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See detailPulmonary Function Values in Friesian and Double-Muscled Calves During Acute Poikilocapnic Hypoxia
Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1997), 44(2), 79-90

The effects of an acute non-isocapnic hypoxia on ventilation and pulmonary mechanics were investigated in 6 healthy unsedated Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves and in 7 double-muscled calves of the Belgian ... [more ▼]

The effects of an acute non-isocapnic hypoxia on ventilation and pulmonary mechanics were investigated in 6 healthy unsedated Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves and in 7 double-muscled calves of the Belgian White and Blue (BWB) breed known to develop more severe hypoxemia during exercise and respiratory diseases. Data were collected at 1 min intervals throughout the following protocol: breathing air (FIO2 = 21%), then breathing hypoxic gas mixture (FIO2 = 10%) for 5 min, and, finally, breathing air again for 5 min of recovery. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at the 4th min of hypoxia for blood gas analysis. In HF and BWB calves, hypoxia induced a significant increase in tidal and minute volume, but did not change respiratory rate, dynamic lung compliance and total pulmonary resistance. However, with regard to their ventilation during normoxia at rest, BWB calves showed a comparatively greater rise in ventilation than HF calves during the first 4 min of hypoxia. On the contrary, by the 5th minute of hypoxia, ventilation of BWB calves declined to the normoxic level while HF calves largely sustained hyperventilation. This hypoxic ventilatory depression in BWB calves could be explained by the proportionately greater initial increase in ventilation. It was concluded that BWB calves supported this hypoxic challenge less easily than HF calves. [less ▲]

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See detailVentilatory Effects of the Single-Breath Co2 Test, Compared with Eructation, in Cattle
Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Genicot, B. et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1997), 58(3), 310-6

OBJECTIVE: To assess the peripheral chemoreceptor-induced ventilatory response to single tidal-breath CO2 (SB CO2) tests, compared with eructations, in 2 breeds of calves. ANIMALS: 13 conscious unsedated ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the peripheral chemoreceptor-induced ventilatory response to single tidal-breath CO2 (SB CO2) tests, compared with eructations, in 2 breeds of calves. ANIMALS: 13 conscious unsedated Holstein-Friesian and 8 Belgian White and Blue hypermuscled calves. PROCEDURE: An SB of +/- 50% CO2 in equal parts of O2 and N2 was inhaled. Ventilatory response was determined from the increase in ventilation (delta Ve) during the first 20 seconds after the test breath or eructation and from the difference in end-tidal PCO2 between the stimulus and preceding control breaths. RESULTS: Because no difference was found between the 2 breeds of calves, all data were pooled. The increase in Ve peaked during the fifth breath after the SB CO2 test on average, corresponding to a delay of 12.4 seconds. The SB CO2 responses ranged from 0.037 to 0.151 L/min.mm of Hg.m2, with a mean +/- SD of 0.082 +/- 0.032 L/min.mm of Hg.m2 for all calves. The SB CO2 tests, similar to eructations, modified the breathing pattern significantly and in the same direction, by principally shortening expiratory time and increasing mean inspiratory flow. After eructations, Ve peak increase was more important for lower difference in end-tidal PCO2 between the stimulus and preceding control breaths and took place more rapidly than after SB CO2 tests. Accordingly, eructation responses were more marked than SB CO2 responses and averaged 0.925 +/- 0.276 L/min.mm of Hg.m2. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In cattle, the pattern of breathing and ventilation under basal conditions is characterized by a cyclic variability coupled to eructation. [less ▲]

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See detailPemphigus foliacé dans l'espèce équine : synthèse et description de 2 cas.
Amory, Hélène ULg; Beco, Luc; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1997), 141

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See detailBilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in a pony
Amory, Hélène ULg; Lomba, Fernand; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [=JAVMA] (1994), 205(4), 587-591

An adult pony had a 1-month history of severe respiratory distress that was resistant to treatment and environmental changes. Results of blood gas analysis were indicative of alveolar hypoventilation ... [more ▼]

An adult pony had a 1-month history of severe respiratory distress that was resistant to treatment and environmental changes. Results of blood gas analysis were indicative of alveolar hypoventilation. Simultaneous recordings of thoracic and abdominal wall motion by inductance plethysmography, together with complete pulmonary mechanics evaluation that included transdiaphragmatic pressure monitoring, revealed complete passive behavior of the diaphragm during breathing. Because radiography, necropsy, and histologic examination did not reveal any major lesion to explain the clinical and functional observations, bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis was diagnosed [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth-Related Changes in the Pulmonary Function of Goats
Bakima, M.; Lomba, Fernand; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Research Communications (1990), 14(2), 141-146

Growth-related changes in pulmonary function values were investigated in 20 healthy French Alpine goats, aged between 20 and 550 days, weighing 7-55 kg. Pulmonary ventilation, mechanics of breathing and ... [more ▼]

Growth-related changes in pulmonary function values were investigated in 20 healthy French Alpine goats, aged between 20 and 550 days, weighing 7-55 kg. Pulmonary ventilation, mechanics of breathing and arterial oxygen tension were measured using standardized techniques and methods adapted for goats of different body sizes. The Ppl values and the tI/tTOT ratio showed no significant changes with age and body size. The ventilation values (Vt, Ve, mVI and mVE) increased linearly with growth. There was a significant correlation of age and body weight with dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), viscous work of breathing (Wvis tot) and minute viscous work (Wvis min) throughout the age range studied. Cdyn, Wvis tot and Wvis min increased and RL decreased with age and body weight. Arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2) did not show significant changes over the age range studied. Regression equations for each pulmonary function parameter are given with body weight as the independent variable. Data for the mechanics of breathing were compared with those elsewhere for cattle, horses, man and dogs. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of Bronchomotor Tone in Conscious Calves
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A. R.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (1989), 12(1), 58-64

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of some alpha and beta sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on respiratory impedance in healthy conscious calves. Ten Friesian calves were ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of some alpha and beta sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on respiratory impedance in healthy conscious calves. Ten Friesian calves were investigated in this study. The forced oscillation technique was used to measure the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the respiratory system at frequencies ranging from 4 to 26 Hz. Isoprenaline (1 microgram/kg i.v.), propranolol (3 micrograms/kg i.v.), noradrenaline (2 micrograms/kg i.v.), xylazine (20 micrograms/kg i.v.) and yohimbine (0.25 mg/kg i.v.) were were administered. Isoprenaline induced a significant decrease of Rrs. An increase of Rrs after administration of propranolol was observed but without any change of the frequency dependence of Rrs. A small increase in the resonant frequency was also recorded. A decrease of Rrs was recorded after yohimbine injection. Noradrenaline and xylazine administration increased the resistances and the resonant frequency and induced a negative frequency dependence of Rrs. These results suggest that (1) the major effects of beta adrenergic drugs are on the central airways, (2) the alpha adrenergic system may play a role on the regulation of bronchomotor tone in calves, (3) the effects of alpha adrenergic drugs are on both central and peripheral airways and (4) the forced oscillation technique allows the differentiation of calibre changes occurring in small and large airways. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiratory and Pulmonary Haemodynamic Changes During Experimental Organophosphate Poisoning in Goats
Bakima, M.; Baudet, H. M.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1989), 13(2), 127-133

Five French Alpine goats received 2 mg kg-1 of dichlorvos (DDVP) by intravenous injection and 0.15 mg kg-1 of atropine sulphate 5-10 min later. Ventilatory mechanics, gas exchanges, pulmonary ... [more ▼]

Five French Alpine goats received 2 mg kg-1 of dichlorvos (DDVP) by intravenous injection and 0.15 mg kg-1 of atropine sulphate 5-10 min later. Ventilatory mechanics, gas exchanges, pulmonary haemodynamics and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured before treatment, 5 min after DDVP injection and 5 min after atropine injection. Within 2 min of DDVP administration, all the goats showed acute respiratory distress, excitation and slight muscle fasciculations. A post-inspiratory pause was recorded in 3 goats. Hypersecretion of saliva or nasal discharge was not observed. Dynamic compliance and heart rate decreased significantly and total pulmonary resistance, pulmonary artery and wedge pressures increased significantly. On the other hand, minute ventilation, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions were not significantly altered by DDVP. Atropine treatment reversed all the clinical and functional parameters, with the exception of the central nervous and muscular signs, which disappeared within 12 h. It was concluded that experimental DDVP toxicosis induced changes in the mechanics of breathing and pulmonary haemodynamics associated with diffuse bronchoconstriction and cardiac insufficiency respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanics of Breathing in Goats
Bakima, M.; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1988), 45(3), 332-336

Common pulmonary function tests used in man and domestic mammals were adapted to the goat. Requirements for intrathoracic pressure record and pulmonary function investigation were determined. The ... [more ▼]

Common pulmonary function tests used in man and domestic mammals were adapted to the goat. Requirements for intrathoracic pressure record and pulmonary function investigation were determined. The elastance of the mid-thoracic portion of the oesophagus was measured in 17 healthy goats. The calculated percentage error in identifying the endoesophageal intrathoracic pressure decreased with somatic growth, and was found to be smaller than 2 per cent for adult goats. The location of the oesophageal balloon catheter used to measure the intrathoracic pressure was standardised. The following regression equation calculated between the length of catheter (Lcat) and the thoracic circumference (TC) was found: Lcat (cm) = 6.19 +/- 0.7163 X TC (cm) (R2 = 0.96). The influence of the dead space of a face mask on respiration pattern and arterial blood gas were studied. There were no significant changes in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, breathing frequency and intrathoracic pressures. The influence of head and neck position was investigated. Upper airway resistance (Ruaw), measured with the head in a normal position did not significantly differ from values obtained with the head in a horizontal position. Ruaw measured with the head in a vertical position was considerably increased. Arterial blood gas tension and pulmonary mechanics were measured to assess the reproducibility of pulmonary function measurements. Variability in blood gas tension, tidal volume and minute volume is small. The variability of peak to peak intrathoracic pressure change (max delta Plp), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL) and Rt were relatively large. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of Total Respiratory Impedance in Calves by the Forced Oscillation Technique
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A.R.; Lomba, Fernand et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1988), 64(5), 1786-1791

We have determined the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system in unsedated spontaneously breathing calves at various frequencies. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was ... [more ▼]

We have determined the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system in unsedated spontaneously breathing calves at various frequencies. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was produced at the nostrils of the animals by means of a loudspeaker adapted to the nose by a tightly fitting mask. A Fourier analysis of the pressure in the nostrils and flow signals yielded mean Rrs and Xrs, over 16 s, at frequencies of 2-26 Hz. A good correlation was found between values of pulmonary resistances measured by the isovolume method at the respiratory frequency of animals and values obtained at a frequency of 6 Hz by use of our technique. The linearity of the respiratory system, the reproducibility of the technique, and the effects of upper airways on results have been studied. In healthy calves, Rrs increases with frequency. Mean resonant frequency is 7.5 Hz. Bronchospasm was induced in six calves by administration of intravenous organophosphates. Rrs tended to decrease with increasing frequency. Resonant frequency exceeded 26 Hz. All parameters returned to initial values after administration of atropine. In healthy calves, atropine produces a decrease in Rrs, especially at low frequencies. Values of resonant frequency are not modified. [less ▲]

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See detailOxygen Transport Properties of Blood in Two Different Bovine Breeds
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Clerbaux, T.; Willems, Evelyne ULg et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A : Comparative Physiology (1988), 89(4), 553-558

1. The whole oxygen dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin has been determined in double-muscled cattle of the Belgian White Blue breed and in Friesian cattle of different body weight. 2. In calves, P50 ... [more ▼]

1. The whole oxygen dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin has been determined in double-muscled cattle of the Belgian White Blue breed and in Friesian cattle of different body weight. 2. In calves, P50 values are low and DPG level is high (4-20 mumol/g Hb). 3. P50 values of 25 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (mean +/- SD) and a level of DPG less than 1.5 mumol/g Hb have been found in animals weighing more than 80 kg. 4. Effects of temperature and pH on the oxygen dissociation curve have been measured at all levels of saturation. The temperature coefficient (dlog P50/dT) and the Bohr effect expressed as dlog P50/dpH were 0.017 and -0.40, respectively. 5. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen capacity of hemoglobin have been measured. 6. No difference between both breeds has been observed. 7. These data can be used to correct measured values of oxygen tension for temperature and pH and to measure oxygen content of blood in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailPulmonary Function Values and Growth in Belgian White and Blue Double-Muscled Cattle
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Bakima, M.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1988), 45(3), 405-410

Seventy-five double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed, two days to 50 months old and weighing 45 to 680 kg, were investigated. Transpulmonary pressure changes, measured with an ... [more ▼]

Seventy-five double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed, two days to 50 months old and weighing 45 to 680 kg, were investigated. Transpulmonary pressure changes, measured with an oesophageal balloon, variations of air flow and volume at the mouth were obtained during spontaneous breathing to calculate pulmonary function data. Oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions in arterial blood were also recorded. Growth related changes of the pulmonary function values were similar to those observed in other bovine breeds. Total pulmonary resistance, specific total pulmonary resistance, viscous work, power of breathing, specific viscous work, respiratory frequency and peak-to-peak change in transpulmonary pressure were greater in Belgian white and blue cattle than in Friesian cattle. In the former, tidal volume, specific tidal volume, lowest transpulmonary pressure during expiration, transpulmonary pressure at the functional residual capacity level, dynamic lung compliance and oxygen tension in arterial blood were smaller. Airflow, minute volume and carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood were similar in the Belgian white and blue and Friesian cattle. These results were related to the great sensitivity of double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed to laryngitis and bronchopneumonia. [less ▲]

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See detailSpécificités morphologiques et fonctionnelles du système respiratoire de la chèvre
Bakima, M.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Lomba, Fernand

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1988), 132

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See detailLes principales causes de mortalité des jeunes bovins en race Bleu Blanc
Lomba, Fernand; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (1984), 53

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See detailAffections respiratoires enzootiques dans les unités d'engraissement intensif de taurillons en Belgique
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Lomba, Fernand; Bienfet, Valère

(1982, September)

The enzootic respiratory diseases observed in two fattening units during two consecutive years were shown to behave as two distinct entities: IBR and shipping fever the precise aetiology of which was not ... [more ▼]

The enzootic respiratory diseases observed in two fattening units during two consecutive years were shown to behave as two distinct entities: IBR and shipping fever the precise aetiology of which was not determined. The two entities clearly differ from the point of view of epidemiology, symptomatology and economic impact. As far as IBR was concerned and in spite of symptomatic therapeutics, the high mortality rate was responsable of important losses which can arrival in the fattening unit. On the other hand, medical prevention of shipping fever did not seem to be possible and economic losses could only be reduced by early and intensive therapeutics. [less ▲]

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See detailUn cas de décompensation cardiaque bilatérale chez le cheval
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Henroteaux, Marc ULg; Belayat, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1981), 125

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See detailParakératose de la peau chez un veau
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg; Lomba, Fernand

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1980), 124

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