Pathophysiological mechanisms of dominant and recessive GLRA1 mutations in hyperekplexia.
; Vanbellinghen, Jean-François ; et al
in Journal of Neuroscience (2010), 30(28), 9612-20
Hyperekplexia is a rare, but potentially fatal, neuromotor disorder characterized by exaggerated startle reflexes and hypertonia in response to sudden, unexpected auditory or tactile stimuli. This ... [more ▼]
Hyperekplexia is a rare, but potentially fatal, neuromotor disorder characterized by exaggerated startle reflexes and hypertonia in response to sudden, unexpected auditory or tactile stimuli. This disorder is primarily caused by inherited mutations in the genes encoding the glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha1 subunit (GLRA1) and the presynaptic glycine transporter GlyT2 (SLC6A5). In this study, systematic DNA sequencing of GLRA1 in 88 new unrelated human hyperekplexia patients revealed 19 sequence variants in 30 index cases, of which 21 cases were inherited in recessive or compound heterozygote modes. This indicates that recessive hyperekplexia is far more prevalent than previous estimates. From the 19 GLRA1 sequence variants, we have investigated the functional effects of 11 novel and 2 recurrent mutations. The expression levels and functional properties of these hyperekplexia mutants were analyzed using a high-content imaging system and patch-clamp electrophysiology. When expressed in HEK293 cells, either as homomeric alpha1 or heteromeric alpha1beta GlyRs, subcellular localization defects were the major mechanism underlying recessive mutations. However, mutants without trafficking defects typically showed alterations in the glycine sensitivity suggestive of disrupted receptor function. This study also reports the first hyperekplexia mutation associated with a GlyR leak conductance, suggesting tonic channel opening as a new mechanism in neuronal ligand-gated ion channels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg)
Mutations in PYCR1 cause cutis laxa with progeroid features.
; ; et al
in Nature Genetics (2009), 41(9), 1016-21
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity ... [more ▼]
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity mapping in several kindreds with ARCL identified a candidate region on chromosome 17q25. By high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, we detected disease-causing mutations in the gene PYCR1. We found that the gene product, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism, localizes to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential and increased apoptosis rate upon oxidative stress were evident in fibroblasts from affected individuals. Knockdown of the orthologous genes in Xenopus and zebrafish led to epidermal hypoplasia and blistering that was accompanied by a massive increase of apoptosis. Our findings link mutations in PYCR1 to altered mitochondrial function and progeroid changes in connective tissues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg)