References of "Makaire, Danielle"
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See detailThermo-hydraulic characterization of an automotive intercooler for a low pressure EGR application
Cuevas, Cristian; Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

in Applied Thermal Engineering (2011), 31(14-15), 2474-2484

In this work an experimental study is carried out to determine the thermo-hydraulic performance of an intercooler (IC) with flat tubes provided with triangular plain internal fins and louvered external ... [more ▼]

In this work an experimental study is carried out to determine the thermo-hydraulic performance of an intercooler (IC) with flat tubes provided with triangular plain internal fins and louvered external fins when it is used on a car equipped with a low pressure EGR. The main unknowns to be answered are the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the IC working under humid conditions induced by EGR, the conditions under which the water content in the mixture of air and exhaust gases begins to condense and the conditions under which the condensed water will be retained inside the IC. The exhaust gases are here replaced by a mixture of dry air and water vapour which are mixed upstream of the IC. The IC is submitted at the following testing conditions: on the ambient air side, the air temperature is fixed at around 20 °C and the air velocity is settled at 1, 2 and 4 ms/s; on the exhaust gases side, the supply temperature was varied between 90 and 150 °C, with dry gas flow rates of 20, 50 and 100 g /s, and water contents varying between almost 0 and 0.09 kgw kgg-1. At these conditions the IC transfers between 1 and 13 kW with overall heat transfer conductance varying between 0.05 and 0.38 kWK-1 and effectivenesses between 0.3 and 0.97. A water accumulation inside the IC was detected for the tests carried out at low dry gas flow rate of 20 g s-1 and for all the water content explored here (higher than 0.02 kgw kgg-1). [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of liquid biofuels in heating systems: a review
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Sartor, Kevin ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Conference (2011, August)

European Union has set the 2020 strategy to increase the share of renewable energy use to 20% by 2020. Currently, most attention is focussed on the use of alternative fuels from biomass for energy ... [more ▼]

European Union has set the 2020 strategy to increase the share of renewable energy use to 20% by 2020. Currently, most attention is focussed on the use of alternative fuels from biomass for energy purposes. These alternative fuels are called bioliquids. This paper reviews the current experimental works that have been performed on the combustion of vegetable oil, biodiesel and bioethanol in various heating combustion units. This review focuses on the feasibility of bioliquids use in heating systems as well as their “environmental friendly” potential. [less ▲]

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See detailCombustion control and performance of household condensing boilers
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Poster (2011, April)

The present work presents a model that is composed of a conventional boiler model with a main counterflow gas-water heat exchanger at which a condensing heat exchanger is added. Prior to the second heat ... [more ▼]

The present work presents a model that is composed of a conventional boiler model with a main counterflow gas-water heat exchanger at which a condensing heat exchanger is added. Prior to the second heat exchanger the exhaust gas are converted to equivalent wet air as the wet heat exchanger is simulated by a cooling coil used in air treatment. Six parameters are needed for calculation and these parameters are fitted with experimental data: one test in dry regime and one test in wet regime. Steady-state tests have been performed on two household boilers (a gas-fired and a fuel oil boiler), whose nominal outputs are 24 kW in order to fit the model parameters and check the model behaviour. It seems that the model gives the correct trend for the thermal efficiency prediction. Besides, combustion controls sensors (non nernstian sensors) have been tested by varying the excess of air. In the range tested (from =1.05 to =1.25), the increase in the boiler efficiency is around 1% as the excess of air decreases. However that increase is lower than the measurement uncertainty. The developed model predicts very well that trend. The pollutants emissions have also been measured and the results show that the NOx emissions decrease as the excess air increases. [less ▲]

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See detailThermo-hydraulic Characterization of a Louvered Fin and Flat Tube Heat Exchanger
CUEVAS, Cristian; Makaire, Danielle ULg; DARDENNE, Laurent et al

in Experimental Thermal & Fluid Science (2011), (1), 154164

In the present study, a whole heat exchanger with a hydraulic diameter of 2.3 mm is tested, which is a minichannel heat exchanger according to the Kandlikar classification. This is a louvered fin and flat ... [more ▼]

In the present study, a whole heat exchanger with a hydraulic diameter of 2.3 mm is tested, which is a minichannel heat exchanger according to the Kandlikar classification. This is a louvered fin and flat tube heat exchanger currently used in car cooling systems, also known as radiator. A glycol-water mixture (60/40 in volume) circulates through the tubes at flows ranging from 100 to 7800 l/h and at a supply temperature of 90ºC. This fluid is cooled with ambient air at a temperature of 20ºC and at frontal air velocities varying between 0.5 and 7 m/s. The thermohydraulic performance of the heat exchanger is compared with the classical correlations given in the literature for the heat transfer and the friction factor calculation. On the glycolwater side the heat exchanger is characterized for Reynolds numbers from 30 to 8000. A first comparison is carried out with the correlations available in the literature with a purely predictive model by obtaining a predictive value with a systematic under prediction lower than 10%. In a second step a semi-empirical model is considered to identify the experimental heat transfer coefficients for this application. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal performance of condensing boilers
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Scientific conference (2010, July)

Nowadays, condensing technology is widely used in space heating. This paper presents a model that predicts thermal performance of condensing boilers. The structure of the model is similar to the one of a ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, condensing technology is widely used in space heating. This paper presents a model that predicts thermal performance of condensing boilers. The structure of the model is similar to the one of a conventional boiler model with a dry heat exchanger at which a wet heat exchanger is added to simulate the heat recovered by condensation. Tests have been performed on two household 24 kW condensing boilers (gas- and oil-fired boilers). The experimental results are compared to the simulated values. According to the results, the model correctly predicts the thermal efficiency of the boiler. Indeed, predicted values are in good agreement with measured values (if one takes into account the measurements uncertainties). [less ▲]

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See detailSIMULATION MODEL OF A GAS-FIRED CONDENSING BOILER AT FULL LOAD OPERATION IN STEADY-STATE REGIME
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

in ASME-ATI-UIT 2010 Conference on Thermal and Environmental Issues in Energy Systems (2010, May)

The model in this paper was developed to predict thermal performances of gas-fired condensing boilers. The structure of the developed model is similar to the one of a conventional boiler with a main ... [more ▼]

The model in this paper was developed to predict thermal performances of gas-fired condensing boilers. The structure of the developed model is similar to the one of a conventional boiler with a main counterflow gas-water heat exchanger, at which a condensing heat exchanger is added. Prior to the second heat exchanger, the exhaust gas are converted into equivalent wet air. The condensing heat exchanger is divided into smaller parts and each part is simulated by a cooling coil model currently used in HVAC simulation. Several tests have been performed in steady-state regime on a household gas-fired boiler whose nominal output is 24 kW. The experimental results are compared to the model results and the results are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailModèle de simulation des performances d'une chaudière fioul à condensation de chauffage domestique
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

in Energies et transports durables : SFT10, Le Touquet 25-28 mai 2010 (2010, May)

The developed model in this work is similar to a classical model of a conventional boiler (combination of a combustion chamber and a water-flue gas heat exchanger) to which a model of a heat exchanger for ... [more ▼]

The developed model in this work is similar to a classical model of a conventional boiler (combination of a combustion chamber and a water-flue gas heat exchanger) to which a model of a heat exchanger for condensation has been added. This latter has been simulated by a cooling coil divided into several elements The developed model has been applied on a condensing whose nominal useful power is 24.6 KW. After the determination of the nominal parameters, tests have been performed to validate the model in different working conditions of the boiler. The two main parameters whose influence has been investigated are : the return water temperature and the overall excess air. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers working in steady-state conditions
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Scientific conference (2010, May)

The structure of the model is similar to the model of a conventional boiler model with a main counterflow gas-water heat exchanger (HX1), at which a condensing heat exchanger is added (HX2). The case ... [more ▼]

The structure of the model is similar to the model of a conventional boiler model with a main counterflow gas-water heat exchanger (HX1), at which a condensing heat exchanger is added (HX2). The case losses to the ambient is neglected. Prior to the second heat exchanger (HX2), the exhaust gas are converted to equivalent wet air as the wet heat exchanger is simulated by a cooling coil used in air treatment. The model has been validated experimentally on gas- and oil-fired boilers. Calculated thermal efficiencies agree very well with experimental results. [less ▲]

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See detailMODELLING OF A DOMESTIC GAS-FIRED CONDENSING BOILER
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Conference (2008, September)

Nowadays, condensing technology is widely used in domestic heating. This paper presents a model that simulates the performance in steady-state regime of a domestic gas-fired condensing boiler. The model ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, condensing technology is widely used in domestic heating. This paper presents a model that simulates the performance in steady-state regime of a domestic gas-fired condensing boiler. The model is similar to a conventional boiler model with a dry heat exchanger at which a wet heat exchanger is added to simulate the heat recovered by condensation. Experimental parameters are used to simulate the different components. The model has been applied to a 24 kW gas-fired condensing boiler test bench available in the laboratory. According to the experimental results (at full load), the model predicts correctly the thermal efficiency of the boiler. Indeed, calculated values are in good agreement with measured values. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (8 ULg)
See detailMODELLING OF A DOMESTIC GAS-FIRED CONDENSING BOILER
Ballant, Adrien; Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Scientific conference (2008, May)

Within the actual context of energy savings and pollutant emissions reduction, installing condensing boilers becomes indispensable because of their high efficiency compared to conventional boilers. A ... [more ▼]

Within the actual context of energy savings and pollutant emissions reduction, installing condensing boilers becomes indispensable because of their high efficiency compared to conventional boilers. A simulation model predicting boiler performances and condensing rate in the boiler heat exchanger is very valuable. The model developed within this work is a one-dimension model of a domestic gasfired condensing boiler. The aim of the model is to know whether or not the boiler works in good condensing conditions. It gives a better understanding of using and installation requirements of condensing boilers. The structure of the model is similar to a conventional boiler model [1] with a combustion chamber and a dry heat exchanger (HX1), at which a wet heat exchanger (HX2) is added (Figure 1). The calculation consists of evaluating combustion gas temperature and gas composition after the dry heat exchanger. Then, retrievable energy from the flue gas is calculated for a fixed geometry and efficiency of wet heat exchanger and for a fixed return water temperature. The heat transfer coefficient in the wet heat exchanger is calculated according to Liang et al. [2] . The influence of different parameters on condensing performances are analysed: excess air, return water temperature and flue gas mass flow rate for different heat output power. The model has been validated with measurements on a test bench equipped with a 24 kW gas-fired condensing boiler. The test bench is represented on Figure 2. [less ▲]

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See detailSIMULATION MODEL OF A SEMI-INDUSTRIAL FUEL OIL BOILER
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

in Stoffels, G. G. M.; van der Meer, T. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A. (Eds.) Proceedings 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference (2008, May)

The model developed within this work is a model which simulates the performance in steady-state regime of an industrial fuel oil boiler equipped with a two firing rate burner. To simplify calculations ... [more ▼]

The model developed within this work is a model which simulates the performance in steady-state regime of an industrial fuel oil boiler equipped with a two firing rate burner. To simplify calculations, the model uses two parameters which were fitted from experimental results. A literature review was first performed in order to get the most suitable correlations for the gas and water flows in the heat exchangers. The comparison of simulation and experimental results shows that, in general, gas temperature at the exhaust of the combustion chamber is predicted within the measurement uncertainty at high firing rate. The error on gas temperature at the boiler stack is below 10K and the power transferred to the water is also well estimated (below 2% of error) for both firing rates. The model was validated with complementary tests at low and high firing rates. The results show that gas temperatures and the useful effect are within the measurements uncertainty. The validity of the model is restricted to fuel mass flow rates around the nominal flow rates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (11 ULg)
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See detailCO emissions of fuel oil boilers in transient and cyclic regimes: performance of burners without and with “antidrip” systems
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Conference (2007, September)

CO emission peaks from fuel oil boilers in transient and cyclic regimes have been measured in previous studies. In order to evaluate these emissions, tests have been performed without and with an anti ... [more ▼]

CO emission peaks from fuel oil boilers in transient and cyclic regimes have been measured in previous studies. In order to evaluate these emissions, tests have been performed without and with an anti-drip system installed on the burner nozzle. Flue gas composition was measured using classical analysers (CO2, O2, CO and NOx) and CO emissions results were analysed and discussed. It was found that the anti-drip system reduced cold start CO emissions and did not affect steady-state CO emissions. At first, no reduction was noticed when the burner was cycling. Further investigation indicated that there was an experimental artefact caused by an air volume trapped in the pressure measurement system. When the air was purged and with the anti-drip system, CO peaks when the burner was cycling were strongly reduced and CO emissions remained under European standards limits. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (6 ULg)
See detailMagnetic Fuel Savers
Makaire, Danielle ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg

Report (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (8 ULg)