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See detailOn the role of interfacial reactions, dissolution and secondary precipitation during the laser additive manufacturing of metal matrix composites - A Review
Mertens, Anne ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Shishkovsky, I.V. (Ed.) 3D printing (working title) (in press)

Since current trends in the transportation, energy or mechanical industries impose increasingly demanding service conditions for metallic parts, metal matrix composites (MMC) are the object of a growing ... [more ▼]

Since current trends in the transportation, energy or mechanical industries impose increasingly demanding service conditions for metallic parts, metal matrix composites (MMC) are the object of a growing interest. Powder-based laser additive manufacturing, that allows to make parts with complex shapes, appears particularly adapted for the production of MMCs. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in the production of MMCs by additive processes, with the aim of assessing the potentials and difficulties offered by these techniques. Two main processing routes are envisaged i.e. (1) the processing of ex-situ composites in which the reinforcing phase as a powder – often of ceramic particles − is directly mixed with the powder of the matrix alloy, and both powders are simultaneously processed by the laser. (2) Alternatively, the reinforcing phase can be produced in-situ by a chemical reaction during the fabrication of the composite. For both processing routes, a careful control is needed to overcome challenges brought e.g. by the behaviour of the reinforcement particles in the laser beam, by changes in laser absorptivity or by the dissolution of the reinforcing particles in the molten metal, in order to produce metal matrix composites with enhanced usage properties. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Elaboration of Metal-Ceramic Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding
Mertens, Anne ULg; L'Hoest, Thibaut; Magnien, Julien et al

in Materials Science Forum (in press)

This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into the elaboration, by the additive process known as laser cladding, of composite coatings with a matrix of stainless steel 316L reinforced with varying ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into the elaboration, by the additive process known as laser cladding, of composite coatings with a matrix of stainless steel 316L reinforced with varying contents of tungsten (WC) or silicon carbides (SiC) particles. Laser cladding is characterised by ultra-fast solidification and cooling rates, thus giving rise to ultra-fine out-of-equilibrium microstructures and potentially enhanced mechanical properties. Both types of composite coatings – i.e. with SiC or WC ‒ are compared in terms of their microstructures and hardness. Special attention is given to the dissolution of the carbides particles and to interfacial reactions taking place between the particles and the metallic matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Laser Cladding of Ti Alloy Ti-6Al-4V with Low Laser Power
Mertens, Anne ULg; Paydas, Hakan ULg; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg et al

in Ventakesh, V.; Pilchak, A.L.; Allison, J.E. (Eds.) et al Proc. of the 13th World Conference on Titanium (2016, May 06)

Laser cladding is an economic layer-by-layer near-net-shape process for the production and the repair of metallic parts. In this process, a metallic powder is projected onto a substrate while being molten ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is an economic layer-by-layer near-net-shape process for the production and the repair of metallic parts. In this process, a metallic powder is projected onto a substrate while being molten by a laser beam. Laser sources with fairly high power – i.e. typically 2kW − are often used to ensure short building times and high productivity. However, this approach has limitations. Indeed, it is very difficult to produce thin walls at high laser power. Moreover, an increase of the incident energy may give rise to a relatively coarser microstructure, and this will in turn affect the mechanical properties of the component. In order to address these issues, this paper aims at assessing the potential of a laser source with a lower maximum power of 300W to enhance the flexibility of the process. Two types of samples – i.e. thin walls or bulk deposits − were produced at low laser power from alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Their geometry, microstructures and local hardness are characterised and correlated with the thermal history experienced during fabrication. [less ▲]

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See detailRAPPORT FINAL - Portefeuille de projets TipTopLam
Gravet, Denis; Carton, Marc; Contrepois, Quentin et al

Report (2016)

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See detailRefractory ceramic molds fabrication by additive methods for low and high melting point metal alloys casting
Bister, Geoffroy; Deschuyteneer, Dorian; Hautcoeur, Dominique et al

Conference (2016, March 23)

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See detailLocal thermal history during the laser additive manufacturing of steel
Mertens, Anne ULg; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULg; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg et al

Conference (2016, February 09)

Laser additive manufacturing techniques – such as laser cladding − were developed in the late 1990s as economic layer-by-layer near-net-shape processes allowing for the production or restoration of ... [more ▼]

Laser additive manufacturing techniques – such as laser cladding − were developed in the late 1990s as economic layer-by-layer near-net-shape processes allowing for the production or restoration of complex metallic parts. These techniques are characterised by ultra-fast solidification and cooling rates, thus giving rise to ultra-fine out-of-equilibrium microstructures with potentially enhanced mechanical properties. However, the general quality of a component, as well as its dimensional accuracy, microstructure and final usage properties are strongly influenced by the local thermal history experienced during fabrication. As a consequence, a deeper understanding of the influence of the various processing parameters on the local thermal history during fabrication is of paramount importance, and it can only be reached by combining detailed experimental studies and modeling. Keeping this in mind, the present paper reviews on-going investigations carried out in the Metallic Materials Science Unit of the University of Liege in the laser additive manufacturing of HSS and of stainless steel 316L. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent issues in the processing of Ti alloy Ti6Al4V by laser additive manufacturing techniques
Mertens, Anne ULg

Learning material (2015)

This powerpoint presentation was used as teaching material in a seminar given as part of the course “Advanced Manufacturing technologies” at Université catholique de Louvain. It outlines important current ... [more ▼]

This powerpoint presentation was used as teaching material in a seminar given as part of the course “Advanced Manufacturing technologies” at Université catholique de Louvain. It outlines important current issues in the development of additive technologies for the processing of metallic materials in general, and particularly of Ti alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This includes issues related to the dimensional accuracy of the produced components, as well as the control of their microstructures and usage properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser cladding as repair technology for Ti6Al4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness
Paydas, Hakan ULg; Mertens, Anne ULg; Carrus, Raoul et al

in Materials & Design (2015), 85

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology. Both the effect of the building strategy (BS) and the incident energy (IE) on the metallurgical characteristics of the deposits in relation to their complex thermal history have been studying. It is shown that for the configuration consisting in a decreasing track length (DTL) under high IE, a gradient of cooling rate exists that leads to the presence of different phases within the microstructure. Conversely homogeneous microstructures are present either for the configuration with a constant track length (CTL) under high IE, and for the strategy obtained from a DTL under low IE. Depending on the possible heat accumulation the nature of the phases are determined together with hardness maps within the deposits. Some qualification criteria are set prior to tensile tests to selected the adequate candidate-deposit that does not weaken the cladded material when it is stressed. A thermo-metallurgical scheme is proposed that helps understanding the effect of both the BS and the IE on the microstructure. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of alumina foundry moulds by additive manufacturing for low and high melting points alloys prototypes
Bister, Geoffroy; Deschuyteneer, Dorian; Hautcoeur, Dominique et al

Poster (2015, October 26)

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See detail2D Thermal model of powder injection laser cladding of high speed steels (HSS)
Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULg; Gilles, Gatën; Tomé Jardin, Ruben Antonio ULg et al

Conference (2015, October 23)

A two-dimensional multi-layer model for the transient temperature field analysis of Laser cladding process is developed. This model allows studying the thermal field of the multilayer deposits during ... [more ▼]

A two-dimensional multi-layer model for the transient temperature field analysis of Laser cladding process is developed. This model allows studying the thermal field of the multilayer deposits during their development by laser, and the "flat" substrate on which the deposition is carried. [less ▲]

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See detailTipTopLam - Rapid manufacturing laser de pièces en titane (2008-2015), volet 1: Caractérisation microstructurale
Carton, Marc; Contrepois, Quentin; Mertens, Anne ULg et al

Report (2015)

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See detailMetal matrix nanocomposite coatings for improving the usage properties of metallic materials
Mertens, Anne ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

Conference (2015, January)

The use of metal matrix nanocomposite is at the present time not as widespread as for their polymer-based counterparts. Yet, the addition of nanoparticles in a metallic matrix also allows to significantly ... [more ▼]

The use of metal matrix nanocomposite is at the present time not as widespread as for their polymer-based counterparts. Yet, the addition of nanoparticles in a metallic matrix also allows to significantly improve its usage properties, thus opening new and interesting prospects in terms of applications. This presentation aims at providing a broad overview of the various usage properties that can be enhanced by the addition of nanoparticles as illustrated by a number of examples taken from the scientific literature as well as from the researches carried out by the Metallic Materials Science Unit at the University of Liege. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal Treatments of AlSi10Mg Processed by Laser Beam Melting
Mertens, Anne ULg; Dedry, Olivier ULg; Reuter, David et al

in Bourell, Dave (Ed.) Proceedings of the 26th International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (2015)

Recent studies have shown that AlSi10Mg processed by Laser Beam Melting (LBM) exhibits a much finer microstructure when compared to its cast counterpart as a consequence of the much faster cooling rates ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that AlSi10Mg processed by Laser Beam Melting (LBM) exhibits a much finer microstructure when compared to its cast counterpart as a consequence of the much faster cooling rates imposed in the LBM process. Such microstructural refinement causes a significant increase in strength and hardness, to such an extent that as-fabricated LBM AlSi10Mg was reported to present hardness value of 127 ± 3 Hv0.5, similar to the hardness of high pressure die cast AlSi10Mg in the aged condition (i.e. 130-133 Hv). Yet, little attention has been given so far to the influence of thermal treatments on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of LBM AlSi10Mg. The present work hence aims to investigate the effect of two different types of heat treatments – i.e. (i) stress relief and (ii) solutionizing and ageing − on the microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of LBM AlSi10Mg. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Fibre Distribution and Grain Size on the Mechanical Behaviour of Friction Stir Processed Mg-C Composites
Mertens, Anne ULg; Simar, Aude; Adrien, Jérôme et al

in Materials Characterization (2015), 107

Short C fibres-Mg matrix composites have been produced by friction stir processing sandwiches made of a layer of C fabric stacked between two sheets of Mg alloy AZ31B or AZ91D. This novel processing ... [more ▼]

Short C fibres-Mg matrix composites have been produced by friction stir processing sandwiches made of a layer of C fabric stacked between two sheets of Mg alloy AZ31B or AZ91D. This novel processing technique can allow the easy production of large-scale metal matrix composites. The paper investigates the microstructure of FSPed C fibre-Mg composites in relation with the fragmentation of the C fibres during FSP and their influence on the tensile properties. 3D X-ray tomography reveals that the fibres orient like onion rings and are more or less fragmented depending on the local shear stress during the process. The fibre volume fraction can be increased from 2.3% to 7.1% by reducing the nugget volume, i.e. by using a higher advancing speed in AZ31B alloy or a stronger matrix alloy, like AZ91D alloy. A higher fibre volume fraction leads to a smaller grain size which brings about an increase of the composite yield strength by 15 to 25%. However, a higher fibre volume fraction also leads to a lower fracture strain. Fracture surface observations reveal that damage occurs by fibre/matrix decohesion along fibres oriented perpendicularly to the loading direction. [less ▲]

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See detailAl/stainless-invar composites with tailored anisotropy for thermal management in light weight electronic packaging
Ryelandt, Sophie; Mertens, Anne ULg; Delannay, Francis

in Materials & Design (2015), 85

Composite plates in which the low CTE phase has the shape of a honeycomb are anticipated to present optimum anisotropy of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity for baseplates in electronic packaging ... [more ▼]

Composite plates in which the low CTE phase has the shape of a honeycomb are anticipated to present optimum anisotropy of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity for baseplates in electronic packaging. This design is explored by choosing an invar alloy for the low CTE phase. In order to allow the formation of a passivation layer protecting from reaction with liquid Al during squeeze casting, the honeycomb is made of the Cr-rich alloy commonly called “stainless-invar”. Composite plates containing 20vol% and 38vol% stainless invar were processed using honeycombs with the same thickness over cell side ratio. Experimental CTE values are significantly lower than the predictions of three different thermo-elastic models. The very limited amplitude of the strain hysteresis precludes the occurrence of global plastic yielding in the matrix. It appears that, owing to the high contiguity of the low CTE phase, the low value of the experimental CTE results from void closing and opening by localised plastic flow. A honeycomb volume fraction of 38% is necessary for bringing the average CTE down to the level suitable for packaging applications. The ratio of transverse thermal conductivity to density then amounts to about half of the performance of the best Al/SiC composites. [less ▲]

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See detailModification de la microstructure des métaux après déformation plastique : Restauration et recristallisation
Mertens, Anne ULg

Learning material (2014)

Cette présentation powerpoint vient compléter et illustrer les notes du cours MECA0473-1 "Ingénierie des matériaux métalliques" traitant de l'évolution de la microstructure des métaux suite à une ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation powerpoint vient compléter et illustrer les notes du cours MECA0473-1 "Ingénierie des matériaux métalliques" traitant de l'évolution de la microstructure des métaux suite à une déformation plastique telle que celle imposée typiquement par un procédé de mise en forme comme le laminage. Les phénomènes de restauration et de recristallisation sont discutés en détails du point de vue tant de leurs mécanismes que de leurs cinétiques. Le vieillissement des aciers après déformation est également abordé. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Introduction to the Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Materials - Two Case Studies on the Processing of Stainless Steel 316L and of Ti Alloy Ti-6Al-4V
Mertens, Anne ULg

Learning material (2014)

This powerpoint presentation was used as teaching material in a seminar given as part of the course “Ingénierie des matériaux métalliques” at Université de Liège. It outlines important current issues in ... [more ▼]

This powerpoint presentation was used as teaching material in a seminar given as part of the course “Ingénierie des matériaux métalliques” at Université de Liège. It outlines important current issues in the developments of additive technologies for the processing of metallic materials by discussing two case studies from researches carried out by the Metallic Materials Science Unit (ULg). In particular, two different metallic alloys, i.e. stainless steel 316L and Ti-6Al-4V, have been processed by laser beam melting under similar conditions, and their microstructures and mechanical behaviours have been compared in details. Under the investigated conditions, Ti-6Al-4V exhibits a more complex behaviour than stainless steel 316L with respect to the occurrence of microstructural and mechanical anisotropy. Moreover, Ti-6Al-4V appears more sensitive to the build-up of internal stresses when compared with stainless steel 316L, whereas stainless steel 316L appears more prone to the formation of “lack of melting” defects. This correlates nicely with the difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials. Thermal conductivity was also shown to increase strongly with increasing temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailAdditive Manufacturing of Metallic Materials: Case Studies in the Processing of Stainless Steel 316L and of Alloy Ti-6Al-4V by Laser Beam Melting
Mertens, Anne ULg

Learning material (2014)

This powerpoint presentation was used as teaching material in a seminar given as part of the course “Compléments de fabrication mécanique et FAO” at Université catholique de Louvain. It outlines important ... [more ▼]

This powerpoint presentation was used as teaching material in a seminar given as part of the course “Compléments de fabrication mécanique et FAO” at Université catholique de Louvain. It outlines important current issues in the developments of additive technologies for the processing of metallic materials by discussing two case studies from researches carried out by the Metallic Materials Science Unit (ULg). In particular, two different metallic alloys, i.e. stainless steel 316L and Ti-6Al-4V, have been processed by laser beam melting under similar conditions, and their microstructures and mechanical behaviours have been compared in details. Under the investigated conditions, Ti-6Al-4V exhibits a more complex behaviour than stainless steel 316L with respect to the occurrence of microstructural and mechanical anisotropy. Moreover, Ti-6Al-4V appears more sensitive to the build-up of internal stresses when compared with stainless steel 316L, whereas stainless steel 316L appears more prone to the formation of “lack of melting” defects. This correlates nicely with the difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials. Thermal conductivity was also shown to increase strongly with increasing temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessing metallic materials by additive technologies - Specificities of the thermal history and microstructures
Mertens, Anne ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

Additives technologies currently attract a growing interest as they are particularly versatile and well adapted for the production of small series e.g. of metallic parts. Beyond the great diversity of the ... [more ▼]

Additives technologies currently attract a growing interest as they are particularly versatile and well adapted for the production of small series e.g. of metallic parts. Beyond the great diversity of the concerned processes (laser beam melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding…) and metallic alloys, some common features may be highlighted: (1) the strong directionality of additive processes, due to the fact that parts are fabricated “layer-by-layer”; (2) the ultra-fast heating and cooling cycles, following the displacement of the beam(s) away from the working zone. The present paper aims at illustrating these two major features of additive techniques through case studies involving the most common metallic alloys (steels, Al- or Ti-based alloys…), thus highlighting the opportunities pertaining to additive technologies for the optimisation of materials microstructures and of the resulting properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (15 ULg)