References of "Maréchal, Pierre-Yves"
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See detailEcological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1),

Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (vulpin des champs) a toujours été une préoccupation majeure pour les céréaliculteurs et le développement de la résistance aux herbicides n’améliore pas la situation. Cet ... [more ▼]

Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (vulpin des champs) a toujours été une préoccupation majeure pour les céréaliculteurs et le développement de la résistance aux herbicides n’améliore pas la situation. Cet article de synthèse résume les différents critères impliqués dans les modèles de dispersion d’individus de vulpin des champs au sein d’un champ ou d’une population sensible. Pour ce faire, le cycle complet du vulpin est décrit de la semence à la semence. Depuis le développement végétatif précoce jusqu’à la chute de la graine, chaque étape est décrite en prenant en compte comment la résistance aux herbicides peut influencer ou exercer un impact différent par rapport à des plantes sensibles. [less ▲]

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See detailPOLLEN DISPERSAL ABILITIES OF ALS TARGET-SITE RESISTANT BLACK-GRASS (ALOPECURUS MYOSUROIDES HUDS.)
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

Poster (2011, September 05)

Target-Site Resistant (TSR) black-grass individuals were introduced in a field, at different growing stages to be synchronised with autochthonous population. Patches of susceptible black-grass were ... [more ▼]

Target-Site Resistant (TSR) black-grass individuals were introduced in a field, at different growing stages to be synchronised with autochthonous population. Patches of susceptible black-grass were created by setting protective canvas on few areas (from 0,5 up to 32m²), during herbicide spraying and they were removed afterwards. Those patches were disposed along rays starting from the introduction point at distances from 2 to 128 meters. In those patches, local black-grass grew regularly and was able to receive some pollen from the resistant individuals, located in the centered emitting area. The herbicide field treatment (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron : 15+3 g.a.i.ha-1) was efficient, confirming that the local population is susceptible to ALS inhibitors, was preceded by another herbicide treatment targeting only broad-leaves weeds, performed on the entire field, including patches, such as the rest of cultural practices such as fertilization, and fungicide and insecticide treatment. All seeds were harvested in each patches separately and tested in glasshouse. Seed samples were sprayed with sulfometuron, herbicide active ingredient known not to be affected by non-target site resistance, in a way to detect the percentage of resistant black-grass that can be engendered after the introduction of TSR individuals and to determine the distance resistant pollen can cover. DNA analyses were performed on surviving plants to confirm the presence of the mutation. [less ▲]

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See detailCrossing abilities of ALS Target-Site Resistant Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides HUDS.)
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2011)

Black-grass crossings were conducted outdoor for two successive years in a way to determine the percentage of resistant black-grass that can be engendered in one generation, after the introduction of one ... [more ▼]

Black-grass crossings were conducted outdoor for two successive years in a way to determine the percentage of resistant black-grass that can be engendered in one generation, after the introduction of one Target-Site resistant individual. After germination, plants were genotyped and couples of resistant and susceptible individuals were formed, then planted outdoor and enclosed with a pollen-proof cloth to avoid any external pollen contamination. Seeds were collected and tested in glasshouses with herbicide spraying. DNA analyses were also performed on surviving plants to distinguish hetero- from homozygotes. The resistance level of the progeny seems to be fairly high and Mendelean distribution is generally confirmed. The offspring of self-crossings was also observed to assess the facultative autogamy ability, according to the genotype and the presence of mutant ALS alleles (position W-574). [less ▲]

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See detailETUDE DE L’HÉRÉDITÉ DE LA RÉSISTANCE PAR MUTATION DE CIBLE AUX HERBICIDES INHIBITEURS DE L’ALS CHEZ LE VULPIN DES CHAMPS (ALOPECURUS MYOSUROIDES HUDS.)
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Annales de la 21ème Conférence du COLUMA journées internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes (2010, December 08)

Target-site resistance heredity in black-grass was assessed by observing the percentage of resistant individuals engendered by crossings. After germination, plants were genotyped as homo- or heterozygote ... [more ▼]

Target-site resistance heredity in black-grass was assessed by observing the percentage of resistant individuals engendered by crossings. After germination, plants were genotyped as homo- or heterozygote for the W574 mutation on the ALS gene, which induces herbicide resistance. Individuals were then transplanted outdoor and crossed between one another and with other individuals issued from a population known as susceptible. To avoid an external pollen contamination, plants were enclosed within pollen-proof clothing during flowering time. Allogamy rate was also tested, by isolating heads one by one. Seeds issued from these crossings were collected and tested in glasshouses. Their DNA was also analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment influence on herbicide resistance level of Belgian Alopecurus myosuroides populations (black-grass)
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2009, May 19), 74(2), 505-514

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. Therefore, farmers ... [more ▼]

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. Therefore, farmers started to spray herbicide intensively and soon cases of failure occurred for different molecules and different modes of action. Black-grass populations have been tested in greenhouses to assess the influence of an herbicide treatment as to the resistance level regarding three different herbicides: chlortoluron, fenoxaprop-P and mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron. Black-grass seeds were collected in field trials in six locations in Belgium, on individuals which have survived the herbicide treatment. Each population comes from trial plots, measuring 2 meters wide by 5 meters long and characterized by a single or a combination of products. Herbicides sprayed were isoproturon, flufenacet+diflufenican, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. Seeds were also collected in the untreated plots. The population present in these last ones corresponds to the former population, before the herbicide selection pressure was applied. In the glasshouse assay, this population was used as the standard population to compare with other populations issued from the same field. The 'R' rating system was set up with this population to assess the evolution of resistance level, year in, year out. Rothamsted and Peldon populations were also included as cross-reference. Each field population presented different behaviours towards herbicide applied in greenhouses and some cases of resistance can be highlighted. Generally, a reduction of treatment efficiency between field and greenhouse results was clearly visible for the whole of studied active ingredients. Indeed, a distribution shift of the populations towards higher resistance classes could be observed. This is particularly remarkable for active ingredients sharing the same mode of action. For example, it has been found that populations already sprayed with fenoxaprop-P on the field showed a higher resistance level to fenoxaprop-P than to mesosulfuron in the greenhouse test. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of accase target-site resistant Alopecurus myosuroides huds (black-grass) in Belgian populations
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2009, May 19)

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. The first case of ... [more ▼]

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. The first case of resistance in Belgium was reported in 1996 by Robert Bulcke (Eelen et al., 1996). Yet the resistance mechanism was not specified. Since then, no more information was published about the evolution Belgium, while research continued in the United Kingdom and in France. Moreover, during the last decade, progress in molecular biology allowed to highlight the mechanism of target-site resistance. A simple PCR method allows to detect the mutation conferring resistance to herbicide. After two years of resistance monitoring in Belgium, mostly in the Walloon part, some populations have been clearly identified as highly resistant to ACCase inhibitor. These populations have been tested by molecular biology so as to detect the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) involved in this case. The method employed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction Allele Specific Assays (PASA: Délye, 2002a) for the mutation Ile-1781-Leu that confers a target-site resistance to ACCase inhibitors. Those analyses were performed on plant material issued from bioassays, either in glasshouses or in Petri dishes. Leaves have been collected from plants which survived a fenoxaprop-P treatment applied in a glasshouse single dose assay. Seedlings from resistant populations grown in Petri dishes containing either fenoxaprop-P or cycloxydim provided the second type of sample. Ile1781 mutants were discovered within three populations. Each mutant plant was heterozygote. Five of those samples have been sequenced to confirm PASA results and everyone was matching. Moreover, they were all issued from Petri dishes containing cycloxydim, known to be unaffected by enhanced metabolism, confirming that theses populations are indeed target-site resistant. [less ▲]

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See detailBlack-grass Resistance to Herbicides: Three Years of Monitoring in Belgium
Henriet, François; Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2009, May 19)

Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides HUDS.) is a common weed of cereal crops widely spread in Northern Europe. Even if the first Belgian case of resistance was reported in 1996, until now, Belgium was ... [more ▼]

Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides HUDS.) is a common weed of cereal crops widely spread in Northern Europe. Even if the first Belgian case of resistance was reported in 1996, until now, Belgium was quite spared of this problem and only a few restricted areas were con-cerned: the Polders, the marshland of the Escaut River and the Fosses-la-Ville region. About 90 seed samples were collected trough the South part of Belgium and in the Polders during July 2006, 2007 and 2008. These populations were tested in greenhouse conditions by spraying plantlets with herbicides of three modes of action. The herbicides used were photo-synthesis inhibitor, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. Susceptible and resistant standard populations (Rohtamsted and Peldon) were included in the test in order to validate it and to permit wild populations classification according to “R” rating system. Populations showed differences of susceptibility to photosynthesis inhibitor, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. For each herbicide mode of action, it was possible to find at least one population in each resistance class of the “R” rating system. Furthermore, it appeared that resistance was not confined to restricted areas listed above anymore. [less ▲]

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