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See detailBovine Herpesvirus 1-Induced Apoptosis Occurs At The G0/G1 Phase Of The Cell Cycle
Hanon, Emilien ULg; Hoornaert, S.; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Virology (1997), 232(2), 351-358

We have previously shown that bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), even when inactivated, induces apoptotic cell death in mitogen-stimulated bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Hanon et al., 1996 ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), even when inactivated, induces apoptotic cell death in mitogen-stimulated bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Hanon et al., 1996, J. Virol. 70, 4116-4120). In order to gain insight into this process, we have investigated the cell cycle phase at which BHV-1 induces apoptosis in PBMCs. Our results show that the percentage of cells that progress through the S phase was always lower in BHV-1-infected PBMCs than in control cells. This effect was not due to a defective activation of mitogen-stimulated PBMCs since BHV-1 only slightly affected the percentage of cells expressing BoCD25, a well-known lymphocyte activation marker. Furthermore, mimosine and cyclosporine A, two chemicals that inhibit entry into the S phase of the cell cycle by different pathways, did not affect the ability of BHV-1 to induce apoptosis. BHV-1-induced apoptosis also occurred in unstimulated PBMCs and interestingly, this was associated with the expression of c-myc and BoCD25 proteins both of which are related to cell cycle progression. All together, these data provide evidence demonstrating that BHV-1-induced apoptosis occurs at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailEstablishment of a Rabbit Model for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 Neurological Acute Infection
Meyer, Gilles; Lemaire, Mylène; Lyaku, J. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1996), 51(1-2), 27-40

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with BHV-5 or bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) by the intraconjunctival, intracerebral or intranasal routes. BHV-5 or BHV-1 inoculated in the conjunctiva induced virus proliferation in the eye mucosae and the nasal cavity of rabbits without meningo-encephalitis. On the other hand, only BHV-5 infection by intranasal or intracerebral routes produced a fatal meningo-encephalitis. The intranasal route was used in a further experiment for the establishment of a rabbit model for BHV-5 infection. A total of 45 rabbits were inoculated intranasally with BHV-5 or BHV-1. The results showed that intranasal inoculation of BHV-5 strain N569 in rabbits was followed by the development of a lethal meningo-encephalitis for 66% of rabbits while all BHV-1 infected rabbits remained healthy throughout this experiment (28 days). Analysis between the mortalities of rabbits infected with BHV-5 and BHV-1 were highly significant (p < 0.001). The presence of BHV-5 in the central nervous system (CNS) was confirmed by virus isolation (essentially the cerebrum, midbrain and pons) and by immunohistochemical staining of BHV-5 antigen (essentially in the neurons of the cerebrum) only in BHV-5 infected rabbits showing clinical signs of meningo-encephalitis. The findings obtained confirmed the suitability of a rabbit model for the establishment of BHV-5 neurological acute infection and also as a valuable tool for the comparative study of BHV-5 and BHV-1 neuropathogenicity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Replication in Vitro of the Gammaherpesvirus Bovine Herpesvirus 4 Is Restricted by Its DNA Synthesis Dependence on the S Phase of the Cell Cycle
Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Goltz, M.; Lyaku, J. et al

in Virology (1995), 213(2), 328-40

Because several observations have suggested that replication of the gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) is influenced by the physiological state of the host cell, a study was carried out to ... [more ▼]

Because several observations have suggested that replication of the gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) is influenced by the physiological state of the host cell, a study was carried out to determine the relationship between BHV-4 infection and the cell cycle. The temporal expression of BHV-4 late (L) proteins in unsynchronized cell cultures was first investigated by flow cytometry. Interestingly, L protein expression occurred in a limited number of cells infected with a high multiplicity of infection, and a reciprocal correlation between the percentage of positive cells and the cell density at the time of infection was demonstrated. Moreover, the finding that a BHV-4 early-late protein was expressed in nearly all the cells suggested that a blockage in the viral replication cycle occurred in some infected cells at the stage of viral DNA synthesis or L protein expression. Because this blockage could be the consequence of the dependence of one or both of these events on the cell cycle, they were investigated after infection of synchronized cell cultures. The following findings were made. (i) Cell transition through the S phase quantitatively increased the rate of BHV-4 DNA replication. (ii) BHV-4 DNA synthesis could not be detected in cells arrested in G0. (iii) Synchronization of MDBK cells with Lovastatin before infection increased the percentage of cells expressing L proteins. (iv) In contrast, infection of cells arrested in G0 led to few positive cells. Taken together these results showed that BHV-4 DNA replication and consequently the expression of L proteins are dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could be of importance for several biological properties of BHV-4 infection in vitro and might have implications for the biology of the virus in vivo. [less ▲]

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