References of "Mérindol, Pascal"
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See detailNetwork Fingerprinting: TTL-Based Router Signatures
Vanaubel, Yves ULg; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques; Mérindol, Pascal et al

in ACM/USENIX Internet Measurement Conference (2013, October)

Fingerprinting networking equipment has many potential applications and benefits in network management and security. More generally, it is useful for the understanding of network structures and their ... [more ▼]

Fingerprinting networking equipment has many potential applications and benefits in network management and security. More generally, it is useful for the understanding of network structures and their behaviors. In this paper, we describe a simple fingerprinting mechanism based on the initial TTL values used by routers to reply to various probing messages. We show that main classes obtained using this simple mechanism are meaningful to distinguish routers platforms. Besides, it comes at a very low additional cost compared to standard active topology discovery measurements. As a proof of concept, we apply our method to gain more insight on the behavior of MPLS routers and to, thus, more accurately quantify their visible/invisible deployment. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a bipartite graph modeling of the internet topology
Tarissan, Fabien; Quoitin, Bruno; Mérindol, Pascal et al

in Computer Networks (2013), 57(11), 2331-2347

Modeling the properties of the Internet topology aims at generating large scale artificial IP networks that mimic properties of real ones for simulation purposes. Current models typically consider the ... [more ▼]

Modeling the properties of the Internet topology aims at generating large scale artificial IP networks that mimic properties of real ones for simulation purposes. Current models typically consider the Internet as a simple graph where edges are point-to-point connections between routers. This approach does not take into account point-to-multipoint connections that exist at lower layers in the network, e.g. layer-2 clouds, such as Ethernet switches or MPLS networks. Instead, such physical point-to-multipoint connections are modeled as several logical IP level point-to-point connections. In this paper, we rely on recent developments in topology discovery based on IGMP probing that allows for revealing part of the network’s layer-2 structure. We take advantage of this additional knowledge for proposing an Internet model based on bipartite graphs considering both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections. Our model remains simple: it only takes as input the node degree sequence for both layer-2 and layer-3 nodes, randomly generates a bipartite graph respecting those distributions, and then derives the corresponding layer-3 topology. We show that, despite the simplicity of our model, realistic network properties, such as high local density, emerge naturally. This is in contrast with the now common belief that such properties can only appear with more intricate models or if explicitly injected in random models. Besides, we also provide evidences of how the analysis performed at the bipartite level might shed light on important properties of the real network structure. Finally, we propose and evaluate a bipartite graph generator based on our model that only takes two synthetic node degree distributions as input. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying and Mitigating IGMP Filtering in Topology Discovery
Marchetta, Pietro; Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2012, December)

Recent developments in router level topology discovery have suggested the introduction of IGMP probing in addition to standard techniques such as traceroute and alias resolution. With a single IGMP probe ... [more ▼]

Recent developments in router level topology discovery have suggested the introduction of IGMP probing in addition to standard techniques such as traceroute and alias resolution. With a single IGMP probe, one can obtain all multicast interfaces and links of a multicast router. If such a probing is a promising approach, we noticed that IGMP probes are subject to filtering, leading so to the fragmentation of the collected multicast graph into several disjoint connected components. In this paper, we cope with the fragmentation issue. Our contributions are threefold: (i) we experimentally quantify the damages caused by IGMP filtering on collected topologies of large tier-1 ISPs; (ii) using traceroute data, we construct a hybrid graph and estimate how far each IGMP fragment is from each other; (iii) we provide and experimentally evaluate a recursive approach for reconnecting disjoint multicast components. The key idea of the third contribution is to recursively apply alias resolution to reassemble disjoint fragments and, thus, progressively extend the mapping of the targeted ISP. Data presented in the paper, as well as reconstructed topologies, are freely available at http://svnet.u-strasbg.fr/merlin. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing MPLS Tunnels Obscured from Traceroute
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Luckie, Matthew; Mérindol, Pascal et al

in Computer Communication Review (2012), 42(2), 87-93

Operators have deployed Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in the Internet for over a decade. However, its impact on Internet topology measurements is not well known, and it is possible for some MPLS ... [more ▼]

Operators have deployed Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in the Internet for over a decade. However, its impact on Internet topology measurements is not well known, and it is possible for some MPLS configurations to lead to false router-level links in maps derived from traceroute data. In this paper, we introduce a measurement-based classification of MPLS tunnels, identifying tunnels where IP hops are revealed but not explicitly tagged as label switching routers, as well as tunnels that obscure the underlying path. Using a large-scale dataset we collected, we show that paths frequently cross MPLS tunnels in today's Internet: in our data, at least 30% of the paths we tested traverse an MPLS tunnel. We also propose and evaluate several methods to reveal MPLS tunnels that are not explicitly flagged as such: we discover that their fraction is significant (up to half the explicit tunnel quantity) but most of them do not obscure IP-level topology discovery. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology Discovery at the Router Level: a New Hybrid Tool Targeting ISP Networks
Marchetta, Pietro; Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communications (2011), 29(6), 1776--1787

For a long time, traceroute measurements combined with alias resolution methods have been the sole way to collect Internet router level maps. Recently, a new approach has been introduced with the use of a ... [more ▼]

For a long time, traceroute measurements combined with alias resolution methods have been the sole way to collect Internet router level maps. Recently, a new approach has been introduced with the use of a multicast management tool, mrinfo, and a recursive probing scheme. In this paper, after analyzing advantages and drawbacks of probing approaches based on traceroute and mrinfo, we propose a hybrid discovery tool, MERLIN (MEasure the Router Level of the INternet), mixing mrinfo and traceroute probes. Using a central server controlling a set of distributed vantage points in order to increase the exploration coverage while limiting the probing redundancy, the purpose of MERLIN is to provide an accurate router level map inside a targeted Autonomous System (AS). MERLIN also takes advantage of alias resolution methods to reconnect scattered mul- ticast components. To evaluate the performance of MERLIN, we report experimental results describing its efficiency in topology exploration and reconstruction of several ASes. [less ▲]

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See detailMERLIN: MEasure the Router Level of the INternet
Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques, et al

in 7th Euro-NF Conference on Next Generation Internet (2011, June)

The Internet topology discovery has been an extensive research subject those last years. While the raw data is collected using large traceroute campaigns, additional probing and/or extensive computation ... [more ▼]

The Internet topology discovery has been an extensive research subject those last years. While the raw data is collected using large traceroute campaigns, additional probing and/or extensive computation are required to gather subsets of IP addresses into single identifiers cor- responding to routers. This process, known as alias reso- lution, leads to a router level map of the Internet. In this paper, we push further the Internet router level mapping with a new probing tool called MERLIN. MER- L I N is based on mrinfo, a multicast management tool. mrinfo is able to silently collect all IPv4 multicast en- abled interfaces of a router and all its multicast links to- wards its neighbors: it does not need or rely on any alias resolution mechanism. In addition, M E R L I N comes with the advantage of being much more scalable than standard data gathering techniques. In this paper, we deploy and evaluate the performance of MERLIN. We demonstrate that the use of several vantage points is crucial to circum- vent IGMP filtering in order to collect large amounts of routers. We also investigate the completeness of MERLIN by providing a lower bound on the proportion of in- formation that it may miss. Finally, our dataset and the MERLIN implementation are freely available. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Impact of Layer-2 on Node Degree Distribution
Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg; Bonaventure, Olivier et al

in 10th annual conference on Internet measurement (2010, November)

The Internet topology data collected through traceroute exploration has been extensively studied in the past. In particular, a remarkable property of the Internet, the power-law shape of node degree ... [more ▼]

The Internet topology data collected through traceroute exploration has been extensively studied in the past. In particular, a remarkable property of the Internet, the power-law shape of node degree distribution, drew the attention of the research community. Several studies have since questioned this property. In this paper, based on a large dataset collected using mrinfo, we show that the node degree distribution is strongly impacted by the presence of layer-2 (L2) networks, such as switches. L2 devices interconnect a large number of routers, themselves being also involved in multiple L2 interconnec- tions. Such a situation induces nodes with very high degree when analyzing the layer-3 (L3) graph with traceroute probing. Considering the physical design of a network, our analysis provides a lower bound on the bias generated by using only an L3 view. We also provide a model that can be a first step towards L2 aware topology generation. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting Intra-Domain Topology from mrinfo Probing
Pansiot, Jean-Jacques; Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in 11th international Conference on Passive and active Measurement (2010, April)

Activeandpassivemeasurementsfortopologydiscoveryhave known an impressive growth during the last decade. If a lot of work has been done regarding inter-domain topology discovery and modeling, only a few ... [more ▼]

Activeandpassivemeasurementsfortopologydiscoveryhave known an impressive growth during the last decade. If a lot of work has been done regarding inter-domain topology discovery and modeling, only a few papers raise the question of how to extract intra-domain topologies from measurements results. In this paper, based on a large dataset collected with mrinfo, a multicast tool that silently discovers all interfaces of a router, we provide a mechanism for retrieving intra-domain topologies. The main challenge is to assign an AS number to a border router whose IP addresses are not mapped to the same AS. Our algorithm is based on probabilistic and empirical IP allocation rules. The goal of our pool of rules is to converge to a consistent router to AS mapping. We show that our router-to-AS algorithm results in a mapping in more than 99% of the cases. Furthermore, with mrinfo, point-to-point links between routers can be distinguished from multiple links attached to a switch, providing an accurate view of the collected topologies. Finally, we provide a set of large intra-domain topologies in various formats. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying ASes Multiconnectivity Using Multicast Information
Mérindol, Pascal; Van den Schriek, Virginie; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement (2009, November)

Redundant connectivity (or multiconnectivity) between adjacent autonomous systems (ASes) is important for inter-domain traffic engineering and fast recovery in case of failures. However, the redundancy of ... [more ▼]

Redundant connectivity (or multiconnectivity) between adjacent autonomous systems (ASes) is important for inter-domain traffic engineering and fast recovery in case of failures. However, the redundancy of ASes business relationship links has not been quantitatively studied, mainly due to the difficulty of obtaining relevant data. In this paper, we show that the mrinfo multicast monitoring tool can provide useful data about the Internet topology and such redundant links in particular. Our analysis relies on more than four years of daily queries to about ten thousand routers mapped into more than two hundred ASes. We demonstrate that peering links between ASes are frequently redundant. In particular, our analysis shows that more than half of the studied ASes pairs are connected through multiple physical links. We then refine our analysis by considering the different types of ASes and their business relationships. A particular result of our analysis is that at least 75% of the peer-to-peer relationships between adjacent Tier-1 ASes are redundant, i.e., the con- nections between these ASes involve several physical links. Our analysis is conservative, providing so a lower bound, as some links might not be seen by mrinfo due to ISPs filtering policies. [less ▲]

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