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Direct control service from residential heat pump aggregation with specified payback Georges, Emeline ; Cornélusse, Bertrand ; Ernst, Damien et al in Proceedings of the 19th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC) (2016, June) This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service is defined by a 15 minute power modulation, upward or ... [more ▼] This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service is defined by a 15 minute power modulation, upward or downward, followed by a payback of one hour and 15 minutes. The service modulation is relative to an optimized baseline that minimizes the energy costs. The potential amount of modulable power and the payback effect are computed by solving mixed integer linear problems. Within these problems, the building thermal behavior is modeled by an equivalent thermal network made of resistances and lumped capacitances whose parameters are identified from validated models. Simulations are performed on 100 freestanding houses. For an average 4.3 kW heat pump, results show a potential of 1.2 kW upward modulation with a payback of 600 Wh and 150 Wh of overconsumption. A downward modulation of 500 W per house can be achieved with a payback of 420 Wh and 120 Wh of overconsumption. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 35 (8 ULg)Flexibility services in the electrical system Mathieu, Sébastien Doctoral thesis (2016) The work presented in this thesis considers the electrical flexibility from the electric load to its usage as a commodity. The conception of the European electrical system has led to a large amount of ... [more ▼] The work presented in this thesis considers the electrical flexibility from the electric load to its usage as a commodity. The conception of the European electrical system has led to a large amount of actors that are impacted by flexibility exchanges. This thesis proposes approaches to assess the impact of exchanging flexibility in the electrical system and analyzes the complex interactions resulting from these exchanges. The modeling techniques used to carry the analysis are optimization, game theory and agent-based modeling. The impacts on different parts of the electrical system are presented: the day-ahead energy market, the secondary reserve and the distribution system. Since flexibility is the base block of this thesis, two methods to obtain flexibility from actual consumption processes are broached: direct control of the loads and dynamic pricing. One chapter provides an example of how flexibility can be obtained by the direct control of a portfolio of heat pumps and another chapter studies the control of electric heaters and boilers via the use of a simple price signal. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 135 (40 ULg)Flexibility services in the electrical system - presentation Mathieu, Sébastien Speech/Talk (2016) This thesis assesses the impact of exchanging flexibility in the electrical system and analyzes the complex interactions that may result from these exchanges. The impacts on different parts of the ... [more ▼] This thesis assesses the impact of exchanging flexibility in the electrical system and analyzes the complex interactions that may result from these exchanges. The impacts on different parts of the electrical system are presented: the day-ahead energy market, the secondary reserve and the distribution system. The modeling techniques used to carry the analysis are optimization, game theory and agent-based modeling. Since flexibility is the base block of this thesis, two methods to obtain flexibility from an actual consumption process are broached: direct control of a portfolio of heat pumps and dynamic pricing to control electric heaters and boilers. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 397 (21 ULg)DSIMA: A testbed for the quantitative analysis of interaction models within distribution networks Mathieu, Sébastien ; Louveaux, Quentin ; Ernst, Damien et al in Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks (2016), 5 This article proposes an open-source testbed to simulate interaction models governing the exchange of flexibility services located within a distribution network. The testbed is an agent-based system in ... [more ▼] This article proposes an open-source testbed to simulate interaction models governing the exchange of flexibility services located within a distribution network. The testbed is an agent-based system in which the distribution system operator, the transmission system operator, producers and retailers make their decisions based on mixed-integer linear programs. This testbed helps to highlight the characteristics of an interaction model, the benefits for the agents and eases the detection of unwanted or abusive behaviors which decreases the welfare. The testbed is implemented in Python and the optimization problems are encoded in the modeling language ZIMPL. A web interface is coupled with an instance generator using macroscopic parameters of the system such as the total power production. This testbed is, therefore, well suited to test the implemented interaction models on various scenarios and to extend the implementation to other models. Five interaction models developed with industrial partners are simulated over a year on a 75-bus test system. Simulations show that interaction models relying on active network management, as they have been developed, lead to substantial welfare even though they suffer from a lack of coordination between the DSO and the TSO. A conservative interaction model restricting grid users to an access range that is computed ahead of time to prevent any congestion, avoids shedding distributed generation but considerably restrains the amount of distributed production. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 418 (35 ULg)Macroscopic analysis of interaction models for the provision of flexibility in distribution systems Mathieu, Sébastien ; Ernst, Damien ; Cornélusse, Bertrand in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2015 (2015, June) To ease the transition towards the future of distribution grid management, regulators must revise the current interaction model, that is, the set of rules guiding the interactions between all the parties ... [more ▼] To ease the transition towards the future of distribution grid management, regulators must revise the current interaction model, that is, the set of rules guiding the interactions between all the parties of the system. Five interaction models are proposed, three of them considering active network management. This paper evaluates the economic efficiency of each model using macroscopic representation of the system, by opposition to more techniques requiring a complete picture of the system. The interaction models are simulated on the horizon 2015-2030. Results show that for the first five years all the models provide similar economic efficiency. For the remaining ten years, interaction models implementing active network management provide up to a 10% higher economic efficiency. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 155 (23 ULg)Optimal Assignment of Off-Peak Hours to Lower Curtailments in the Distribution Network Merciadri, Luca ; Mathieu, Sébastien ; Ernst, Damien et al in Proceedings of the 5th European Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) (2014, October) We consider a price signal with two settings: off-peak tariff and on-peak tariff. Some loads are connected to specific electricity meters which allow the consumption of power only in off-peak periods ... [more ▼] We consider a price signal with two settings: off-peak tariff and on-peak tariff. Some loads are connected to specific electricity meters which allow the consumption of power only in off-peak periods. Historically, off-peak periods were located during the night and on-peak periods during the day. Changing the assignment of off-peak periods is an easy method for distribution system operators to access to the flexibility of small consumers. This solution can be implemented quickly as the infrastructure needed already exists in some countries. We propose a mixed-integer linear model to assign optimally the off-peak hours so as to minimize a societal cost. This cost gathers together the cost of electricity, the financial losses due to energy curtailments of photovoltaic installations and the loads' wellbeing. Our model considers automatic tripping of inverters and constraints of the electrical distribution networks. Simulation results show that the new disposition of off-peak hours could reduce significantly the photovoltaic energy curtailed in the summer. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 118 (26 ULg)A quantitative analysis of the effect of flexible loads on reserve markets Mathieu, Sébastien ; Louveaux, Quentin ; Ernst, Damien et al in Proceedings of the 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC) (2014, August) We propose and analyze a day-ahead reserve market model that handles bids from flexible loads. This pool market model takes into account the fact that a load modulation in one direction must usually be ... [more ▼] We propose and analyze a day-ahead reserve market model that handles bids from flexible loads. This pool market model takes into account the fact that a load modulation in one direction must usually be compensated later by a modulation of the same magnitude in the opposite direction. Our analysis takes into account the gaming possibilities of producers and retailers, controlling load flexibility, in the day-ahead energy and reserve markets, and in imbalance settlement. This analysis is carried out by an agent-based approach where, for every round, each actor uses linear programs to maximize its profit according to forecasts of the prices. The procurement of a reserve is assumed to be determined, for each period, as a fixed percentage of the total consumption cleared in the energy market for the same period. The results show that the provision of reserves by flexible loads has a negligible impact on the energy market prices but markedly decreases the cost of reserve procurement. However, as the rate of flexible loads increases, the system operator has to rely more and more on non-contracted reserves, which may cancel out the benefits made in the procurement of reserves. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 253 (39 ULg)A combinatorial branch-and-bound algorithm for box search Mathieu, Sébastien ; Louveaux, Quentin in Discrete Optimization (2014), 13 Considering a set of points in a multi-dimensional space with an associated real value for each point, we want to find the box with the maximum sum of the values of the included points. This problem has ... [more ▼] Considering a set of points in a multi-dimensional space with an associated real value for each point, we want to find the box with the maximum sum of the values of the included points. This problem has applications in data mining and can be formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. We propose a branch-and-bound algorithm where the bounding is obtained by combinatorial arguments instead of the traditional linear relaxation. Computational experiments show that this approach competes with current state of the art mixed-integer solvers. The algorithm proposed in this paper may be seen as a simple and dependence-free method to solve the box search problem. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 81 (26 ULg)An efficient algorithm for the provision of a day-ahead modulation service by a load aggregator Mathieu, Sébastien ; Ernst, Damien ; Louveaux, Quentin in Proceedings of the 4th European Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) (2013, October) This article studies a decision making problem faced by an aggregator willing to offer a load modulation service to a Transmission System Operator. This service is contracted one day ahead and consists in ... [more ▼] This article studies a decision making problem faced by an aggregator willing to offer a load modulation service to a Transmission System Operator. This service is contracted one day ahead and consists in a load modulation option, which can be called once per day. The option specifies the range of a potential modification on the demand of the loads within a certain time interval. The specific case where the loads can be modeled by a generic tank model is considered. Under this assumption, the problem of maximizing the range of the load modulation service can be formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem. A novel heuristic-method is proposed to solve this problem in a computationally efficient manner. This method is tested on a set of problems. The results show that this approach can be orders of magnitude faster than CPLEX without significantly degrading the solution accuracy. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 157 (37 ULg)A computationally efficient algorithm for the provision of a day-ahead modulation service by a load aggregator Mathieu, Sébastien ; Karangelos, Efthymios ; Louveaux, Quentin et al Poster (2012, October 08) We study a decision making problem faced by an aggregator willing to offer a load modulation service to a Transmission System Operator (TSO). In particular, we concentrate on a day-ahead service ... [more ▼] We study a decision making problem faced by an aggregator willing to offer a load modulation service to a Transmission System Operator (TSO). In particular, we concentrate on a day-ahead service consisting of a load modulation option, which can be called by the TSO once per day. The option specifies the maximum amplitude of a potential modification on the demand of the loads within a certain time interval. We consider the specific case where the loads can be modeled by a generic tank model whose inflow depends on the power consumed by the load and outflow is assumed to be known the day before for every market period. The level of the reservoir at the beginning of the market day is also assumed to be known. We show that, under these assumptions, the problem of maximizing the amplitude of the load modulation service can be formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem (MILP). In order to solve this problem in a computationally efficient manner we introduce a novel heuristic-method. We test this method on a set of problems and demonstrate that our approach is orders of magnitude faster than CPLEX - a state-of-the-art software for solving MILP problems - without considerably compromising the solution accuracy. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 76 (19 ULg) |
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