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See detailCabergoline in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a study in 455 patients.
Verhelst, Johan; Abs, Roger; Maiter, Dominique et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1999), 84(7), 2518-22

Cabergoline is a new long-acting dopamine agonist that is very effective and well tolerated in patients with pathological hyperprolactinemia. The aim of this study was to examine, in a very large number ... [more ▼]

Cabergoline is a new long-acting dopamine agonist that is very effective and well tolerated in patients with pathological hyperprolactinemia. The aim of this study was to examine, in a very large number of hyperprolactinemic patients, the ability to normalize PRL levels with cabergoline, to determine the effective dose and tolerance, and to assess the effect on clinical symptoms, tumor shrinkage, and visual field abnormalities. We also evaluated the effects of cabergoline in a large subgroup of patients with bromocriptine intolerance or -resistance. We retrospectively reviewed the files of 455 patients (102 males and 353 females) with pathological hyperprolactinemia treated with cabergoline in 9 Belgian centers. Among these patients, 41% had a microadenoma; 42%, a macroadenoma; 16%, idiopathic hyperprolactinemia; and 1%, an empty sella. The median pretreatment serum PRL level was 124 microg/L (range, 16-26,250 microg/L). A subgroup of 292 patients had previously been treated with bromocriptine, of which 140 showed bromocriptine intolerance and 58 showed bromocriptine resistance. Treatment with cabergoline normalized serum PRL levels in 86% of all patients: in 92% of 244 patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or a microprolactinoma and in 77% of 181 macroadenomas. Pretreatment visual field abnormalities normalized in 70% of patients, and tumor shrinkage was seen in 67% of cases. Side effects were noted in 13% of patients, but only 3.9% discontinued therapy because of side effects. The median dose of cabergoline at the start of therapy was 1.0 mg/week but could be reduced to 0.5 mg/week once control was achieved. Patients with a macroprolactinoma needed a higher median cabergoline dose, compared with those with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or a microprolactinoma: 1.0 mg/week vs. 0.5 mg/week, although a large overlap existed between these groups. Twenty-seven women treated with cabergoline became pregnant, and 25 delivered a healthy child. One patient had an intended abortion and another a miscarriage. In the patients with bromocriptine intolerance, normalization of PRL was reached in 84% of cases, whereas in the bromocriptine-resistant patients, PRL could be normalized in 70%. We confirmed, in a large-scale retrospective study, the high efficacy and tolerability of cabergoline in the treatment of pathological hyperprolactinemia, leaving few patients with unacceptable side effects or inadequate clinical response. Patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or a microprolactinoma, on average, needed only half the dose of cabergoline as those with macroprolactinomas and have a higher chance of obtaining PRL normalization. Cabergoline also normalized PRL in the majority of patients with known bromocriptine intolerance or -resistance. Once PRL secretion was adequately controlled, the dose of cabergoline could often be significantly decreased, which further reduced costs of therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailCabergoline in the treatment of acromegaly: a study in 64 patients.
Abs, Roger; Verhelst, Johan; Maiter, Dominique et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1998), 83(2), 374-8

Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the ... [more ▼]

Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the medical management of acromegaly, cabergoline might be a useful treatment. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of long term administration of cabergoline in a large group of unselected acromegalic patients. Sixty-four patients were included in a multicenter, prospective, open labeled study. A subgroup of 16 patients had GH-/PRL-cosecreting pituitary adenomas. Cabergoline was started at a dose of 1.0 mg/week and was gradually increased until normalization of plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, occurrence of unacceptable side-effects, or a maximal weekly dose of 3.5 mg (7.0 mg in 1 case) was reached. Treatment with cabergoline suppressed plasma IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L in 39% of cases and between 300-450 micrograms/L in another 28%. With pretreatment plasma IGF-I concentrations less than 750 micrograms/L, a suppression of IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L was obtained in 53% of cases, and a suppression between 300-450 micrograms/L was obtained in another 32%. By contrast, with pretreatment plasma IGF-I concentrations above 750 micrograms/L, only 17% of cases showed a suppression of IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L, and there was IGF-I suppression between 300-450 micrograms/L in another 21%. In GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenomas, 50% of cases suppressed plasma IGF-I levels below 300 micrograms/L, and another 31% did so between 300-450 micrograms/L, in contrast to only 35% and 27%, respectively in GH-secreting adenomas. Similar results were obtained concerning the secretion of GH. Tumor shrinkage was demonstrated in 13 of 21 patients, with a mass reduction by more than half in 5 GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenomas. Except for slight gastrointestinal discomfort and orthostatic hypotension in a few patients at the beginning of therapy, cabergoline treatment was well tolerated. Only 2 patients stopped medication because of nausea. The weekly dose of cabergoline ranged between 1.0-1.75 mg. A further increase in the dose was only effective in 1 GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenoma. The results of this study suggest that cabergoline is an effective, well tolerated therapy that should be considered in the management of acromegaly, especially if the pituitary adenoma cosecretes GH and PRL or if pretreatment plasma IGF-I levels are below 750 micrograms/L. [less ▲]

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