentrations of interleukins 6 and 8 were correlated with myocardial dysfunction, as assessed clinically and by echocardiography within 24 hours after the operation, and with perioperative cardiac troponin T blood levels as a marker of myocardial cell damage. RESULTS: Myocardial dysfunction was observed in 11 patients (17.5%), and 2 of them died. Durations of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamping, but not of circulatory arrest, were correlated with myocardial dysfunction. Patients with myocardial dysfunction had significantly higher cardiac troponin T blood levels at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass and 4 and 24 hours after the operation than did patients without myocardial dysfunction. Patients with myocardial dysfunction also had higher interleukin 6 plasma concentrations after cardiopulmonary bypass and 4 hours after the operation, as well as higher interleukin 8 plasma concentrations 4 and 24 hours after the operation, than did those without myocardial dysfunction. Postoperative interleukin 6 and 8 plasma concentrations were significantly correlated with postoperative cardiac troponin T blood levels. Multivariable analysis of independent risk factors for myocardial dysfunction comprising cytokine and troponin levels and bypass duration revealed interleukin 6 levels 4 hours after the operation as significant (P =.047). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac operations in neonates stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to myocardial cell damage and myocardial dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailModerate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass increases intramyocardial synthesis of heat shock protein 72.
Qing, Ma; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F; Schumacher, Kathrin et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (2002), 124(4), 724-31

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the myocardial protective effect of moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass involves upward regulation of heat shock protein 72 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the myocardial protective effect of moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass involves upward regulation of heat shock protein 72. METHODS: Sixteen young pigs were randomly assigned to a temperature regimen during standardized cardiopulmonary bypass of normothermia or moderate hypothermia (temperatures 37 degrees C and 28 degrees C, respectively, n = 8 per group). Myocardial probes were sequentially sampled from the right ventricle before and during bypass and 6 hours after bypass. Messenger RNA encoding for heat shock protein 72 was assessed by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and heat shock protein 72 synthesis was assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by gene expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins (Bcl-xL, Bak, and Fas) according to competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Apoptotic cells were identified with an in situ apoptosis-detection kit (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) in combination with morphologic criteria. Necrotic cells were detected by standard histologic methods. RESULTS: Moderate hypothermia rather than normothermia was associated with earlier and higher gene expression and synthesis of heat shock protein 72 in the myocardium during and after cardiac surgery. In the hypothermia group both heat shock protein 72 and the messenger RNA encoding it were detected as soon as 30 minutes after initiation of bypass and before aortic clamping, whereas in the normothermia group they were not detected before aortic clamping. Immunohistochemical methods showed localization of heat shock protein 72 in the cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Although the percentage of necrotic cells in the myocardium was lower in the hypothermic group, the induction of apoptosis regulatory proteins and the percentage of apoptotic cells did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the myocardial protective effect of moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass involves upward regulation of heat shock protein 72 and inhibition of necrosis but not of apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in school-aged children after neonatal arterial switch operation.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Schnitker, Ralph et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (2002), 124(3), 448-58

OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental status of children between 8 and 14 years of age after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries has not previously been systematically ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental status of children between 8 and 14 years of age after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries has not previously been systematically evaluated. METHODS: Within a longitudinal study, 60 unselected children operated on as neonates with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass were reevaluated at the age of 7.9 to 14.3 years (mean +/- SD 10.5 +/- 1.6 years). Clinical neurologic status and standardized tests to assess gross motor function, intelligence, acquired abilities, language, and speech were carried out, and the results were related to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative status, to management, and to neurodevelopmental status at a mean age of 5.4 years. RESULTS: Neurologic and speech impairments were evidently more frequent (27% and 40%, respectively) than in the general population. Intelligence and socioeconomic status were not different (P =.29 and P =.11), whereas motor function, acquired abilities, and language were reduced (P < or =.04 for each). Overall rate of developmental impairment in one or more domains was 55%, compared with 26% at age 5.4 years. Multivariable analysis showed that severe preoperative acidosis and hypoxia predicted reduced motor function (mean deficit 52.7 points, P <.001), whereas longer bypass duration predicted both neurologic (odds ratio per 10 minutes of bypass duration 1.8, P =.04) and speech (odds ratio per 10 minutes of bypass duration 1.9, P =.02) dysfunction, and perioperative and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency predicted neurologic (odds ratio 6.5, P =.04) and motor (mean deficit 6.8 points, P =.03) dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The neonatal arterial switch operation with combined circulatory arrest and low-flow bypass is associated increasingly with age, with reduced neurodevelopmental outcome but not with cognitive dysfunction. In our experience, the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment after neonatal corrective cardiac surgery is related to deleterious effects of the global perioperative management and to special adverse effects of prolonged bypass duration. Severe preoperative acidosis and hypoxia and postoperative hemodynamic instability must be considered as important additional risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailAntegrade palliation for diminutive pulmonary arteries in Tetralogy of Fallot.
Seipelt, Ralf G; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F; Sachweh, Jorg S et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2002), 21(4), 721-4724

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome following palliative reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with diminutive pulmonary arteries ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome following palliative reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with diminutive pulmonary arteries with central and peripheral stenosis. METHODS: Between 1986 and 1999 in 15 children with the diagnosis of TOF palliative reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract without closure of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) was performed. All patients were not suitable for an AP-Shunt because of a diminutive pulmonary vascular bed. Six patients were younger than 1 year at operation. RESULTS: There was one hospital death (6.7%) in a child with additional aortic valve insufficiency in multi-organ failure. Although the postoperative course was prolonged (median duration on ICU: 8 days) and complicated by congestive heart failure, clinically the 14 patients discharged improved significantly. The arterial oxygen saturation increased from 67 to 93% (P<0.001), the hemoglobin decreased from 16.1 to 13.3g/l (P=0.02) and hematocrit from 0.52 to 0.40 (P=0.06). In control angiography, the McGoon Index increased in the average from 1.01 to 1.95 (P<0.001). VSD closure was performed in 12 patients (median: 2.5 years after initial operation) with one perioperative death. A homograft had to be implanted in seven patients and a mechanical prosthesis in the right ventricular outflow tract in one. One late death occurred due to ventricular arrhythmia 12 years after antegrade palliation (11 years after corrective operation). CONCLUSIONS: The antegrade palliation seems to be an adequate strategy for the treatment of selected children with diminutive pulmonary arteries in TOF, who were not candidates for primary correction or an AP-Shunt. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine balance in infants undergoing cardiac operation.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Schumacher, Kathrin; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2002), 73(2), 601-8608-9

BACKGROUND: The control of the systemic inflammatory response taking place during cardiac operations depends on adequate antiinflammatory reaction. In this prospective study we tested the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The control of the systemic inflammatory response taking place during cardiac operations depends on adequate antiinflammatory reaction. In this prospective study we tested the hypothesis that cytokine balance during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures would be influenced by the patients' preoperative clinical condition, defined as hypoxemia or heart failure. METHODS: Twenty infants (median age, 8 months) with hypoxemia owing to intracardiac right-to-left shunt (group 1, n = 10) or with heart failure because of intracardiac left-to-right shunt (group 2, n = 10), scheduled for elective primary corrective operation, were enrolled. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 6, the natural antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, and the markers of the acute-phase response, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, were sequentially measured before, during, and after cardiac operation up to the 10th postoperative day. The ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels served as a marker for the individual's antiinflammatory cytokine balance. RESULTS: Group 1 showed higher preoperative IL-6 (p < 0.001), lower IL-10 levels (p < 0.02), and lower ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels (p < 0.001) than group 2. Preoperative C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were not detectable. In group 1, preoperative IL-6 levels inversely correlated with preoperative oxygen saturation (Spearman correlation coefficient, -0.74, p < 0.02). During cardiopulmonary bypass, IL-6 levels were higher, whereas IL-10 and ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels were lower in group 1 than in group 2. In all patients, postoperative IL-6 levels were positively correlated with duration of inotropic support and serum creatinine value and inversely correlated with oxygenation index and diuresis. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with hypoxemia show a preoperative inflammatory state with low antiinflammatory cytokine balance in contrast to those with heart failure. This in turn is associated with lower perioperative antiinflammatory cytokine balance and might contribute to postoperative morbidity. [less ▲]

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