References of "Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBeyond the limits of a deductive approach based on ideal types and configurations
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Pichault, François ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference (2014, July)

This paper presents an original theoretical model combining ideal-types and bundles in order to apprehend a poorly studied phenomenon, the professionalization of human resource management (HRM) in social ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an original theoretical model combining ideal-types and bundles in order to apprehend a poorly studied phenomenon, the professionalization of human resource management (HRM) in social enterprises. This theoretical model elaborated from a literature review fits into a deductive approach. The first objective of this contribution is to show the added values and limits of such an a priori conceptualization. By replacing that model within the contextualist framework of analysis (Pettigrew, 1987) and by equipping that approach with adapted methodologies, some limits inherent in a deductive approach are avoided. The second goal of this paper is then to demonstrate how such a combination helps to pass over the limits of the theoretical model based on bundles and ideal types. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExplaining stakeholder involvement in social enterprise governance through resources and legitimacy
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Rijpens, Julie ULg

in Defourny, Jacques; Hulgard, Lars; Pestoff, Victor (Eds.) Social Enterprise and the Third Sector: Changing European Landscapes in a Comparative Perspective (2014)

In the continuity of stakeholder theory, much of the current literature on (corporate) governance and business ethics looks at how organizations involve their stakeholders at different decision-making ... [more ▼]

In the continuity of stakeholder theory, much of the current literature on (corporate) governance and business ethics looks at how organizations involve their stakeholders at different decision-making levels (Carroll 2004; Clarkson 1995; de Graaf & Herkströter 2007; Freeman & Reed 1983). According to Freeman (1984), stakeholders are ‘any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organization's purpose’ (148); typically: the owners, the managers, the workers, the volunteers, the financing bodies, the partners, the suppliers, the customers/beneficiaries, etc. A continuum of involvement can be highlighted, from the rather passive strategies (stakeholder information) to the more active ones (stakeholder representation). Among the latter, involvement or ‘cooptation’ of stakeholders in the governance structures such as the general assembly and the board of directors is increasingly presented as a strategy mirroring a long-term relationship between the organization and a particular stakeholder category (Mitchell et al. 1997). Traditionally, the owners are the category of stakeholders that is co-opted in the governance structures. Indeed, the power of decision is part of the property rights (Milgrom & Roberts 1992). It allows owners to ensure that the enterprise is run according to their own objectives. Thus, in for-profit enterprises, the investors are the owners and, as such, they have the right to decide. They exercise this right by their presence at the general assembly. But not all enterprises are investors-owned firms. In some enterprises, ownership is in the hand of other stakeholders, like in producer, consumer or worker cooperatives. Others, like nonprofit organizations, can even be seen as firms without owners (Hansmann 1996). This chapter raises the question of stakeholder involvement in social enterprises, which are ‘non-investor owned’ and can broadly be defined here as organizations pursuing social aims through their economic activity (Defourny 2001; Defourny & Nyssens 2006). In these organizations, the configuration of stakeholder involvement contrasts with that of for-profit businesses in at least two ways. First, social enterprises are more likely than other types of organizations to be set up through a process of collective entrepreneurship which often involves a diversity of actors who each have a ‘stake’ in the pursuit of one or several organizational missions (Defourny & Nyssens 2006; Haugh 2007; Petrella 2003). Second, social enterprises seem to have a stronger tendency to give a voice to the actors with whom they interact –i.e., to involve their beneficiaries, supporters, funders or partners within their governance structures (Campi et al. 2006; Huybrechts 2010; Münkner 2004; Rijpens 2010). They usually use legal forms that allow and encourage economic democracy by recognizing stakeholders other than investors the right to participate formally in the governance bodies. While, as suggested by Campi et al. (2006; 2012), the presence of multiple stakeholders observed in a number of social enterprises may be linked with the diverse goals pursued by these organizations, such presence –or absence– may be due to many factors which have no direct links with organizational goals. As suggested in this chapter, the organizational need for resources (in a broad sense) and the drive to conform to external expectations may be two key factors. In any case, the diversified patterns of stakeholder involvement in social enterprises confirm the need for a more comprehensive account of stakeholder involvement in these organizations. Although several attempts have been made to theorize stakeholder involvement in social enterprise governance, it is still a much under-researched topic. We believe that this research gap is due not only to the infancy stage in which social enterprise research is located, but also to a lack of connection and integration of this research within the broader study of organizations. Indeed, while new theoretical developments centered on the specific features of social enterprise are needed, these developments cannot be made independently from the knowledge built for more than a century regarding how organizations are structured and operate. This chapter aims to examine stakeholder involvement in social enterprise governance using two types of theoretical lenses each embodying a rich research tradition in organization theory. The first lens refers to strategy and examines organizations (in this case governance structures) in terms of their dependency on a set of resources. The second lens uses legitimacy arguments to explain organizational governance as a social construct located in a broader setting of social relationships. The first two sections will present each of these views and examine their contributions to understanding stakeholder involvement in the governance structures of social enterprises. Then, a comparative case study on work integration social enterprises will serve to illustrate how both research avenues can be combined so as to better grasp social enterprise governance as a complex and multi-dimensional practice. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 628 (16 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe relevance of the cooperative model in the field of renewable energy
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2014), 85(2), 193-212

This article examines the relevance of the cooperative model in the field of renewable energy (RE). RE sources have been developed since the end of the 1970s and their growth has been expansive since then ... [more ▼]

This article examines the relevance of the cooperative model in the field of renewable energy (RE). RE sources have been developed since the end of the 1970s and their growth has been expansive since then. While social-ecological movements have been instrumental in shifting the public attention towards the need for alternative energies (Sine and Lee, 2009), in most countries the sector has rapidly become dominated by corporate actors experienced in building large-scale RE projects. In an attempt to counter the corporate hegemony and to protect available lands, a range of citizen initiatives have emerged under different forms and names such as community energy groups or renewable energy (source) cooperatives (van der Horst, 2008; Willis and Willis, 2012; Lipp et al., 2012; Schreuer and Weismeier-Sammer, 2010; Weismeier-Sammer and Reiner, 2011). Pioneering examples include EWS in Germany, Enercoop in France, Energy4All in the UK, or Ecopower in Belgium. As these citizen groups tend to adopt the cooperative model, or a related form depending on the local legislation and context, it seems important to understand what are the specific features, assets and limitations of this model in the field of RE. Indeed, while ‘traditional’ cooperatives operating for a long time in fields such as banking, agriculture, or retail, have received an important attention in the cooperative literature, much work still needs to be done to understand why and how cooperatives emerge either in fields in which they have not traditionally been widespread (such as health and care, services, etc.), or in ‘new’ fields or sub-fields (such as fair trade, microfinance or renewable energy). Research is even more needed insofar as ‘new’ cooperatives tend to differ from traditional ones in several ways, for instance through the involvement of multiple stakeholders (rather than a dominant one such as producers, consumers or workers) or through a stronger orientation towards general interest goals (beyond traditional mutual interest at the basis of most cooperatives). While RE cooperatives have strongly developed in countries such as Denmark (Lipp et al., 2012), Germany (Schreuer, 2012; Weismeier-Sammer and Reiner, 2011) and to a lesser extent the UK (Aitken, 2010; Kellett, 2007; Seyfang et al., 2012; van der Horst, 2008; Willis and Willis, 2012; Walker et al., 2007), their development has been much slower in other countries, particularly Southern Europe (Lipp et al., 2012). This seems to echo, to a certain extent, the general development of RE in these countries (Haas et al., 2011). Before mapping these differences against the background of RE development in these countries, it is necessary to understand how the assets and limits of the cooperative model apply to the particular case of RE. This is precisely the aim of this article. On the one hand, the assets of the cooperative model enable to understand why this form has been adopted by citizen groups and has developed in certain countries. On the other hand, the limits or weaknesses of the model enable to explain why cooperatives are still a minority in the field of RE and why their development is constrained by obstacles in certain countries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 255 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe professionalization of HR management: towards an analytical framework for social enterprises
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

At the present time, the social enterprise sector is undergoing important changes: increased activity, diversification of social demands, increased complexity of legal framework and institutional ... [more ▼]

At the present time, the social enterprise sector is undergoing important changes: increased activity, diversification of social demands, increased complexity of legal framework and institutional landscape, transformation of public funding mechanisms (contractualisation setting up competition between providers in a quasi-market) (Dees & Elias, 1998; Mertens, 2010). At the same time, we may observe a trend towards the professionalization of social enterprises (Bode, Evers, & Schulz, 2006; Comeau & Davister, 2008; Davister, 2010; Petrella & Richez-Battesti, 2010). This movement toward professionalization brings changes, among others, with regard to evolutions in human resources management (HRM) practices (Davister, 2010; McCandless Baluch, 2012; Theuvsen, 2004): increasing formalization of procedures, developments of senior staff training, a changeover from a militant attitude on the part of directors toward a managerial attitude, development of pay-for-performance plans, etc. That concept of professionalization knows a large echo in the working world, not only in the social enterprise sector. Wilensky (1964) was already talking about the « professionalization of everyone? ». But what does professionalization mean? Various understandings of that concept co-exist. Indeed, according to Wittorski (2008), the notion refers either to the constitution of a group of people sharing the same activity (professionalization-profession), to the development of competences of a professional by its education (professionalization-training), or to the fact of “putting in movement” individuals within work contexts (professionalization-efficiency). The tendencies to professionalize have been studied but in a quite heterogeneous and fragmented way (Le Naëlou, 2004; Maier, Steinbereithner, & Meyer, 2012) with various dimensions and forms of the concept being possible. This paper intends to apprehend the professionalization of human resource management in all its complexity. Relying on the model proposed by Hatchuel and Weil (1992), we develop a nuanced approach of the professionalization of HRM, by declining the concept in three major dimensions: a technical substrate, a vision of the actors’ roles, and a managerial philosophy (Gilbert, 2012; Hatchuel & Weil, 1992; Oiry, 2006). Each of those three dimensions knows different degrees of elaboration, going from a human resource management qualified as few professionalized to one strongly professionalized. This model has to be understood as an “ideal type”, in the Weberian sense, an intellectual construction obtained by accentuation of certain traits of the considered subject (Coenen-Huther, 2003). That ideal type, that model in three dimensions, constitutes a measurement standard from which the comparison between various situations of HRM professionalization in different organisations is made possible. Two questions resume our approach: what means professionalization of human resource management (conceptual approach)? And what is the scope of the professionalization of HRM in the social enterprises sector in Wallonia (empirical results)? To answer those questions, a twofold research design is necessary. To understand more precisely what professionalization of HRM is, a strong analysis of the literature on professionalization, managerial devices and HRM allows constructing an analytical framework to apprehend the concept. But, the model also allows designing a broad picture of the human resource management in the social enterprises’ sector. For that second question, the data collection is accomplished through the administration of an online questionnaire given to a sample containing 2000 social enterprises, chosen from an exhaustive database of Belgian social enterprises . A first statistical analysis allows constructing a descriptive picture of what happen in the social enterprise sector in terms of HRM in Wallonia. In order to determine the influence of contextual elements such as the size of the organization, its level of subvention, its sector of activity, etc, cross tabulation is necessary. We will use the method of descriptive analysis by clusters that is often used in order to constitute typologies. It will enable us to isolate profiles of social enterprises in terms of their human resource management and its professionalization. By the construction of a conceptual model on the HRM professionalization, our paper contributes to enrich the understanding of that concept while apprehending its complexity. Gathering data on HRM in social enterprises is useful to design the scope of HRM professionalization. Though, that kind of data has not yet been collected and mobilized in Belgium. Our research will also contribute to better understand the influences of the organization’s size, level of subvention or sector of activity on the HRM professionalization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (11 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes spécificités managériales dans les entreprises sociales : une démarche européenne par la gestion des compétences
Cuénoud, Thibault; Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Revue Internationale de l'Economie Sociale : Recma, Revue des Etudes Coopératives, Mutualistes et Associatives (2013), 329

Few studies have looked at the nature of management in social enterprises, organisations that combine social objectives and economic constraints. How can they embrace their values in increasingly ... [more ▼]

Few studies have looked at the nature of management in social enterprises, organisations that combine social objectives and economic constraints. How can they embrace their values in increasingly difficult economic and financial times? Governance defines the overall strategy of a firm, which in turn determines the management style in relation to the parties involved. The argument put forward in this article is based on an underlying assumption that managing a social enterprise draws on specific competencies. The hypothesis was empirically validated among experts and professionals from the sector participating in the European project Leonardo Ariadne. A list of skills was assembled as a framework for this approach to facilitate the development of training courses in this area. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (16 ULg)
Full Text
See detailUne société en transition
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailManagers’ competences in social enterprises: which specificities?
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Social Enterprise Journal (2013), 9(2), 164-183

The management of an organization and the context within which this organization evolves are recognized as two important aspects of any organization. Few studies have been conducted however on the ... [more ▼]

The management of an organization and the context within which this organization evolves are recognized as two important aspects of any organization. Few studies have been conducted however on the management function within the specific context of social enterprises, organizations that mix social goals and economic imperatives (Darbus & Lazuech, 2010). This paper examines the specific competences of management in social enterprises, by constructing a competence model, the emblematic tool of competence-based management, relevant to the management of social enterprises (Colin & Grasser, 2007; Oiry & Sulzer, 2002; Retour & Rapiaux, 2006). Our hypothesis is that certain competences required of managers in social enterprises are specific, regarding the particular internal and external context of social enterprises, the governance model, etc. The methodology used is based on four main steps: a review of the literature and the conducting of exploratory interviews, the construction of a first draft of the competence model, the conducting of group interviews with managers of social enterprises in six European countries as this research takes place within the framework of a European research project on lifelong learning , and the final adaptation and validation of the competence model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (18 ULg)
See detailL'innovation portée par les entreprises sociales : source d'inspiration pour transformer l'économie ?
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailPlaidoyer universitaire pour le rail
Arnsperger, Christian; Cassiers, Isabelle; Crutzen, Nathalie ULg et al

Article for general public (2012)

[Chapeau] Le réseau ferré en Wallonie s’apparentera bientôt à un train touristique reliant deux gares Calatrava plutôt que d’assurer à chacun le droit à sa mobilité.

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes rôles des entrprises sociales dans une perspective dynamique
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Scientific conference (2012, January 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEntrepreneuriat social : enjeux pour la recherche et l'enseignement
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Scientific conference (2012, January 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe limits of the economic value in measuring the global performance of social innovation
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Marée, Michel ULg

in Nicholls Alex; Murdock Alex (Eds.) Social innovation : Blurring boundaries to reconfigure markets (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 269 (61 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa performance de l'entreprise sociale : définitions et limites d'une évaluation monétaire
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Marée, Michel ULg

in Revue Internationale P.M.E. (2012), 25(3-4), 91-122

In a social enterprise, the notion of "performance" must be understood in a broader sense than the sole financial profitability. Because enterprises of this type pursue a social mission, whose completion ... [more ▼]

In a social enterprise, the notion of "performance" must be understood in a broader sense than the sole financial profitability. Because enterprises of this type pursue a social mission, whose completion generates collective impacts, one has to go beyond what is made possible by the sole market-based indicators. This requires to revise not only the very notion of production, but also the way in which the value of what is produced by the enterprise is measured. This is the task that the authors of the present article tackle, through building a definition of performance understood as "enlarged production" – a notion which they nevertheless define with accuracy. Whenever the notion of production is enlarged so as to take into account the impacts of the latter, the question of whether this approach is also operational unavoidably arises. In particular, one must ask oneself whether the impacts that one wants to include in an enlarged conception of production are measurable. By nature, these impacts are not taken into account by the market and measuring them sends back to the classical question of the evaluation of non-market goods. The authors draw up an inventory of the various techniques of monetary evaluation of the value of non-market goods and indicate whether these techniques are likely to lead to values that are relevant to evaluate the performance of a social enterprise. They illustrate their analysis by applying this grid of analysis to the methodology of social return on investment (SROI). Because of the theoretical limits of monetary evaluation, the authors conclude that works on performance evaluation based on multi-criteria analyses must be further pursued. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 371 (54 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes associations de fait : quel poids économique ?
Marée, Michel ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Les dossers d'ASBL Actualités (2012), 14

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe financement des associations en Belgique francophone
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Marée, Michel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

En raison de la nature de leurs activités et de leur finalité non lucrative, les associations rencontrent des problèmes spécifiques de financement, que ce soit au niveau de leurs opérations courantes ou ... [more ▼]

En raison de la nature de leurs activités et de leur finalité non lucrative, les associations rencontrent des problèmes spécifiques de financement, que ce soit au niveau de leurs opérations courantes ou de leurs dépenses d'investissements. Toutefois, Il existe encore peu d'études empiriques sur cette question dans les pays francophones, de sorte que nombre d'a priori - comme par exemple le fait que les associations auraient peu de garanties à offrir aux banques - sont communément admis sans qu'ils soient validés par des données de terrain. Pour mieux cerner la problématique du financement de l'associatif dans ses dimensions concrètes, on a réalisé un premier "état des lieux" du financement du secteur associatif en Belgique francophone (Wallonie et Bruxelles) en procédant à une enquête auprès d'un échantillon représentatif. Un des enseignements de cette recherche concerne précisément les relations avec les institutions bancaires. En cas de difficultés de trésorerie, la moitié à peine des associations recourent au crédit de caisse, les autres préférant se tourner vers leurs membres, vers les pouvoirs publics ou encore vers une autre association. Moins nombreuses encore sont les associations qui s'adressent aux banques pour financer leurs investissements. Mais contrairement à l'opinion courante, la principale raison ne réside ni dans les difficultés d'obtention d'un crédit, ni dans la lourdeur des formalités nécessaires : si les associations n'empruntent guère aux banques, c'est essentiellement pour des raisons de principe (ne pas s'endetter auprès des institutions bancaires). Ces raisons sont vraisemblablement liées, d'une part, à une aversion plus marquée du risque que les PME et, d'autre part, à une prise de distance à l'égard des principes de l'économie marchande. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEntrepreneuriat social
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Defourny, Jacques ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (11 ULg)
Full Text
See detailComment se finance le secteur associatif? Résultats d'une enquête de terrain en Belgique francophone
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Marée, Michel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

Ce rapport expose les résultats d'une enquête de terrain menée en Belgique francophone fin 2010 auprès d 'environ 500 associations employeurs. Les thèmes de l'enquête concernent la situation bilantaire ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport expose les résultats d'une enquête de terrain menée en Belgique francophone fin 2010 auprès d 'environ 500 associations employeurs. Les thèmes de l'enquête concernent la situation bilantaire des associations, le financement des dépenses courantes, le financement des dépenses d'investissement, la situation de trésorerie et les apports non monétaires. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 153 (21 ULg)
See detailAtouts et limites des entreprises sociales
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailManagers’ competences in social enterprises: what specificities?
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference (2011, July 04)

In any enterprise, the manager keeps a determining and real leeway which is susceptible to stimulate, give directions to the organization (Pichault, 2009), and is determining in the capability to innovate ... [more ▼]

In any enterprise, the manager keeps a determining and real leeway which is susceptible to stimulate, give directions to the organization (Pichault, 2009), and is determining in the capability to innovate (King, 1990; Osborne, 1998; Schin & McClomb, 1998). That leadership style needs therefore to be adapted to the specific internal context of the organization (Schmid, 2006). The paper examines what are the specific competencies of the manager in social enterprises, by constructing a competencies model, the emblematic tool of the competence-based management, relevant to social enterprises (Collin & Grasser, 2007; Retour & Rapiaux, 2006; Oiry & Sulzer, 2002). Our hypothesis is standing that certain competencies mobilized by managers in social enterprises are specific, regarding to the particular internal and external context of social enterprises, etc. First of all, we propose a theoretical competencies model for the managers in social enterprises, based on a review of the literature and the conduction of 12 semi-structured interviews of experts and managers. Then, we propose a competencies model for the manager in social enterprises. Finally, group interviews with some managers of social enterprises are conducted in various European countries as this research takes place in a European research on long-life learnings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRenewable Energy Source Cooperatives (REScoops): Assets, Obstacles and Diffusion Strategies
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference (2011, July)

While the ability of social enterprises to generate innovative solutions to social and environmental needs is increasingly documented (eg., Defourny 2001; Harrisson & Vézina 2006; Nicholls 2006), little ... [more ▼]

While the ability of social enterprises to generate innovative solutions to social and environmental needs is increasingly documented (eg., Defourny 2001; Harrisson & Vézina 2006; Nicholls 2006), little is known about the processes through with social enterprises diffuse and institutionalize their innovations. These processes are important not only to understand institutionalized fields of practice (eg. Bouchard 2006), but also –and even more– to inform the creation of new fields through the diffusion (or „scaling up‟) of social innovations (Maguire et al. 2004; Mulgan et al. 2007). Institutionalization dynamics are at the core of „institutional theory‟, more particularly its recent agency-based developments, commonly grouped under the banner of „institutional entrepreneurship‟ (Battilana et al. 2009) or „institutional work‟ (Lawrence & Suddaby 2006). This approach seems particularly adequate to understand the emergence of new fields through the development of interorganizational collaborations, which enable the diffusion and replication of structures and practices across the field (Lawrence et al. 2002; Phillips et al. 2000). Fields centered on social innovations offer good examples of these dynamics (Mair & Marti 2006), with collaborations observed both among social enterprises pioneering the innovation (Davies 2009) and between social enterprises, governments (eg. Young 2000) and businesses (eg. Di Domenico et al. 2009; Le Ber & Branzei 2010). This paper examines the role of social enterprises in creating and diffusing innovative institutional arrangements in the field of renewable energy sources (RES). While social (ecological) movements have been instrumental in shifting the public attention towards the need for alternative energies (Sine & Lee 2009), the sector has in most countries become dominated by corporate actors experienced in building large-scale RES projects. In an attempt to counter the corporate hegemony and to protect available lands, a range of citizen initiatives have emerged under the term of REScoops (Coen 2010). Although not very numerous, these initiatives seem particularly efficient in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and may reach a large scale at the local level. Moreover, they seem particularly innovative in terms of organizational models, conceived as multi-stakeholder and cooperative schemes involving citizens, municipalities and local economic players. In the contest around new field boundaries and dominance (Santos & Eisenhardt 2009), including recognition by the government, we examine the legitimating strategies of social enterprises in having their organizational arrangements (= social innovations) recognized as a superior avenue to the management of RES (= technological innovation), especially in terms of democracy and participation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 134 (8 ULg)