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See detailTypology of the Main Fungal Diseases Affecting Winter Wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (2012), 2

Over the 2003-2009 period, field campaigns were carried out in order to identify the main fungal diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Four fungal diseases ... [more ▼]

Over the 2003-2009 period, field campaigns were carried out in order to identify the main fungal diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Four fungal diseases (septoria leaf blotch (SLB), wheat leaf rust (WLR), wheat powdery mildew (WPM) and fusarium head blight (FHB)) were observed and a regional-based typology was established according to their severity and prevalence. In the Gutland (South), SLB severity was strong (about 51% on average) and higher than the severity (about 16%) prevailing in the Oesling (North). Similar typology was observed with the WLR: high severity in the Gutland (66% and 57% for the years 2003 and 2007, respectively) and low severity (< 1%) in the Oesling. The FHB was also present in the Eastern part of the Gutland, with a prevalence and severity significantly higher (P = 0.049 and P = 0.012, respectively, Tukey’s test) compared with their values in the Oesling. On the other hand, the WPM severity was high in the Oesling (15% to 40%) while less than 1% in the Gutland. Such a study is important for the spatial mapping of wheat fungal diseases risk based on agroclimatic parameters and for defining optimal frequencies and dates of chemical treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailWheat disease forecasting using weather radar observations
Mahtour, Abdeslam; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Delobbe, Laurent et al

Poster (2012, June)

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See detailMaladies du blé d'hiver au Luxembourg Les interactions entre climat, sol et phytotechnie montrent l'importance primordiale du facteur climat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2012), 650

Malgré sa petite taille, le GDL est caractérisé par deux régions très contrastées en ce qui concerne les maladies cryptogamiques du blé d’hiver. Une analyse en composante principale a permis d’analyser la ... [more ▼]

Malgré sa petite taille, le GDL est caractérisé par deux régions très contrastées en ce qui concerne les maladies cryptogamiques du blé d’hiver. Une analyse en composante principale a permis d’analyser la distribution des maladies cryptogamiques entre le Gutland et l’Oseling. La distribution des maladies cryptogamiques est significativement différente (P < 0.001) entre le Gutland et l’Oesling. Entre 2003 et 2009, la septoriose et la rouille brune sont des maladies qui caractérisent le Gutland avec respectivement comme pourcentage 51 et 17%. Dans l’Oesling, la sévérité de ces maladies était très faible et n’atteignait même pas 1%. A l’opposé, l’Oesling est caractérisée par l’installation de l’Oïdium surtout en 2003 et 2009 avec respectivement 15 et 40% de sévérité alors cette maladie ne dépassait pas 1% de sévérité en Gutland. Parallèlement à ces maladies, d’autres pathogènes fongiques sont observées uniquement en Gutland et les maladies qu’ils causent sont influencées par la phytotechnie. Il s’agit de l’helminthosporiose et de la rouille jaune avec comme caractéristique le contournement du gène de résistance Yr 17+. La variation dans l’expression des maladies cryptogamiques entre le Gutland et l’Oesling est surtout due aux différences marquées des conditions climatiques entre les deux régions mais aussi aux pratiques agricoles en vigueur (fumure azotée, choix variétal, semis avec labour ou sans labour….). [less ▲]

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See detailRegional-based typology of the main fungal diseases affecting winter wheat.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

Poster (2011, August 06)

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See detailNew method for establishing a network of operational warning of Septoria leaf blotch disease in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Defosse, Philippe et al

Poster (2011, August 06)

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See detailNew method for establishing a network of operational warning of Septoria leaf blotch disease in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Phytopathology (2011), 101

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, based on commonly available meteorological data and assessing in real time the risk of progression of septoria leaf blotch disease on winter wheat has been developed in ... [more ▼]

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, based on commonly available meteorological data and assessing in real time the risk of progression of septoria leaf blotch disease on winter wheat has been developed in Belgium and the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg (GDL) to limit fungicide use. However, the reliability of meteorological stations used for the warning system varies according to the distance to the fields. A weather analysis based on the Fourier transform highlighted a great difference in the intraday variation between two sites in the GDL (Everlange and Reuland). The correlation between these two sites is very high for the hourly temperature (R = 0.96), and for the hourly relative humidity (RH) (R = 0.86), (P < 0.05). However, the intraday variation (<11 hours) highlights contrasts for a given meteorological parameter. Hence, the correlation between temperature or RH decreased respectively from 0.96 to 0.43 and from 0.86 to 0.30. The comparison between infection conditions given by PROCULTURE using the Fourier transform, shows: (i) a positive but weak correlation between temperature at Reuland and Everlange (R = 0.64), (ii) a good correlation between RH for these two sites (R = 0.86), and (iii) a contrasted difference for rain (R = 0.27), (P < 0.05). This Fourier transform based method enables to take into account the RH and temperature variation related to topography levels in the warning system and to understand and explain the variation in disease expression between a plateau and a valley bottom or between North and South slopes. [less ▲]

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See detailSite-specific Septoria Leaf Blotch Risk Assessment in Winter Wheat using Weather-Radar Rainfall Estimates
Mahtour, Abdeslam ULg; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Delobbe, Laurent et al

in Plant Disease (2011), 10.1094/PDIS-07-10-0482

The Septoria leaf blotch prediction model PROCULTURE was used to assess the impact on simulated infection rates when using rainfall estimated by radar instead of rain gauge measurements. When comparing ... [more ▼]

The Septoria leaf blotch prediction model PROCULTURE was used to assess the impact on simulated infection rates when using rainfall estimated by radar instead of rain gauge measurements. When comparing infection events simulated by PROCULTURE using radar- and gauge-derived data, the probability of detection (PODs) of infection events was high (0.83 on average), and the false alarm ratio (FARs) of infection events was not negligible (0.24 on average). For most stations, FARso of infection events decreased to 0 and PODso increased (0.85 on average) when the model outputs for both datasets were compared against visual observations of disease symptoms. An analysis of 148 infection events over three years at four locations showed no significant difference in the number of infection events of simulations using either dataset, indicating that, for a given location, radar estimates were as reliable as rain gauges for predicting infection events. Radar also provided better estimates of rainfall occurrence over a continuous space than weather station networks. The high spatial resolution provides radar with an important advantage that could significantly improve existing warning systems. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional-based typology of the main fungal diseases affecting winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Phytopathology (2011), 101

Despite its small territory size, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL) has several microclimates that result in a variability of disease severity between the South (Gutland) and the North (Oesling ... [more ▼]

Despite its small territory size, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL) has several microclimates that result in a variability of disease severity between the South (Gutland) and the North (Oesling). Septoria leaf blotch disease of wheat is an important disease in the GDL. Over 2003–2009, the severity was strong in Gutland (51% on average over the last two upper leaves at the late milk growth stage) and low in the Oesling (16% for the same leaves). For the years 2006, 2008 and 2009, the disease severity was less than 6% in the Oesling while it exceeded 40% in the Gutland. The second fungal disease that has become economically important is the wheat leaf rust. Over the same period, the Gutland and the Oesling showed consistently the highest and lowest disease severity respectively. In 2003 and 2007, the Gutland showed the highest disease severity with 66% and 57% respectively, whereas the lowest severity (<1%) was observed in the Oesling. Another important disease is wheat powdery mildew. The 2003 and 2009 cropping seasons showed the highest disease severity with 15% and 40%, respectively, in the Oesling whereas less than 1% severity was registered in the Gutland. Fusarium head blight was also present in the eastern part of the Gutland showing the highest prevalence and severity in 2007 and 2008 (8.5% and 8.3% respectively). These prevalence and severity percentages were significantly higher compared to the Oesling (% prevalence % severity, p = 0.049 and p = 0.012, respectively, Tukey’s test). [less ▲]

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See detailSITE – SPECIFIC MONITORING FOR DISEASE FORECASTING IN WINTER WHEAT.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2011), 93(Supplement 1), 19-20

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See detailTime spray strategies for Septoria Leaf Blotch disease progress on winter wheat: the use of forecasting model
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

Conference (2010, August 07)

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See detailAssessment of the night weather parameters and their use in forecasting model of leaf rust.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

Conference (2010, August 07)

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See detailAssessment Of The Night Weather Parameters And Their Use In Forecasting Model Of Wheat Leaf Rust.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Phytopathology (2010), (100), 32

A stochastic model was developed to predict the wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) severity (percentage of leaf area with symptoms showing uredinia) in four-replicated field experiments located ... [more ▼]

A stochastic model was developed to predict the wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) severity (percentage of leaf area with symptoms showing uredinia) in four-replicated field experiments located in three villages (Diekirch district: Reuler; Grevenmacher district: Burmerange and Christnach), representative of the different agroclimatological zones of Luxembourg. The model was elaborated by the analysis of the night weather and leaf rust incidence. Statistical validation using regression analysis reports a strong correlation between the number of hours with specific meteorological conditions and the percentage leaf area covered by brown rust lesions for the two upper and youngest leaves, which are mostly responsible for photosynthesis activity and assimilates production filling the grains. The development of the brown rust requires a period of at least twelve consecutive hours with temperatures between 8 and 16°C and a relative humidity (RH) greater than 60%, with optimal values lying between 12 and 16°C and RH greater than 80%. <br />During the 2004 to 2009 period, at four sites, the linear regression between simulated and observed values for Puccinia triticina was highly significant (P < 0.01) and R2 (coefficient of determination) explained 80 to 85% of the variability. Efforts are now being developed to better define thresholds for fungicide applications and to spatialize the outputs of the model over the entire Luxembourg territory. [less ▲]

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See detailTime spray strategies for Septoria leaf blotch disease progress on winter wheat: The use of forecasting model
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Phytopathology (2010), 100

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, for assessing in real time the risk of progression of Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola) on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was used in Grand ... [more ▼]

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, for assessing in real time the risk of progression of Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola) on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was used in Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg over 2003 to 2009 to simulate disease progression in the canopy at four-replicated field experiments located in three villages (Diekirch district: Reuler; Grevenmacher district: Burmerange and Christnach), representative of the different agroclimatological zones of Luxembourg. This model has been developed in order to guide field observations on the different leaf layers and to find the optimum time of fungicide spray in fields. The model provides information which explains disease progression on the upper leaves. The relationship between disease control by fungicides and yield loss varies from site-to-site and from season-to-season. A weekly PROCULTURE recalibration is routinely done using actual disease levels observed on site. On average, no spray of fungicides or only one application is required to control efficiently the septoria leaf blotch disease. The PROCULTURE forecasts have been validated to be correct in about 85% of all cases. The treatment defined with the simulation model over 2003 to 2009 gave an earning grain yield (80%) more than the other treatments tested and as important as the double treatment for Everlange, Christnach and Burmerange. At Reuler, over 2003 to 2009, treatments based on the Septoria risk simulation model were recommended only in 2007. The climatic conditions of this site tend to favour organic farming in this region where the evolution of the foliar disease is very weak. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Accuracy of Simulation Model for Septoria Leaf Blotch Disease Progress on Winter Wheat.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Delfosse, Philippe; Maraite, Henri et al

in Plant Disease (2009), 93

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, for assessing the development of each of the last five leaf layers and the progress of Septoria leaf blotch, caused by Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella ... [more ▼]

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, for assessing the development of each of the last five leaf layers and the progress of Septoria leaf blotch, caused by Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola), has been applied on susceptible and weakly susceptible winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars in two locations (Everlange and Reuland) in Luxembourg over a 3-year period (2000 to 2002). A double performance assessment of PROCULTURE was conducted in this study. First, the capability of PROCULTURE to correctly simulate S. tritici incidence was checked. Second, the model's ability to accurately estimate disease severity was assessed on the basis of the difference between simulated and observed levels of disease development at each leaf layer. The model accurately predicted disease occurrence in the 2000 and 2002 seasons, on susceptible and semi-susceptible cultivars, with a probability of detection (POD) exceeding 0.90. However, in 2001, even though the POD never fell below 0.90, the false alarm ratio (FAR) was too high to consider the simulations satisfactory. Concerning the evaluation of disease severity modeling, statistical tests revealed accurate simulations performed by PROCULTURE for susceptible cultivars in 2000 and 2002. By contrast, for weakly susceptible cultivars, the model overestimated disease severity, especially for the upper leaves, for the same period. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical Analysis of the night weather conditions favouring the epidemic of the brown rust in the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Maraite, Henri et al

in Italian Journal of Agronomy/ Rivista di Agronomia (2008), 3

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See detailPotential and requirement of the interactive web-based decision support system « Proculture » for field specific Mycosphaerella graminicola control in winter wheat
Maraite, Henri; Moreau, Jean-Marc; Calay, Frédéric et al

Conference (2004, May 11)

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