References of "Magis, David"
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See detailOn the finiteness of the weighted likelihood estimator of ability
Magis, David ULg; Verhelst, Norman

in Psychometrika (in press)

The purpose of this note is to focus on the finiteness of the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in the context of dichotomous and polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this note is to focus on the finiteness of the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in the context of dichotomous and polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that the WLE always returns finite ability estimates. This general result is valid for dichotomous (one-, two-, three- and four-parameter logistic) IRT models, the class of polytomous difference models and divide-by-total models, independently of the number of items, the item parameters and the response patterns. Further implications of this result are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailPassage de l’administration fixe d’un test à une administration adaptative : application au TCALS-II
Magis, David ULg; Raîche, Gilles

in Raîche, Gilles; Ndinga, Pascal; Meunier, Hélène (Eds.) L'interdisciplinarité de la mesure et de l’évaluation (in press)

La problématique du passage de l’administration fixe (de type papier-crayon) à une administration adaptative d’un test est étudiée. Une méthode en deux étapes est présentée. Dans un premier temps, des ... [more ▼]

La problématique du passage de l’administration fixe (de type papier-crayon) à une administration adaptative d’un test est étudiée. Une méthode en deux étapes est présentée. Dans un premier temps, des patrons de réponses sont générés selon une administration fixe, dans le but de déterminer des valeurs admissibles de l’erreur-type d’estimation du niveau d’habileté. Ensuite, ces valeurs sont utilisées comme critères d’arrêt lors d’une administration adaptative du même test. La longueur du test est alors considérée pour évaluer la qualité du test par rapport à sa version fixe. Le test de classement en anglais, langue seconde, au collégial (TCALS-II) est utilisé en guise d’illustration. Il est établi qu’une administration adaptative du TCALS-II permettrait de réduire sensiblement la longueur du test, sans perte de qualité de l’estimation des niveaux d’habileté. Toutefois, cette amélioration est limitée aux sujets ne présentant pas un niveau d’habileté trop faible ou trop important. [less ▲]

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See detailmstR: An R package to generate multistage testing designs
Magis, David ULg; Yan, Duanli; von Davier, Alina

Conference (2017, July 18)

Multistage testing (MST; Yan, von Davier & Lewis, 2014) has become an important framework of tailored testing. Similarly to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) it proposes an optimal routing of the ... [more ▼]

Multistage testing (MST; Yan, von Davier & Lewis, 2014) has become an important framework of tailored testing. Similarly to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) it proposes an optimal routing of the administered items according to the previous test taker’s responses. However, items are not selected and administered as single units but as modules (subsets). The main goal of MST consists in selecting the optimal path of modules across the successive stages of the test. Unfortunately, if various operational testing programs are nowadays considering MST for practical administrations, there is still very limited access to accurate software that can either treat or generate MST scenarios for research purposes. In this talk we succinctly present a new package from the R software, called mstR (Magis, Yan & von Davier, 2017). Built in the same spirit of the package catR for CAT designs, it permits to generate repeated response patterns under a predefined MST scenario by providing the set of modules and related item parameters, the number of stages and the connections between modules from successive stages. Several rules for optimal module selection and ability estimation (under IRT framework or based on test scores) are also available. This talk will mostly focus on the (non-technical) description of package mstR and its main features. An example will also be described as an illustration of this framework. [less ▲]

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See detailItem purification versus adjustments for multiple comparisons in DIF detection
Drabinova, Adela; Martinkova, Patricia; Magis, David ULg

Poster (2017, July 18)

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See detailClinical pathway evaluation for left and sigmoid colectomy in abdominal surgery
Mattart, Laurine; Stevens, Marie; Magis, David ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 19)

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See detailComputerized adaptive testing: Principles, issues and implementation
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 07)

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has become an important field of research for educational and psychological measurement. It provides tailored testing at the test taker level, focusing on the optimal ... [more ▼]

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has become an important field of research for educational and psychological measurement. It provides tailored testing at the test taker level, focusing on the optimal administration of the items to improve accuracy and precision in individual ability estimation. Yet, practical implementation of CAT programs are still demanding both in terms of item bank creation and calibration, and require appropriate online platforms and suitable algorithms for underlying psychometric computations. The purpose of this workshop is twofold: (a) to briefly introduce the concepts of item response theory (IRT) and CAT in a practical, end-user approach; (b) to present a package of the R software, called catR, that performs all underlying IRT- and CAT-related calculations. This package is also adequate to perform simulation studies, which are most useful to assess the quality of an item and help in designing efficient CATs. Some live demonstrations of catR will be proposed to conclude the workshop. participants are invited to bring their laptops with R and RStudio software pre-installed. Electronic copies of the presentation and an R script with the code for illustrative examples will be provided. [less ▲]

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See detailA modified graded response model to account for guessing in multiple-choice items
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

This presentation focuses on multiple-choice items without any correction or control for guessing. Most often, item responses are recoded as binary outcomes so that dichotomous logistic item response ... [more ▼]

This presentation focuses on multiple-choice items without any correction or control for guessing. Most often, item responses are recoded as binary outcomes so that dichotomous logistic item response models (such as the 2PL or 3PL models) can be used to estimate ability levels. This is however at the cost of loosing information from collapsing all distractors into a single FALSE category. Polytomous IRT models could be considered to overcome that drawback but none of the classical models are suitable to incorporate guessing into account. The purpose of this talk is to introduce a modification to the graded response model (Samejima, 1969) that can take guessing into account. The modification consists in introducing lower and upper asymptotes to the cumulative probability curves. After a brief theoretical and technical description, practical implementation using the R package mirt (Chalmers, 2012) is discussed. Primary results from a simulation study are eventually presented and compared to traditional IRT scoring methods for scoring multiple-choice items. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la réponse au hasard dans les questionnaires à choix multiples : une approche par modèles de réponses aux items polytomiques
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, January 25)

Lorsque l’on doit évaluer les résultats d’un test à l’aide de questions à choix multiples (QCM), le traitement des réponses au hasard (« guessing ») est un enjeu crucial pour une évaluation fiable et non ... [more ▼]

Lorsque l’on doit évaluer les résultats d’un test à l’aide de questions à choix multiples (QCM), le traitement des réponses au hasard (« guessing ») est un enjeu crucial pour une évaluation fiable et non biaisée de la compétence testée. Divers mécanismes (comme l’application d’une correction pour le guessing) ont été proposées mais ne sont pas exemptes de problèmes méthodologiques. Une approche par modèles de réponses aux items (MRI) est aussi souvent considérée, mais revient à résumer les réponses des QCM en « vrai/faux » et appliquer des modèles dichotomiques (comme le modèle logistique à trois paramètres). Le but de cette présentation est double : (a) mettre en évidence les faiblesses d’une telle approche dichotomique, et (b) présenter une modification d’un modèle de réponses aux items polytomiques qui prend en compte le possible « guessing » des participants. Cette approche a l’avantage de modéliser chaque réponse possible (y compris les distracteurs) tout en autorisant une réponse au hasard pour les participants de compétence plus faibles. Une comparaison des approches dichotomique et polytomique est réalisée au moyen de données simulées selon un modèle de réponse au hasard plausible. Les avantages et inconvénients de l’approche polytomique, tant du point de vue technique que pédagogique, sont discutés. [less ▲]

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See detailLa détection des réponses inappropriées dans les examens: une étude de 3 indices corrigés selon la méthode de Snijders
Béland, Sébastien; Raîche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, January 25)

Certains étudiants peuvent répondre au hasard ou être inattentifs en situation d’examen. Les indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés (person-fit index) sont prometteurs pour détecter ces ... [more ▼]

Certains étudiants peuvent répondre au hasard ou être inattentifs en situation d’examen. Les indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés (person-fit index) sont prometteurs pour détecter ces types de réponse. Nous allons, dans le cadre de cette communication, nous pencher sur le cas de trois indices de détection populaires qui présentent des caractéristiques permettant d’en faciliter l’interprétation : lz, ZU et ZW. Par contre, des études antérieures ont montré que ces trois indices sont fortement affectés par le fait que l’habileté d’un étudiant est estimée plutôt que réelle (Molenaar et Hoijtink, 1990). Snijders (2001) a proposé une version corrigée de l’indice lz (nommée lz*) afin de tenir compte de cette difficulté. De leur côté, Magis, Béland et Raîche (2014) ont corrigé deux autres indices selon l’approche de Snijders (2001) : U* et W*. Il reste cependant à analyser plus en détails le comportement de la famille des indices corrigés, soit, lz*, U* et W*. Pour ce faire, nous effectuons une étude de simulation et une étude des données du test de classement en anglais, langue seconde (TCALS-II). Les résultats démontrent que les indices corrigés lz* et W* sont les plus intéressants à utiliser. De son côté, U* présente des résultats parfois inappropriés, ce qui relance la réflexion sur la pertinence des indices de détection basés sur les carré-moyens non-pondérés. [less ▲]

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See detailRectal cancer treatment in a teaching hospital
Verdin, Vanessa; Weerts, Joseph; Francart, David et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2017), 117

Background: Rectal adenocarcinomas surgery morbidity and mortality might be impaired by neoadjuvant therapy. We performed this retropsective study to be compared with the PROCARE study running afterwards ... [more ▼]

Background: Rectal adenocarcinomas surgery morbidity and mortality might be impaired by neoadjuvant therapy. We performed this retropsective study to be compared with the PROCARE study running afterwards. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 95 patients operated on for rectal denocarcinoma in a single institution during the period 2007-2009. We used logistic regression to estimate the relationship between possible predictive parameters of AL. Results: The laparoscopic approach is favored in 63.1% of the cases with a conversion rate of 11.6%, mainly in man (6 out of 7). For low rectal cancer though, laparotomy was the first choice (92.3%). From a carcinological point of view, laparoscopy allowed a complete tumor resection according to the PME (n=27) and TME (n=26) standards. Multivariate analysis revealed that women, lower BMI, lower rectum tumor, laparoscopic surgery, neoadjuvant treatment and anal suture were associated with higher risk of AL. The mean hospital stay was 15.4 days (3 – 46 days). In-hospital mortality was 3.1%. Adjuvant chemotherapy was completed in 42.1% of the patients. Despite these treatments, we registered a recurrence rate of 26.6%. Of these, 72% were distally localized and 12% exclusively locally. Among the patients operated on by laparoscopy, there was one local recurrence and one local with distant metastases (3.7%). The one- and three-years survival rates were 91.5% and 80.4% respectively. Conclusions: Our study showed a higher rate of AL than expected (18%). In our series recorded in PROCARE-Home, our leak rate has dropped to 10%. It may be indicating a positive effect of PROCARE. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation d'un itinéraire clinique pour collectomie gauche en chirurgie abdominale
Mattart, Laurine; Stevens, Marie; Magis, David ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(1), 45-50

Fin 2008, l’itinéraire clinique (IC) «colectomie gauche» a été mis en place au sein de la Clinique Saint-Joseph (CHC) de Liège. Une série de 213 patients présentant une pathologie bénigne ou maligne ... [more ▼]

Fin 2008, l’itinéraire clinique (IC) «colectomie gauche» a été mis en place au sein de la Clinique Saint-Joseph (CHC) de Liège. Une série de 213 patients présentant une pathologie bénigne ou maligne nécessitant une résection du côlon gauche par laparoscopie a été incluse dans cet IC entre 2009 et 2015. Nous nous sommes intéressés à l’observance du protocole de l’IC ainsi qu’aux taux de complications et de ré-hospitalisations dans les 30 jours post-opératoires. Nous avons constaté, après comparaison avec un groupe témoin historique, que l’adhésion au protocole IC a été d’emblée excellente (> 80 %) tout au long de la durée de l’étude. Il n’y a pas eu de modification du taux de ré-hospitalisations et le taux de lâchage de suture a été réduit. Bien que la diminution de la durée de séjour n’était pas l’objectif premier lors de la mise en place de cet IC, elle s’est significativement réduite passant, en moyenne, de 8 à 4 jours. En conclusion, l’introduction d’un IC, pour autant qu’il soit bien préparé et rassemble dans le même objectif l’ensemble des acteurs de soins, est directement bénéfique pour le patient et la qualité de sa prise en charge. [less ▲]

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See detailComputerized adaptive testing with R: Recent updates of the package catR
Magis, David ULg; Barrada, Juan Ramon

in Journal of Statistical Software (2017), 76(1), 1-19

The purpose of this paper is to list the recent updates of the R package catR. This package allows for generating response patterns under a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) framework with underlying ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to list the recent updates of the R package catR. This package allows for generating response patterns under a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) framework with underlying item response theory (IRT) models. Among the most important updates, well-known polytomous IRT models are now supported by catR; several item selection rules have been added; and it is now possible to perform post-hoc simulations. Some functions were also rewritten or withdrawn to improve the usefulness and performances of the package. [less ▲]

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See detailLes indices de détection de patron de réponse inapproprié de type carré-moyens non-pondérés: à manipuler avec précaution!
Beland, Sebastien; Raiche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg et al

Conference (2016, November 17)

Le carré-moyen non-pondéré U comme indice de détection (unweighted mean square statistics) (Wright & Stone, 1979) et sa version standardisée ZU (Wright, 1980) sont parmi les indices de détection de ... [more ▼]

Le carré-moyen non-pondéré U comme indice de détection (unweighted mean square statistics) (Wright & Stone, 1979) et sa version standardisée ZU (Wright, 1980) sont parmi les indices de détection de patrons de réponse inappropriés paramétriques les plus connus. On retrouve l’un et/ou l’autre de ces indices dans des logiciels commerciaux ou gratuits tels que RUMM2030, FACETS ou la librairie R eRm en plus d’en faire mention dans les articles les plus cités sur le sujet (Karabatsos, 2003; Meijer et Sijtsma, 2001). Durant les dernières décennies, quelques voix se sont élevées afin de sensibiliser les utilisateurs aux problèmes que présentent U et ZU (Karabatsos, 2000; Smith, 1991). Ils semblent, en effet, présenter des scores extrêmes qui rendraient leur utilisation inadéquate dans certaines situations. Cette présentation aura comme objectif d’étudier les limites des indices U et ZU. Nous utiliserons une étude de simulation et différents modèles de réponses à l’item dichotomiques afin de soutenir notre propos. Les auteurs de l’étude concluront leur présentation en discutant de l’importance de manipuler ces indices avec précaution. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of dichotomous logistic IRT models to estimate ability with multiple choice items
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, October 13)

This presentation focuse son multiple-choice items without any control or correction for guessing. Most often these items are recoded as binary outcomes (TRUE-FALSE) and logistic IRT models are calibrated ... [more ▼]

This presentation focuse son multiple-choice items without any control or correction for guessing. Most often these items are recoded as binary outcomes (TRUE-FALSE) and logistic IRT models are calibrated using these recoded data. The main purpose of this study is to highlight the limits of this approach by (a) proposing a simulation model to allow for guessing at various levels of ability, and (b) comparing the dichotomous approach to the use of nominal response model. Preliminary simulations indicate that none of the models are very accurate to estimate latent abilities accurately, though the nominal response model has fewer bias then the dichotomous models. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen source programming: a new hope for psychometric research
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, July 14)

Current psychometric research is most often supported by computer software. New research perspectives often imply intensive simulation studies to validate the tested theories or hypotheses, and therefore ... [more ▼]

Current psychometric research is most often supported by computer software. New research perspectives often imply intensive simulation studies to validate the tested theories or hypotheses, and therefore require accurate, fast and stable implementation. To this regards, open source programming (such as in the R language) is a promising approach allowing for flexible implementation, data generation, replication of studies, and worldwide dissemination. The purpose of this talk is to illustrate how psychometrics and open source programming (with special emphasis on the R language) can interact and contribute to each other, by means of some selected examples. Several topics will be illustrated, among others: why open source programming is (to my opinion) as important as psychometric research; why we need for stable and complete implementation of psychometric and statistical routines for research purposes (for e.g., CAT); how accurate implementation of IRT routines can lead to unexpected theoretical results; why (and how) open source software can be valued as research output. Most examples will arise from the CAT framework and the R package catR for simulating CAT patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailExamine the effects of two adjustments to the lz statistic
Riley, Barth; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, July 14)

Conformity to a known distribution and sensitivity to response aberrance are desirable properties of person-fit statistics. This simulation study examined the joint and independent effects of two ... [more ▼]

Conformity to a known distribution and sensitivity to response aberrance are desirable properties of person-fit statistics. This simulation study examined the joint and independent effects of two adjustments to the standardized log-likelihood statistic (lz): (1) correction of the negatively skewed distribution of lz (Snijders, 2001), and (2) improving the sensitivity of the statistic by employing more accurate estimates of item response probability using symmetric functions (Dimitrov and Smith, 2006). Data were simulated using three test lengths (10, 20, 30 items). Data containing misfitting response patterns were simulated using three aberrant response patterns (cheating, guessing, and inattentiveness), and three levels of aberrance (i.e., proportion of item responses affected by misfit; 10%, 30% and 50%). Data containing no simulated misfitting response patterns were also generated for each test length. Non-misfitting responses were generated using the dichotomous Rasch measurement model. For each combination of independent variables, a dataset was generated consisting of 5,000 simulees. Four fit statistics were compared: lz, lz* (Snijders adjustment), lzSYM (Dimitrov and Smith adjustment), and lzSYM* (both adjustments). Mean Type I error rates were ≤ 0.1 across all conditions. The lz* statistic produced the best control of Type I error, which was often below the nominal Type I error rate, whereas the empirical Type I error rate for the unadjusted lz statistic most closely approximated the nominal rate. In contrast, lzSYM and lzSYM* yielded empirical Type I error rates larger than the nominal rate, with the discrepancy being particularly pronounced as the length of the test decreased. As might be expected, power to detect misfitting response patterns increased with test length and with the percentage of misfitting response patterns in the sample. Both lzSYM and lzSYM* evidenced improved power in detecting misfitting response patterns compared to lz and lz*, particularly for guessing response patterns and/or on shorter (i.e., 10 item) tests. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of ROC curves in DIF simulation studies
Magis, David ULg; Tuerlinckx, Francis

Conference (2016, July 14)

Simulation studies are often used to compare methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF). However, comparing the performance of such methods can become complicated when the identification of DIF ... [more ▼]

Simulation studies are often used to compare methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF). However, comparing the performance of such methods can become complicated when the identification of DIF items relies on statistics based on pre-defined significance level or on pre-established cutoff values. DIF methods based on conceptually different approaches may therefore become incomparable in terms of summary DIF statistics such as false alarm rate or hit rate. The purpose of this talk is to overcome this analytic issue by introducing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in this context. ROC curves allow for global comparison of methods’ performances by computing pairs of (false alarm, hit) rates and representing them on a common scatter plot. Several summary ROC statistics can be considered for further analysis. The application of the ROC curve methodology, together with its limitation and possible extensions, is illustrated by a simple simulation study that compares three score-based DIF methods (Mantel-Haenszel, standardization and Delta plot). [less ▲]

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See detailComputerized adaptive testing and multistage testing with R
Magis, David ULg; Yan, Duanli; von Davier, Alina

Conference (2016, July 11)

The goal of this workshop is to provide a practical (and brief) overview of the theory on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST), and illustrate the methodologies and ... [more ▼]

The goal of this workshop is to provide a practical (and brief) overview of the theory on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST), and illustrate the methodologies and applications using R open source language and several data examples. The implementations rely on the R packages catR and mstR that have been already or are being developed and include some of the newest research algorithms developed by the authors. This workshop will cover several topics: the basics of R, theoretical overview of CAT and MST, CAT and MST designs, assembly methodologies, catR and mstR packages, simulations and applications. The intended audience for the workshop is undergraduate/graduate students, faculty, researchers, practitioners at testing institutions, and anyone in psychometrics, measurement, education, psychology and other fields who is interested in computerized adaptive and multistage testing, especially in practical implementations of simulation using R. [less ▲]

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See detailFiniteness of the weighted likelihood estimator and applications to CAT
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to usual maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators. However, the uestion of providing finite ability estimates was left unsolved and led to some controversy. Recently, Magis and Verhelst (in press) established that the WLE always returns finite values, independently of the IRT model, the number of items, and the item responses. This general result will be briefly outlined. The finiteness of the WLE has straightforward impact within the field of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). One technical and crucial issue in CAT is to accurately estimate the latent ability at the early stages of the adaptive process, when only a few items are available. Currently heuristic adjustments are adviced to avoid infinite estimates with only a few item responses. In this talk it will be highlighted how the use of the WLE throughout the CAT can be a promising and performant approach to solve this issue. [less ▲]

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See detailComputerized Adaptive Testing
Braeken, Johan; Magis, David ULg; Stillwell, David

Scientific conference (2016, April 25)

Why ask a person to answer a problem item, when you a priori know they won’t be able to solve it? It is a waste of time and resources, and you won’t gain any new information; this is both inefficient and ... [more ▼]

Why ask a person to answer a problem item, when you a priori know they won’t be able to solve it? It is a waste of time and resources, and you won’t gain any new information; this is both inefficient and ineffective. In contrast, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is based on the principle that more information can be gained when one tailors the test towards the level of the person being tested. Computational and statistical techniques from item response theory (IRT) and decision theory are combined to implement a test that can behave interactively during the test process and adapts towards the level of the person being tested.The implementation of such a CAT relies on an iterative sequential algorithm that searches the pool of available items (a so-called item bank) for the optimal item to administer based on the current estimate of the person’s level (and optional external constraints). The subsequent response on this item provides new information to update the person’s proficiency estimate. This selection-responding-updating process continues until specified stop criteria have been reached. The consequence of such an adaptive test administration is that you get an individualized tailored test that is more efficient and more effective. Because you have less of a mismatch between the level of the test and the level of the test taker, there is a lesser burden for the latter and a higher precision for the former, and this with fewer items than a traditional fixed item-set test format. Furthermore, because it is computerized and sequential, test performance can be continuously monitored and reported directly after test completion. Item response models come into play to ensure comparable scores of these individual tailored tests by putting them on the same measurement scale and to precalibrate,the psychometric parameters of the items that are part of the item bank on which the sequential iterative algorithm operates. The workshop intends to tackle issues encountered during the setup of a computerized adaptive test, starting from the design towards the actual delivery of a CAT. [less ▲]

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