References of "MELIN, Pierrette"
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See detailGBS and antibiotic resistance: threat to therapy
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in XIX Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, Program and Abstract book (2014, November)

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See detailGBS and antibiotic resistance: threat to therapy
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in XIX Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, Program and Abstract book (2014, November)

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See detailGBS and antibiotic resistance: threat to therapy
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in XIX Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, Program and Abstract book (2014, November)

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See detailGBS and antibiotic resistance: threat to therapy
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in XIX Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, Program and Abstract book (2014, November)

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See detailA clinical lab experience with an automated HIV Antigen/Antibody (Ag/Ab) combined assay
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg; TOUSSAINT, Françoise ULg; GERARD, Christiane ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 11)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the diagnostic performance of a new fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab chemiluminescent immunoassay, available on the new LIAISON® XL analyser, in a clinical setting. METHODS: Through ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To describe the diagnostic performance of a new fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab chemiluminescent immunoassay, available on the new LIAISON® XL analyser, in a clinical setting. METHODS: Through February 2012-October 2013, 12,438 samples of serum, received at our laboratory for screening for HIV infection were routinely tested with LIAISON® XL Murex HIV Ab/Ag assay (HIV-XL), which employs HIV-1, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2 antigens and anti-p24 monoclonal antibodies in two coupled reagent cartridges, providing information of the overall Ab/Ag reactivity and detail of the specific reactivity for anti-HIV/HIV p24 antigen. Each serum with positive result or with negative result displaying a value close to the cut-off were sent to the regional AIDS-Reference Laboratory (RefLab) to perform confirmatory assays (PCR, Immunoblot). A previous verification of the HIV-XL demonstrated 100% sensitivity with a challenge panel of hundred positive sera provided by the RefLab. Performed external quality control was from United-Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). RESULTS: Out of the clinical samples, 12,312 non-reactive samples (including 6 negative results displaying a value close to the cut-off further confirmed true HIV negative), 64 Ab HIV reactive samples (all confirmed HIV-1 positive by immunoblot), including 4 samples reactive also for Ag HIV (confirmed positive by Ag assay/PCR), 42 Ab HIV reactive samples tested negative by immunoblot, and 20 Ag HIV reactive samples tested negative by the kit used for the Ag p24 detection in our HIV Reference Lab, have been found. All the 43 NEQAS specimens tested, 16 reactive and 27 non-reactive, were correctly classified. These results, considered all together, provide a calculated positive predictive value of 57.5% with an estimated specificity of 99.5% (with 95% confidence interval of 99.36-99.62%), and a calculated negative predictive value of 100% with an estimated sensitivity of 100.0% (with 95% confidence interval of 95.49-100%). CONCLUSIONS: In our experience HIV-XL showed excellent performance associated to all the advantages of a fully automated/random access instrument. [less ▲]

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See detailEVALUATION OF THE RAPID DETECTION OF ST-17 AND ST-1 GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI USING A MICROFLEX MALDI-TOF MS (BRUKER)
MEEX, Cécile ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; DESCY, Julie ULg et al

Poster (2014, May)

Objectives Clearly associated to neonatal meningitis, Group B streptococci (GBS) classified as sequence type-17 (ST-17) are defined as the “highly virulent” clone amongst GBS. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Objectives Clearly associated to neonatal meningitis, Group B streptococci (GBS) classified as sequence type-17 (ST-17) are defined as the “highly virulent” clone amongst GBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate an easy and rapid method, recently described to detect ST-17 and ST-1 GBS, based on distinguishing peak-shifts present on the protein spectrum of these 2 sequence types, using a Microflex (Bruker) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS). Methods This study was performed on 67 multi locus sequence typed (MLST) GBS originated from the Belgian and Czech National Reference Centers, including 18 ST-17 and 16 ST-1. After culture on blood agar, an ethanol/formic acid extraction was performed on each strain. Each extract was spotted once on a target plate, overlaid with 1 µl alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix and further analysed by a Microflex MALDI-TOF MS. One spectrum per isolate was recorded, 240 laser shots being recorded for each spectrum. The spectra were further analysed using a Bruker prototype software, and 2 logarithmic values, one for ST-17 and one for ST-1, calculated from the intensities of the present and absent peaks, were obtained for each strain. If >0, this value indicated the presence of the specific sequence type. In a second step, the test was repeated on each strain with discordant result when compared with MLST. Results Compared with MLST method, the first analysis of the strains gave poor results, leading to very low sensitivities (77.8% for ST-17 and 50% for ST-1) but rather good specificities (85.7% for ST-17 and 98.0% for ST-1). After repeating the analysis on the strains with discordant result, sensitivity, 100% and 93.8%, and specificity, 87.8% and 98.0%, for ST-17 and ST-1 respectively were highly improved. Conclusion Since ST-17 and ST-1 GBS both show distinguishing peak-shifts on their protein spectrum, as described by Lartigue et al., the distinction of these 2 sequence types is now possible by MALDI-TOF MS. To our knowledge, this study is the first describing this application on a Microflex MS using a software to classify the strains. The observed results are promising but, given to the variability of the logarithmic value given by the software, the need to perform several measures on a same strain seems to be essential. After optimization of the analysis procedure, this rapid, easy and cheap method could be used to precociously detect ST-17 among GBS isolated from prenatal screenings, allowing a better follow up of the colonized mothers and a closer monitoring of their newborns. We would like to thank the Bruker Company which allowed us to evaluate the prototype software they have developed. [less ▲]

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See detailFourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria
Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche; Soetens, Oriane et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2014), 69

Objectives: To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods: Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicro- bial agents using Etest methodology. Results: According to EUCAST breakpoints, .90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were sus- ceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/ 4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993 – 94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011 – 12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions: Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo
Kabwang a Mpalang, Rosette; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Journal of Infection in Developing Countries [=JIDC] (2014), 8

Background: The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methodology: A ... [more ▼]

Background: The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methodology: A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in different sample groups was 41.2%, 37.2%, 23.7%, and 35.1% for goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pfcrt 72-76 haplotypes eight years after chloroquine withdrawal in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mvumbi, Dieudonné; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg et al

in Malaria Journal (2013), 12

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases, as monotherapies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases, as monotherapies had become ineffective in many parts of the world. As a result, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) withdrew chloroquine (CQ) from its malaria treatment policy in 2002 and an artesunate (AS)-amodiaquine (AQ) combination became the ACT of choice in DRC in 2005. AQ-resistance (AQR) has been reported in several parts of the world and mutations in codons 72-76 of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene have been strongly correlated with resistance, especially mutations encoding the SVMNT haplotype. This haplotype was first identified in Southeast Asia and South America but was recently reported in two African countries neighbouring DRC. These facts raised two questions: the first about the evolution of CQ resistance (CQR) in DRC and the second about the presence of the SVMNT haplotype, which would compromise the use of AQ as a partner drug for ACT. METHODS: A total of 213 thick blood films were randomly collected in 2010 from a paediatric clinic in Kinshasa, DRC. Microscopy controls and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed for Plasmodium species identification. Haplotypes of the pfcrt gene were determined by sequencing. RESULTS: The K76T mutation was detected in 145 out of 198 P. falciparum-positive samples (73.2%).In these 145 resistant strains, only the CVIET haplotype was detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to assess the molecular markers of resistance to CQ and AQ after the introduction of ACT in DRC. The results suggest first that CQR is decreasing, as wild-type pfcrt haplotypes were found in only 26.8% of the samples and secondly that the SVMNT haplotype is not yet present in Kinshasa, suggesting that AQ remains valid as a partner drug for ACT in this region. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in symptomatic and and asymptomatic children from Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Martin, Caroline et al

in Journal of Clinical Virology (2013), 58

Background: Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Few epidemiologicaldata regarding the NoV strains circulating in African countries are available.Objectives: To determine ... [more ▼]

Background: Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Few epidemiologicaldata regarding the NoV strains circulating in African countries are available.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of NoV in Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) in both symptomaticand asymptomatic gastroenteritis patients.Study design: Patients both with and without gastro-intestinal disorders were selected. Clinical andepidemiological data, as well as stool samples, were collected through March to April 2011.NoV molecular detection (genogrouping and genotyping) and viral load quantification were also per-formed for all samples.Results: NoV were detected in 22.2% of the 418 collected stool samples (21.2% and 24.8% from the 293symptomatic patients (SP) and the 125 asymptomatic patients (ASP) respectively).Genogroup (G) distribution was 7.5%, 10.2% and 3.4% for GI, GII and both GI/GII respectively among SPand 12.0%, 11.2% and 1.6% for GI, GII and both GI/GII, respectively, among ASP.Average viral load values were higher in SP than in ASP for GI (p = 0.03) but not for GII.Phylogenic analysis showed a high degree of genotype diversity in SP and ASP. One recombinantGII.7/GII.6 sequence was, to the best of our knowledge, detected for the first time.Conclusions: This study enabled identification of the specific molecular epidemiology of NoV strains cir-culating in a representative country in Eastern Africa, and additionally showed that ASP could play animportant “reservoir” role. A high strain diversity was detected with a surprisingly high proportion ofNoV GI compared to the common genotypes usually reported in comparable epidemiological studies. [less ▲]

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See detailNeonatal Group B Streptococcal Infections: Overview and Prevention Strategies
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2013, October 13)

Emerging abruptly in the 1970s as an important life-threatening pathogen in neonates causing severe invasive bacterial infections, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) has become a ... [more ▼]

Emerging abruptly in the 1970s as an important life-threatening pathogen in neonates causing severe invasive bacterial infections, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) has become a notable global problem. Today it remains the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, early onset and late onset diseases (EOD, LOD). From the 1990s to the present, where guidelines for prevention of perinatal GBS disease have been widely implemented, the incidence of EOD has dramatically decreased to <0.5 cases per 1,000 live births but has not been eradicated. Selective intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis with β-lactams administered during labor and delivery to women who are colonized by GBS appears to be the most practical and effective mode of prevention of GBS EOD at this time. There are different prevention strategies at this time, screening-based or risk-based, but none are 100% effective in the eradication of neonatal GBS EOD and there are no preventive strategies for LOD. In spite of the great progress that has been made, GBS EOD continues to occur and the GBS burden remains a significant public health issue. Extended efforts to improve screening for GBS status continue to be important and may be able to take advantage of new rapid diagnostic technologies. Given challenges, limitations and potential complications of maternal intrapartum prophylaxis, a new approach is still needed. Maternal immunization against GBS is an attractive alternative for the prevention of not only EOD and LOD but also stillbirths and maternal diseases. Development of a group B streptococcal vaccine is the most promising approach for the prevention of severe GBS neonatal disease through transplacental delivery of antibodies directly from immunized mothers. It may likely become the most effective and sustainable long-term preventive strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailDNA fingerprinting using Diversilab system for genotyping characterization of Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton violaceum
SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; DIMO, Lauryl; GRAIDE, Hélène ULg et al

in Mycoses (2013, October 01), 56(Supplement S3), 99

Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological determinants responsible for the high number of anthropophilic dermatophytes received by the National Reference Center for Mycosis of Liege (NRCL) during the ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological determinants responsible for the high number of anthropophilic dermatophytes received by the National Reference Center for Mycosis of Liege (NRCL) during the year 2012. To perform a genotypic characterization by the Diversilab® system focusing on the two main isolated species, Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton violaceum. To present a preliminary study preceding the national survey launched in 2013. Methods: A total of 51 strains of M. audouinii (50 clinical + 1 reference (ref.) strains) and 15 strains of T. violaceum (14 clinical + 1 ref. strain) originating from different locations through Belgium were included in the study. The fungal strains were first cultivated on Malt agar, then sub-cultured in Sabouraud liquid medium (Fluka). The grown mycelium was processed for DNA extraction following recommendations of the manufacturer (Ultra Clean® DNA Microbial isolation kit, MoBio laboratories). Genotypic analysis was performed using the DiversiLab® system (BioMérieux) for DNA fingerprinting and analysis. Results: Regarding M. audouinii, four different genotypic groups of strains were separated. Group 1 includes 11 strains and is only found in the Liège surroundings. Group 2 includes only one strain with little differences compared to group 1 and collected from the Liège area. These two groups may be related to each other. Group 3 contains 36 strains and the reference strain. This genotype is distributed in different Belgium locations. The last group, group 4, contains only 3 isolates sharing low similarities in comparison with the 3 other groups. Concerning T. violaceum, 6 different genotypic groups with a mixed geographical distribution were determined. Group 1 includes 8 clinical isolates and the ref. strain. The other five isolates are all different and seem not to be related to each other. Conclusion: The automated typing DiversiLab® system proved to be an easy and efficient method to investigate the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes infections. Preliminary results of the study show that, through Belgium, several groups of isolates co-exist for M. audouinii and T. violaceum providing evidence of genetic heterogeneity. This variation can be related to acquired mutations due to environmental adaptation. Further investigations are necessary to better understand the impact of this genotypic variation. [less ▲]

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See detailSurveillance of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in group B streptococcus (GBS) in Belgium
Melin, Pierrette ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; Sarlet, Gilles ULg et al

in Program and Abstract of the 53rd Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, USA: ASM. (2013, September)

BACKGROUND Today GBS vaccines for prevention of severe neonatal disease through transplacental delivery of antibodies directly from immunized mothers are in advanced stage of development. For the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND Today GBS vaccines for prevention of severe neonatal disease through transplacental delivery of antibodies directly from immunized mothers are in advanced stage of development. For the introduction of any GBS vaccine there are urgent needs for pre and post vaccine enhanced surveillance studies of strains isolated from both neonatal diseases and vagino-rectal colonization of pregnant women. In Belgium, surveillance of invasive isolates is regularly done by the NRC. We report in this study a surveillance of colonizing isolates of GBS. METHODS In 2012, 344 GBS isolates were obtained from a Belgian surveillance for vagino-rectal colonization among pregnant women (max. 5 isolates/lab). Capsular types were determined by agglutination (Strep-B-latex, SSI, Denmark) and MICs by using a microdilution method (Sensititre) and Etest® (EUCAST interpretive criteria). Furthermore, for the erythromycin (E) resistant (R) isolates, the inducible (iMLS), constitutive (cMLS) and M phenotypes were assessed by a double-disk diffusion test. RESULTS Serotype III was the more common (27.6%) followed by V, II, Ia, Ib, IV, IX, VII and VI (18.1%, 16.4%, 13.4%, 7%, 4.7%, 2.5%, 0.8%, 0.5%) and 8.9% were non typable. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin ; 29% were R to E with a higher rate among serotypes IV and V (p<0.05). Among these E-R isolates, 93% exhibited the MLS phenotype (R to E and CC): 66% were cMLS with E MIC50>256 mg/L and 27% iMLS with E MIC50/MIC90 2/>8 mg/L. The M phenotype (R to E and S to C) was expressed by 7% of E-R isolates with E MIC50/MIC90 2/4 mg/L. CONCLUSION Compared with Belgian data relating to neonatal invasive strains (NRC reports) 1) Serotype V and II are more frequent and III less frequent among colonizing isolates 2) Prevalence of E-R is similar in percentage and phenotypes with the MLS R phenotype as major mechanism. Extended surveillance of both invasive and colonizing isolates is needed currently to prepare the follow-up in the future vaccine era. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of transport condition of swabs for group B streptococcal (GBS) screening
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Dodémont, Magali; Sarlet, Gilles ULg et al

in Program and Abstract of the 53rd Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, USA: ASM. (2013, September)

BACKGROUND For the screening-based strategy for prevention of perinatal GBS disease, CDC Guidelines as many others recommend use of appropriate transport media (Amies, Stuart, e.g.) and processing of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND For the screening-based strategy for prevention of perinatal GBS disease, CDC Guidelines as many others recommend use of appropriate transport media (Amies, Stuart, e.g.) and processing of specimen as soon as possible within 1 to 4 days. False negative cultures occur for several causes including lost of GBS viability during transport. Could Lim broth, recommended for the selective enrichment, and Granada tubes be used as transport media for swab? Simulating conditions of routine practice, Lim broth and Granada tubes, were evaluated in vitro as transport media. METHODS Tubes of 3 brands of Lim broth (Becton Dickinson, bioMérieux, Copan) and Granada tubes (bioMérieux) were inoculated with low inocula of 10-100 CFU of GBS. Each type of tubes was incubated at 4°C, room T° (RT) and 35°C. GBS were enumerated from each tube by subculture on blood agar after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days of storage at the different T°. All tests were processed in triplicates with 3 strains of GBS belonging to serotype Ia, III and V. RESULTS No difference of survival was observed between the 3 strains. T° had significant impact on GBS recovery for each type of tubes. At 4°C the viability was hardly sustained along the 4 days. At RT and 35°C, an increase >6 log of the inocula was observed. The increase of GBS density was sustained at least 4 days for the 3 brands of Lim broth. For the Granada broth, such increase was also observed but at day 3 for tubes incubated at 35°C, viability decreased and for some tubes, GBS subcultures were negative at day 3 or 4. CONCLUSION To improve sensitivity of GBS screening cultures, Lim broth could be recommended as a strong transport media and the advisable storage condition would be RT to 35°C up to 4 days. In this way, initiating selective enrichment culture at the time of collection of specimen would provide higher sensitivity even for low density of colonization. Transport at 4°C should be avoided in favour with RT to 35°C. Studies in clinical setting are expected. For Granada tubes, storage at RT was fine but improvement seemed restricted in time at 35°C as there was a loss of viability after 3 days. For Granada tubes, extended evaluation and delimitation of use are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailBordetella pertussis seroprevalence in Belgian adults aged 20–39 years, 2012
Huygen, K; Rodeghiero, C; Govaerts, Daniele et al

in Epidemiology & Infection (2013)

The last report on pertussis seroprevalence in Belgium concerned samples collected during 1993–1994. In the context of the Eupert-Labnet WP6 seroprevalence study (comparing sera from 16 European member ... [more ▼]

The last report on pertussis seroprevalence in Belgium concerned samples collected during 1993–1994. In the context of the Eupert-Labnet WP6 seroprevalence study (comparing sera from 16 European member states), 1500 anonymized leftover diagnostic samples were collected randomly during the second semester of 2012 by the clinical chemistry laboratories of six participating Belgian centres, distributed equally between Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels Capital Region. As suggested by the WP6 organizers, a total of 750 samples (125/centre) were selected from subjects in the 20–29 years age group and 750 samples (125/centre) from subjects in the 30–39 years age group. Anti-PT IgG levels were measured using Virion-Serion ELISA and analysed using predefined cut-off levels. Sixty-one (4%) sera were indicative of an infection in the past 2 years (between 50 and 100 IU/ml) and another 61 (4%) sera had anti-PT IgG antibodies reflecting acute infection (>100 IU/ml). These results highlight the presence of a Bordetella pertussis reservoir in the adult ‘healthy’ Belgian population [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of a new rapid test for the detection of norovirus antigen in comparison with Real Time RT-PCR
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Gérard, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2013, September)

Diagnosis of NoV infection mainly relies on molecular methods. A detection of viral antigens can also be performed by immunochromatographic assays, and may be useful in outbreak settings. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

Diagnosis of NoV infection mainly relies on molecular methods. A detection of viral antigens can also be performed by immunochromatographic assays, and may be useful in outbreak settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of the new RDT ImmunoCardSTAT!®Norovirus (Meridian Bioscience®, Europe) with a real time RT-PCR. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing
Magoue Lonchel, Carine ULg; MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Gangoué-Piéboji, J et al

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2013), 19(9), 416-20

During April 2010 and June 2010, 334 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from 590 participants (outpatients, inpatients, inpatient carers, hospital workers and members of their households) were collected from ... [more ▼]

During April 2010 and June 2010, 334 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from 590 participants (outpatients, inpatients, inpatient carers, hospital workers and members of their households) were collected from faecal samples. Based on b-lactamase pattern, origin of strains and the relationship between participants, 44 isolates of extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected from 44 participants (in Ngaoundere Protestant Hospital and Ngaoundere Regional Hospital, Cameroon). To determine the relatedness of bacterial strains, these isolates were fingerprinted using the automated, repetitive-sequenced-based PCR-based DiversiLab system. Subsequently, E. coli isolates that had undergone DiversiLab analysis were examined with respect to their phylogenetic group and detection of the ST131 clone to shed light on the epidemiology of these isolates in the Ngaoundere hospitals. The prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among the study participants was 54.06%. According to participant groups, the prevalence of faecal carriage was also high (outpatients 45%; inpatients 67%; inpatient carers 57%; hospital workers 44%; and members of their households 46%). Analysis of the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a close relationship of the isolates between related and nonrelated individuals. In addition, DiversiLab results of E. coli identified four related isolates (4/22) from cluster III belonging to the epidemiologically important clone ST131. Our results highlight the importance of outpatients, inpatients, their carers, hospital workers and their families as reservoirs of ESBLproducing Enterobacteriaceae. [less ▲]

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See detailGroup B streptococcal epidemiology and vaccine needs in developed countries
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; EFSTRATIOU, Androulla

in Vaccine (2013), 31(Supplement 4), 31-42

Development of a group B streptococcal vaccine (GBS) vaccine is the most promising approach for the prevention of GBS infections in babies, given the potential adverse effects of intrapartum antibiotic ... [more ▼]

Development of a group B streptococcal vaccine (GBS) vaccine is the most promising approach for the prevention of GBS infections in babies, given the potential adverse effects of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis as well as the need for effective prevention of both adult and late perinatal disease. There are numerous prevention strategies at this time but none are 100% effective in the eradication of neonatal early onset GBS disease and there are no preventative strategies for late onset disease. The need for a GBS vaccine is therefore, of utmost importance. Efforts applying genomics to GBS vaccine development have led to the identification of novel vaccine candidates. The publication of GBS whole genomes coupled with new technologies including multigenome screening and bioinformatics has also allowed researchers to overcome the serotype limitation of earlier vaccine preparations in the search of a universal effective vaccine against GBS. This review brings together the key arguments concerning the potential need of a GBS vaccine in developed countries and describes the current status with GBS epidemiology and microbiology in these countries. [less ▲]

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