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See detailA magnetic susceptibility curve for the Devonian Limestone from Belgium
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Mabille, Cédric ULg; Poulain, Geoffrey et al

in Geologica Belgica (2010), 13

This paper proposes a first magnetic susceptibility (MS) curve for the Devonian Limestone from Belgium. A comparison with a large scale depositional model shows the complex relations between MS and ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a first magnetic susceptibility (MS) curve for the Devonian Limestone from Belgium. A comparison with a large scale depositional model shows the complex relations between MS and paleoenvironments. Other Devonian-scale MS curves from other parts of the world are necessary to constraint these relations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of sedimentary setting on the use of magnetic susceptibility : examples from the Devonian of Belgium
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Mabille, Cédric ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Sedimentology (2009), 56

Bulk magnetic susceptibility measurements on sedimentological samples from all geological periods have been used widely in the last two decades for correlations and as a proxy for sea-level variations ... [more ▼]

Bulk magnetic susceptibility measurements on sedimentological samples from all geological periods have been used widely in the last two decades for correlations and as a proxy for sea-level variations. This paper explores the link between magnetic susceptibility, depositional setting and environmental parameters. These environmental parameters include distal–proximal transects, microfacies successions and fourth-order trends on different carbonate platform types (platform, ramp, carbonate mound or atoll) during different Devonian stages (Eifelian, Givetian and Frasnian). Average magnetic susceptibility values over a distal–proximal-trending facies succession vary markedly with depositional setting. On carbonate platforms, average magnetic susceptibility generally increases towards the top of shallowing-upward sequences. On a distal–proximal transect, average magnetic susceptibility is intermediate for the deepest facies, decreases for the reef belts and increases to a maximum in the back-reef zone. In ramps and atolls, magnetic susceptibility trends clearly differ; average magnetic susceptibility generally decreases towards the top of shallowing-upward sequences and is highest in the deepest facies. The strong relationship between magnetic susceptibility, facies and sequences implies a strong environmental influence. However, the different responses in the different latform types suggest that sea-level changes leading to variation in detrital input is not the only parameter controlling average magnetic susceptibility values. Other primary or secondary processes also probably influenced magnetic mineral distribution. Primary processes such as carbonate production and water agitation during deposition are probably key factors. When carbonate production is high, the proportion of magnetic minerals is diluted and the magnetic susceptibility signal decreases. High water agitation during deposition will also selectively remove magnetic minerals and will lead to low average magnetic susceptibility values. These parameters explain the lowest values observed on the reef platform, inner ramp and atoll crown, which are all in areas characterized by higher carbonate production and greater water agitation during deposition. The lowest values observed in the lagoon inside the atoll crown can be related to detrital isolation by the atoll crown. However, other parameters such as biogenic magnetite production or diagenesis can also influence the magnetic signal. Diagenesis can change magnetism by creating or destroying magnetic minerals. However, the influence of diagenesis probably is linked strongly to the primary facies (permeability, amount of clay or organic matter) and probably enhanced the primary signal. The complexity of the signal gives rise to correlation problems between different depositional settings. Thus, while magnetic susceptibility has the potential to be an important correlation tool, the results of this investigation indicate that it cannot be used without consideration of sedimentary processes and depositional environments and without strongbiostratigraphical control. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a palaeogeographical and sequential framework for the Givetian of Belgium
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Mabille, Cédric ULg; Poulain, Geoffrey et al

in Geologica Belgica (2009), 12

This paper starts with a review of facies and reef morphologies from the Givet Group in the Ardenne area. Platform initiation and evolution are analyzed and related to external factors at a global scale ... [more ▼]

This paper starts with a review of facies and reef morphologies from the Givet Group in the Ardenne area. Platform initiation and evolution are analyzed and related to external factors at a global scale (sea level changes, climate changes), at a regional scale (local subsidence, change in detrital supply) and to internal factors like organic communities composition. More specifically, the location of reef barriers are related to sea level changes and a sequence stratigraphic canvas is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic susceptibility evolution and sedimentary environments on carbonate platform sediments and atolls, comparison of the Frasnian from Belgium and Alberta, Canada
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Potma, Ken; Weissenberger, John A. W. et al

in Sedimentary Geology (2009), 214

Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on carbonate rocks are considered as a proxy for impurities delivered to the carbonate environments. In the absence of strong climatic or tectonic variations ... [more ▼]

Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on carbonate rocks are considered as a proxy for impurities delivered to the carbonate environments. In the absence of strong climatic or tectonic variations, bulk MS values have been linked to sea level variations, because sea-level fall increases clastic supply and therefore increases magnetic mineral deposition. In this paper we explore the relationship between the average magnitude of bulk MS, with shallowing-up sequences and facies evolution in different Devonian carbonate complexes. Similarities and differences between these parameters have been scrutinized in carbonate attached platform and detached platforms (mounds and/or atolls) from Belgium and Canada. In the carbonate attached platforms from Belgium and Canada, the MS patterns are directly related to depositional environment. Mean MS values increase from the most distal towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of the majority of fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. These trends are in agreement with theoretical background (MS increases with regression). In the Belgian detached platform, the average MS pattern generally shows an opposite behaviour of that observed in the attached carbonate platforms. Average MS decreases towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of a majority of the fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. This behaviour can be explained by the influence of sedimentary rate and water agitation during deposition. A high sedimentary rate will dilute the magnetic minerals in the atoll facies and the highwater agitation during deposition may be expected to have prevented the deposition of the magnetic grains. So, the combination of these two effects will result in the observed low values in the atoll crown and lagoonal facies. In the Canadian detached platform, MS is mainly negative. This means that the limestones are very pure. The technique does not appear to be appropriate in these rocks. The variations of average MS behaviour by platform type can imply difficulties in correlating carbonates from different settings. A comparison of time equivalent mound and platform deposits shows that after an important regressive surface, the MS values are increasing for the platform deposits and decreasing for the mound. So MS evolution can be in complete opposition (caused by highly different sedimentary rates) in different depositional settings. The MS signal preserved in carbonate rocks is probably mainly related to 1) varying clastic supplies; 2) varying carbonate accumulation rates (dilution of the magnetic minerals by high carbonate production) and 3) potentially diagenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Monts de Baileux section: detailed sedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of Hanonet, Trois-Fontaines and Terres d'Haurs formations (Eifelian-Givetian boundary and Lower Givetian, SW Belgium)
Mabille, Cédric ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Geologica Belgica (2008), 11

This work details for the first time the sedimentology of Les Monts de Baileux section. This section, located in a quarry between Chimay and Couvin, exposes a remarkable succession of strata from the top ... [more ▼]

This work details for the first time the sedimentology of Les Monts de Baileux section. This section, located in a quarry between Chimay and Couvin, exposes a remarkable succession of strata from the top of the Jemelle Formation to the base of the Mont d’Haurs Formation. It therefore offers the opportunity to investigate the entire Hanonet, Trois- Fontaines and Terres d’Haurs formations, biostratigraphically from Polygnathus ensensis to P. timorensis conodont zones. This large lithostratigraphic thickness of clayley and argillaceous, and also pure limestones encompasses the Eifelian/ Givetian boundary in the lower part of Hanonet Formation, allowing a better understanding of the transition between the Eifelian which corresponds to a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate detrital ramp and the lower Givetian dominated by a carbonate rimmed shelf-related sedimentation. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 21 microfacies integrated into two palaeogeographical models. The first model (13 microfacies) is proposed for the Jemelle, Hanonet and Trois-Fontaines formations, i.e. P. ensensis Zone and almost entire P. hemiansatus Zone. In this platform model, the fore-reef environment is characterized by a high influence of storm events and carbonate input coming from proximal settings. The reef is mainly composed of an accumulation of stromatoporoids, crinoids, tabulate corals and rugose corals with a peloidal matrix. The back-reef area is dominated by agitated environments and calmer lagoons. Locally, less agitated conditions allow growth of massive and laminar organisms. The second model (6 microfacies) concerns the Terres d’Haurs Formation with the end of P. hemianstus Zone and significant part of the P. timorensis Zone. This ramp model is divided into a mid-ramp characterized by open-marine sedimentation interrupted by storm-related events and an inner ramp composed of ooidal shoals, back-shoal sedimentation and storm related deposits. Two other microfacies are fragmentarily defined for the Mont d’Haurs Formation, within the main P. varcus / P. rhenanus intervals. This unit was affected by strong dolomitization processes, where scarcity of well preserved, primary sedimentary fabrics is not favourable for designing of a microfacies-based model at all. The last part of the work concerns stratigraphic variations of magnetic susceptibility (MS). Values of mass MS of rocks were plotted and juxtaposed with semi-quantitative variation curves of microfacies. According to the prevailing magnitudes of MS, the relationships with two controlling parameters are evaluated: terrigenous influence (using the thin-section data on detrital quartz contents as proxies) and wave agitation (based on microfacies interpretation). The transgressive- regressive evolution of microfacies characteristics are compared with the juxtaposed trends in decreasing-increasing MS magnitudes. Approximately two thirds of this section suggests a good matching of the trends on generalized lithological and magnetic data. It is explained by common presence of clayey/silty impurities of slightly to moderately varying compositions which are greatly evidenced by means of thin-section studies and represent a principal and abundant paramagnetic component. The overall MS magnitudes actually show decreasing trends together with vigorous, eustatically driven sealevel rises. However, the remaining third of intervals in this section shows the rather complex than simple, equivocally or negatively arranged sequence/lithologic and MS stratigraphic trends. [less ▲]

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See detailDetailed sedimentological study of a non-classical succession for Trois-Fontaines and Terres d'Haurs formations (Lower Givetian, Marenne, Belgium)- Introduction of the Marenne Member
Mabille, Cédric ULg; De Wilde, Clotilde ULg; Hubert, Benoît et al

in Geologica Belgica (2008), 11

This work details for the first time the sedimentology of the Marenne quarry. It exposes a remarkable succession of strata from the Trois-Fontaines Formation and the base of the Terres d’Haurs Formation ... [more ▼]

This work details for the first time the sedimentology of the Marenne quarry. It exposes a remarkable succession of strata from the Trois-Fontaines Formation and the base of the Terres d’Haurs Formation. Two sections (Marenne East and Marenne Centre) are investigated within the quarry. The first one (115 metres) covers both formations and is characterized by a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession replacing the classical base of the Trois-Fontaines Formation. We propose here to include these particular facies into a new member of the Trois-Fontaines Formation, the Marenne Member. The second one (48 metres) exposes a reefal lens also attributed to this new Marenne Member. Magnetic susceptibility was used to confirm geometric correlations previously obtained between these two sections. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 14 microfacies which are integrated into three palaeoenvironmental models. The first model (six microfacies) is proposed for the Marenne Member. In this ramp model, terrigenous inputs are particularly important. The mid-ramp is composed of four microfacies more or less influenced by storm events. The inner ramp (limited to the FWWB vicinity) is characterized by the development of the reefal lens and by peloidal microfacies. The upper part of Trois-Fontaines Formation is depicted by a back-reef model (three microfacies) which is mainly dominated by lagoons. However, intermittent agitation and non-restricted settings allow the local development and the reworking of branching organisms. The last model proposed (five microfacies) concerns the Terres d’Haurs Formation and corresponds to a ramp profile with the development of shoals. Those shoals locally protect semi-restricted lagoons. Algal mats are also observed. The last part of the work concerns the sedimentary dynamics and proposes sea level variations as the key parameter probably responsible for the succession of these three depositional settings. [less ▲]

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See detailDeposition within the vicinity of the Mid-Eifelian High : detailed sedimentological study and magnetic susceptibility of a mixed ramp-related system from the Eifelian Lauch and Nohn formations (Devonian ; Ohlesberg, Eifel, Germany)
Mabille, Cédric ULg; Pas, Damien ULg; Aretz, Markus et al

in Facies (2008), 54

This study focuses on the base of the Eifelian stage and on the abandoned Ohlesberg quarry. The exposed section (92 m thick) is related to the Lauch and Nohn formations. Petrographic study leads to the ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the base of the Eifelian stage and on the abandoned Ohlesberg quarry. The exposed section (92 m thick) is related to the Lauch and Nohn formations. Petrographic study leads to the defnition of 11 microfacies which are integrated in a palaeogeographical model. It corresponds to a complex ramp setting where carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic deposits coexist. The microfacies evolution is interpreted in terms of bathymetric and lateral variations, showing a general shallowing upward trend and transitions between carbonate-dominated and siliciclastic-dominated sedimentary domains. This interpretation is supported by trends in magnetic susceptibility data. Even if the proximity to emerged areas appears to be the major influence on magnetic susceptibility values, the influence of carbonate productivity and wave agitation is also noted. The Ohlesberg section clearly points to the local and regional complex facies architecture, and advocates to variegated depositional environments along the Mid-Eifelian High. [less ▲]

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See detailSedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of the Upper Eifelian - Lower Givetian (Middle Devonian) in southwestern Belgium: insights into carbonate platform initiation
Mabille, Cédric ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Alvaro, J. J.; Aretz, M.; Boulvain, Frédéric (Eds.) et al Palaeozoic Reefs and Bioaccumulations: Climatic and Evolutionary Controls (2007)

The major part of the Hanonet Formation is deposited on a mixed siliciclastic– carbonate detrital ramp, whereas the top is dominated by carbonate-rimmed shelf-related sedimentation. The transition ... [more ▼]

The major part of the Hanonet Formation is deposited on a mixed siliciclastic– carbonate detrital ramp, whereas the top is dominated by carbonate-rimmed shelf-related sedimentation. The transition corresponds roughly to the Eifelian–Givetian boundary. This work is based on two stratigraphic sections located in the southern part of the Dinant Synclinorium. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 11 microfacies, which demonstrate important sedimentological differences existing between the sections. A curve showing microfacies evolution is interpreted in terms of changing bathymetry. An environmental model depicts the lateral transition from a multiclinal carbonate ramp (to the east) to a forereef setting (to the west). Magnetic susceptibility was used to establish accurate stratigraphic correlations between the two sections. It also leads to an appreciation of the relative importance of eustatic sea-level change and local sedimentation rate. The combined interpretation of the microfacies curves and the magnetic susceptibility provides a new view of the sedimentary dynamics of the studied sections and, in a more general way, a better understanding of the processes responsible for magnetic susceptibility variations in carbonate rocks. [less ▲]

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See detailSedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of the Couvin Formation (Eifelian, South Western Belgium): Carbonate platform initiation in a hostile world
Mabille, Cédric ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Geologica Belgica (2007), 10(1-2), 47-67

The Eifelian of Belgium is mainly characterised by a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation on a ramp profile. In this context, the Couvin Formation is the more important and remarkable exception. It ... [more ▼]

The Eifelian of Belgium is mainly characterised by a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation on a ramp profile. In this context, the Couvin Formation is the more important and remarkable exception. It represents a carbonate platform initiation in a hostile environment. This work is mainly based on the stratotype, corresponding to two stratigraphic sections located in Couvin, along the southern border of the Dinant Synclinorium. These sections are the Eau Noire and Falaise de l'Abime sections. Unfortunately, they are discontinuous. To allow a better understanding of the sedimentary dynamics, the data are complemented by a shorter but continuous section located in Villers-la-Tour (3.5 km West of Chimay). Petrographic study leads to the definition of 14 microfacies which are integrated in a palaeogeographical model. It corresponds to a platform setting where the reef complex is mainly constituted by an accumulation of crinoids, stromatoporoids and tabulate corals. The microfacies evolution is interpreted in terms of bathymetrical variations. It shows a general shallowing-upward trend encompassing the vertical succession of fore-reef settings, reef development, back-reef and then lagoon environment. This interpretation is supported by trends in mean magnetic susceptibility data, providing a better understanding of the sedimentary dynamics. Moreover, these data show positive correlation with concentrations of detritic minerals, but an inverse relationship with well washed skeletal limestones. The comparison of the three studied sections leads to considerations concerning the lateral variability in the Couvin Formation indicating more agitated conditions in the Abime Member in Villers-le-Tour section. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of magnetic susceptibility on different carbonate platform type
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Mabille, Cédric ULg

in Abstract book 17th ISC - Fukuoka, Japan - 2006 (2006)

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