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See detailSensation-seeking and impulsivity in young and older adults' decision making
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Marczewski, Philippe

in Brain & Cognition (2003), 51(2), 237-239

The somatic marker hypothesis asserts that decision-making processes involve emotion. Using a gambling task that models real-life decisions, studies showed that old adults perform less efficiently than ... [more ▼]

The somatic marker hypothesis asserts that decision-making processes involve emotion. Using a gambling task that models real-life decisions, studies showed that old adults perform less efficiently than younger adults, by adopting a strategy that is disadvantageous on the long term. This study aimed at re-examining the age effect on decisionmaking with the same paradigm, and to explore whether differences are related to sensation-seeking and impulsivity traits of personality. Young and older adults were compared on the gambling task (Bechara, Damasio, & Damasio, 2000a), and on questionnaires of sensationseeking and impulsivity. Results confirmed an age effect on the gambling task performance. Moreover, performance in both young and older adults on this task was correlated to scores on the sensation-seeking scale, but not to the rating of impulsivity [less ▲]

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See detailFurther exploration of the mere exposure effect in Alzheimer's disease
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2001, March 25), Suppl. 58

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See detailAging and recognition processes
Bastin, Christine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Marczewski, Philippe

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2001), 13(Supplemental), 68

The aim of our study was twofold : to explore the effect of aging on recollection and familiarity and to compare two procedures for testing recognition (the yes-no and forced choice procedures). We ... [more ▼]

The aim of our study was twofold : to explore the effect of aging on recollection and familiarity and to compare two procedures for testing recognition (the yes-no and forced choice procedures). We administered a yes-no and a forced choice recognition task using unfamiliar faces as material to 32 young subjects (mean age: 23) and 32 older adults (mean age: 64.28). During the recognition phase, participants were asked to classify each recognised item as one that evoked a Remember response, a Know response or a Guess response. The results indicated significant age differences on global performance in the yes-no recognition task, but not in the forced choice task. Moreover, older adults gave less Remember responses and slightly more Know responses than young subjects. Our findings are consistent with previous studies indicating a reduction of recollection with aging. Concerning the contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition as a function of the test format, participants in each age group used more Remember responses in the yes-no task than in the forced choice task and more Know responses in the forced choice than in the yes-no task. Our results seem to support the assumption that the contribution of recollection and familiarity depends on the type of testing procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure et fonctionnement de la mémoire : une approche neuropsychologique
Marczewski, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Confrontations Psychiatriques (2000), 41

Memory in not a unified system. It's composed of independant but interacting systems. Cognitive neuropsychology showed dissociations between these systems in patients with various brain lesions. The ... [more ▼]

Memory in not a unified system. It's composed of independant but interacting systems. Cognitive neuropsychology showed dissociations between these systems in patients with various brain lesions. The episodic memory system is devoted to the processing of personally lieved events. The predominant role played by frontal regions in underlying episodic memory has been fully documented. Moreover, the episodic memory disfunctions may lead to illusions of memory such as false memories, confabulations or hallucinations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relationships between episodic memory, working memory, and executive functions: The contribution of the prefrontal cortex
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Marczewski, Philippe et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2000), 40(4), 275-297

Discusses the neurophysiological functions of the prefrontal cortex related to memory processes. Functional brain imaging studies have revealed that distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex are engaged ... [more ▼]

Discusses the neurophysiological functions of the prefrontal cortex related to memory processes. Functional brain imaging studies have revealed that distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex are engaged in episodic memory operations, with some regions apparently part of multiple networks subserving different memory abilities. The prefrontal cortex is also involved in shifting processes. Working memory processes within the dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortex are organized according to the type of processing required rather than the nature of the information being processed. The binding of contextual information, both incidentally and intentionally, is the most crucial process involved in episodic memory. Inhibition control involves not only bilateral prefrontal areas, but also posterior regions and subcortical structures, but the specific role of the cerebral areas is not clear at present. [less ▲]

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