References of "Massart, Sébastien"
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See detailMultiple analyses of microbial communities applied to the gut of the wood-feeding termite Reticulitermes flavipes fed on artificial diets
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Mattéotti, Christel et al

in Symbiosis (2015)

The purpose of this work was the observation of the differences between the microbial communities living in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes fed on different diets. The termites were fed on ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work was the observation of the differences between the microbial communities living in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes fed on different diets. The termites were fed on poplar wood (original diet) and artificial diets consisting of crystalline cellulose (with and without lignin), α-cellulose (with and without lignin) and xylan. The termites were then dissected and the protist communities were analyzed through microscopy, leading to the conclusion that protist species are strongly influenced by diets. BIOLOG ECO Microplates® were used to assess the metabolic properties of the different types of consortia, highlighting strong differences on the basis of principal component analysis and calculation of similarity rates. The microorganisms were cultivated in liquid media corresponding to the artificial diets before being characterized through a metagenetic analysis of gut microbiota (16S ribosomal DNA). This analysis identified several phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, OP9, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, TM6, Tenericutes, Verrucomicrobia and WS3. The OTUs were also determined and confirmed the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia. It was possible to isolate several strains from the liquid media, and one bacterium and several fungi were found to produce interesting enzymatic activities. The bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. XAvLW produced α-amylase, β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase and filter paper-cellulase, while the fungi Sarocladium kiliense CTGxxyl and Trichoderma virens CTGxAviL generated the same activities added with endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpowering NGS technologies for the study and diagnostic of plant viruses - European COST Action FA1407
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Gentit, Pascal; Olmos, Antonio et al

Poster (2015, June)

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See detailStudy of essential oil activity on Curvularia sp. a rice leaf spot pathogen in Madagascar
Mamiharisoa Razanakoto, Léa ULg; Parisi, Olivier ULg; Massart, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 19)

Rice leaf spot have been observed on many fields during survey of rice diseases in three regions in Madagascar. Curvularia sp. was the most frequently isolated pathogen from the most severe diseased ... [more ▼]

Rice leaf spot have been observed on many fields during survey of rice diseases in three regions in Madagascar. Curvularia sp. was the most frequently isolated pathogen from the most severe diseased samples. This pathogen has been reported worldwide to cause important losses. Then in this work, we study the possibility to develop an alternative method to control Curvularia sp. Plants or plant extracts have been traditionally used to control human and plant diseases. Nowadays, the problem of residues of phytopharmaceutical products, reinforce the need for research on the development of natural plant extracts to control plant diseases. Madagascar has many endemic plants of interest. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils from Malagasy aromatic plants were evaluated. The main steps of this study are (i) the in-vitro screening of 39 Malagasy essential oils to control this pathogen, (ii) the evaluation of the phytotoxicity (on rice plants) of the efficient essential oils and (iii) the in vivo test of the activity of these non phytotoxic essential oils on Curvularia sp. on rice seedlings. The activity of essentials oils on Curvularia sp. has been tested in vitro during a microscale ELISA plate bioassay using optical density for a rapid evaluation of the biofungicidal activity of the extracts. Essential oils that showed interesting antifungal effect on this pathogen were tested for their phytotoxicity on rice plants. Briefly, one to two drop(s) of essential oils were applied on 3 leaves leaves of three weeks rice seedling. Six essential oils over the 39 tested showed an interesting antifungal activity with a percentage of growth inhibition greater than 70%. Three essential oils tested were phytotoxic as they induced necrotic spots on rice leaves after 48 h. Among three essential oils left, one of them showed an important effect when applied on rice seedling inoculated with a conidial suspension of Curvularia sp. These results confirmed that some essential oils present an antifungal activity. And even some of them are phytotoxic on rice plants, some essential oils show interesting potential to be an alternative method against rice diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailPasseport santé pour bananier
Massart, Sébastien ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailEquipements remarquable: Passeport santé pour bananier
Massart, Sébastien ULg

in 15e Jour du Mois (Le) (2015), (242),

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See detailA novel sub-phylum method discriminates better the impact of crop management on soil microbial community
Degrune, Florine ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

in Agronomy for Sustainable Development (2015)

Soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizae and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on crop productivity. Agricultural practices are known to impact soil microbial communities, but ... [more ▼]

Soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizae and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on crop productivity. Agricultural practices are known to impact soil microbial communities, but past studies examining this impact have focused mostly on one or two taxonomic levels, such as phylum and class, thus missing potentially relevant information from lower levels. Therefore we propose here an original, sub-phylum method for studying how agricultural practices modify microbial communities. This method involves exploiting the available sequence information at the lowest taxonomic level attainable for each operational taxonomic unit. In order to validate this novel method we assessed microbial community composition using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA genes, then we compared the results with results of a phylum-level analysis. Agricultural practices included conventional tillage, reduced tillage, residue removal and residue retention. Results show that, at the lowest taxonomic level attainable, tillage is the main factor influencing both bacterial community composition, accounting for 13% of the variation, and fungal community composition, accounting for 18% of the variation. Whereas phylum-level analysis failed to reveal any effect of soil practice on bacterial community composition, and missed the fact that different members of the same phylum responded differently to tillage practice. For instance, the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota showed no impact of soil treatment, while sub-phylum-level analysis revealed an impact of tillage practice on the Chytridiomycota sub-groups Gibberella, which includes a notorious wheat pathogen, and Trichocomaceae. This clearly demonstrates the necessity of exploiting the information obtainable at sub-phylum level when assessing the effects of agricultural practice on microbial communities. [less ▲]

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See detailChemotherapy-driven dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome
Montassier, E.; Gastinne, T.; Vangay, P. et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2015)

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See detailBiological control in the microbiome era: Challenges and opportunities
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Jijakli, Haissam ULg

in Biological Control (2015), 89

Biocontrol research has long been focused on the study of single strains of biocontrol agents (BCAs) and on their interaction with pathogens and host plants. Further focus on plant-associated microbial ... [more ▼]

Biocontrol research has long been focused on the study of single strains of biocontrol agents (BCAs) and on their interaction with pathogens and host plants. Further focus on plant-associated microbial communities was suggested several years ago, but significant advances only occurred recently. The advent of high-throughput sequencing (or next-generation sequencing – NGS) technologies is now driving a paradigm change that allows researchers to integrate microbial community studies into the traditional biocontrol approach. This integration could answer old scientific questions, and will raise new biocontrol hypotheses. Microbial communities could impact disease control through their interaction with host plants, pathogens, and BCAs. A better understanding of these interactions will provide unexpected opportunities to develop innovative biocontrol methods against plant pathogens. For example, formulation or timing of BCA application can be improved, ‘‘helper’’ microbial strains can be selected, or molecules driving the microbiota to a pathogen-resistant composition (‘‘prebiotic’’ approach) can be developed. The five main challenges of microbiome implementation in biocontrol research are also described, i.e. (i) the management of technical errors and biases, (ii) the growing importance of bioinformatics, (iii) the adaptation of experimental schemes, (iv) the appropriate interplay between NGS and other technologies, and (v) the need to complete current genome databases [less ▲]

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See detailVirus indexing and sanitation of international banana collection: insights from a 5-years collaborative effort
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Parmenter, Kathleen; Vandenhouwe, Ines et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailVolatile organic compounds emitted by Cavendish and Plantain banana plants
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Kherkhofs, Celine; Berhal, Chadi et al

Poster (2015)

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See detailCOST Action FA1407: Empowering NGS technologies for the study and diagnostic of plant viruses
Olmos, Antonio; Boonham, Neil; Büttner, Carmen et al

Poster (2015)

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See detailDetecting microbial patterns in relation to soil agricultural practices and the plant development stage
Degrune, Florine ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2014, December 02)

Agricultural practices have a strong impact on soil bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, microbial community composition can change with the stage of plant development. We are interested in exploring these ... [more ▼]

Agricultural practices have a strong impact on soil bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, microbial community composition can change with the stage of plant development. We are interested in exploring these effects in relation to changes induced by agriculture and plant stage in soil conditions. Some bacteria are influenced only by the plant stage, which induces changes in soil humidity, pH, nitrates, and carbon. We would thus expect these bacteria to be highly sensitive to these parameters. Other bacteria are affected only by the tillage practice applied. Further study is needed to identify the soil parameters responsible for this effect. The plant stage also has a great impact on fungal community composition. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic des viroses et séquençage haut-débit : vers un changement de paradigme ?
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Olmos, Antonio; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

in Virologie (2014), 18(V), 247-250

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See detailVirus indexing and sanitation of international banana collection: insights from a 5-year collaborative effort
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Parmenter, Kathleen; Vandenhouwe, Ines et al

Conference (2014, August 14)

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See detailHigh Throughput sequencing and biological research: Paradigm switches from genetics to ecophysiology
Massart, Sébastien ULg

Scientific conference (2014, June)

A technological revolution is ongoing in sequencing and is deeply impacting biological research. This leads to paradigm switches in traditional « sequencing-friendly » areas, like genetic or microbiology ... [more ▼]

A technological revolution is ongoing in sequencing and is deeply impacting biological research. This leads to paradigm switches in traditional « sequencing-friendly » areas, like genetic or microbiology, but also expands the usefulness of sequencing in other areas such as ecophysiology or ecology. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh throughput sequencing of aphid haemolymph reveals endosymbiont diversity
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Leonard, Simon; Joncour, Pauline et al

Conference (2014, May 20)

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See detailSreening of essential oils against rice pathogens isolated from Madagascar
Mamiharisoa Razanakoto, Léa ULg; De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Massart, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Four predominant isolated pathogens have been identified during survey of rice diseases in three regions in Madagascar. These pathogens were the bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Pseudomonas ... [more ▼]

Four predominant isolated pathogens have been identified during survey of rice diseases in three regions in Madagascar. These pathogens were the bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae and the fungi Alternaria sp. and Curvularia lunata. These pathogens are causing significant yield reduction on rice, which is the staple food in this country. After the identification of those pathogens, the objective of this work was to identify appropriate control measures against them. Plants extracts has been traditionally used to control diseases in other plant species. Nowadays, the problem of residues of phytopharmaceutical product, reinforce the need for research on the development of natural plant extracts to control plant diseases. Madagascar has many endemic plant of interest and we have evaluated the antimicrobial properties of essential oils from Malagasy plants. The main object of this study is the in-vitro screening of essential oils to control the pathogens isolated on rice in Madagascar. Thirty nine essentials oils from Madagascar had been tested. Activity of essentials oils on Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Alternaria sp. and Curvularia lunata had been tested using broth media and on agar medium for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The growth of the pathogen (bacteria and conidia) in the presence of the essential oil was evaluated and compared to a control. Nine of the 39 essentials oils showed interesting antimicrobial activity with an efficiency more than 70% against at least one bacterial pathogen. One essential oil inhibited the growth of the two pathogens tested. For fungal pathogens, three essential oils presented an efficiency of more than 70% against at least one fungal pathogen. These results confirm that some essential oils present an interesting antimicrobial activity. The in-situ confirmation on plant of this activity is currently ongoing. [less ▲]

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See detailBiofilter in aquaponics
Delaide, Boris ULg; Lambrechts, Paul Emile ULg; Willaert, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture (fish farming) and hydroponics (horticulture). In this concept, the fish faeces and excreted ammonia are partially transformed into soluble nutrients which then ... [more ▼]

Aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture (fish farming) and hydroponics (horticulture). In this concept, the fish faeces and excreted ammonia are partially transformed into soluble nutrients which then are available for plants. Wastewater from aquaculture is filtrated by plants and return to the fish tank in a loop cycle. This strongly reduces the use of water and increases the economic efficiency with an additional production of plant, e.g. vegetables. From the hydroponics view, this combination allows important decreases in chemical nutrients use for plant grow. A central part of this system is the biofilter. The microorganisms that colonize it are essential to process the fish waste into soluble nutrients easily assimilated by plants. During this process, nitrifying bacteria convert free ammonia into nitrite and then nitrate. The first objective of this research will concern the identification and isolation of the main microorganism species involved by the dilution plating and metagenomics technics. The optimal conditions to process the fish waste will be determined for such microorganism. The efficiency of nitrite and nitrate production by these micro-organisms will be tested in different conditions (T°, pH, O2, water flow, support, etc..) in vitro at the lab scale and in aquaponics prototypes. [less ▲]

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