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See detailDecreased Expression of Galectin-3 in Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Liu, F. T.; van den Brule, F. A.

in International Journal of Oncology (1999), 15(1), 67-70

Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding lectins that play multiple roles during tumor progression. Previous work conducted in our laboratory has demonstrated decreased galectin-3 expression in carcinomas ... [more ▼]

Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding lectins that play multiple roles during tumor progression. Previous work conducted in our laboratory has demonstrated decreased galectin-3 expression in carcinomas from colon, breast, ovary and endometrium, compared to the corresponding normal tissues. In this study, we examined the pattern of galectin-3 expression by immunohistochemistry in a group of 10 basal cell carcinomas of the skin. In the surrounding normal skin, galectin-3 immunostaining was found predominantly in the middle epidermis (spine layer) and eccrine sweat glands. Compared to the normal epidermal cells, basal carcinoma cells observed in all 10 samples examined presented with significantly decreased galectin-3 immunostaining. These data further demonstrates that galectin-3 is down-regulated in a variety of human cancers, including basal cell carcinoma. [less ▲]

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See detailTransglutaminase-Mediated Oligomerization of Galectin-3 Modulates Human Melanoma Cell Interactions with Laminin
van den Brule, F. A.; Liu, F. T.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Cell Adhesion and Communication (1998), 5(6), 425-35

Tumor cell adhesion and migration to laminin are important events during invasion and metastatic spread. Galectin-3, a multifunctional member of the galectin family, binds specifically the poly-N ... [more ▼]

Tumor cell adhesion and migration to laminin are important events during invasion and metastatic spread. Galectin-3, a multifunctional member of the galectin family, binds specifically the poly-N-acetyllactosamine residues of laminin and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. Galectin-3 is multimerized by transglutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes cross-linking between glutamine and other aminoacid residues. In this study, we examined the consequences of transglutaminase-mediated galectin-3 oligomerization on the interactions between cancer cells and laminin. We first demonstrated that human galectin-3 is cross-linked by guinea pig liver transglutaminase, forms oligomers, and incorporates the marker 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine. Expression of transglutaminase activity in the A375 and A2058 human melanoma cell extracts was revealed by its ability to induce galectin-3 oligomerization and 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine incorporation. Transglutaminase-treated galectin-3 did not affect adhesion or migration of the melanoma cells to laminin but consistently induced a significant increase of the percentage of cell spreading compared to the control (23.5 +/- 2.3%, vs. 10.6 +/- 1.9% at 180 min, p < 0.05), or to untreated galectin-3 or transglutaminase alone. Our study is the first demonstration that human galectin-3 is oligomerized by transglutaminase with, as a consequence, a specific effect of melanoma cell spreading on laminin. This phenomenon could be of significance in the modulation of cancer cell interactions with laminin during tumor invasion and metastasis. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin-3 and laminin expression in neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid tissue.
Fernandez, P. L.; Merino, M. J.; Gomez, M. et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1997), 181(1), 80-6

Galectin-3 is a 31 kD beta-galactoside-binding lectin which is expressed by several types of non-neoplastic and neoplastic cells and which may be involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. An ... [more ▼]

Galectin-3 is a 31 kD beta-galactoside-binding lectin which is expressed by several types of non-neoplastic and neoplastic cells and which may be involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. An immunohistochemical study has been made of the expression of galectin-3, as well as its ligand, laminin, in a spectrum of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms and in some non-neoplastic conditions. Immunohistochemistry with anti-human recombinant galectin-3 antibody showed consistent, intense positivity in the neoplastic cells of 18 cases of papillary carcinoma and less intense staining in the five anaplastic carcinomas studied. In addition, two out of three poorly differentiated carcinomas, three out of six medullary carcinomas, and four out of eight follicular carcinomas had less intense or focal positivity. One case of Hurthle cell carcinoma showed scattered strongly positive cells. Eight follicular adenomas, three hyperplastic nodules, five nodular goitres, and normal thyroid tissue were negative. Galectin-3 mRNA expression was also evaluated in three of the papillary carcinomas, two follicular adenomas, and one hyperplastic nodule with matched normal tissue. Northern blot analysis demonstrated mRNA overexpression in the three cases of papillary carcinomas, whereas normal and benign tissues were negative. Laminin distribution in neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue varied with architectural patterns but did not correlate with galectin-3 immunohistochemical expression. We conclude that expression of galectin-3 is limited to inflammatory foci in normal and benign thyroid tissue and is a phenotypic feature of malignant thyroid neoplasms, especially papillary carcinomas. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of galectin 3 and galectin 1 in colorectal cancer progression.
Sanjuan, X.; Fernandez, P. L.; Castells, A. et al

in Gastroenterology (1997), 113(6), 1906-15

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding proteins possibly involved in tumor progression. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of galectin 3 and galectin 1 expression and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding proteins possibly involved in tumor progression. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of galectin 3 and galectin 1 expression and involvement in colorectal cancer progression. METHODS: Galectin 3 expression was examined immunohistochemically in 39 samples of normal mucosae, 25 adenomas, 87 carcinomas, and 39 lymph node metastases. Galectin 1 was analyzed in 25 samples of mucosae, 15 adenomas, 25 carcinomas, and 11 metastases. Western blot analysis was also performed. RESULTS: All normal mucosae showed strong nuclear galectin 3 expression, which was down-regulated in the neoplastic progression, because only 60% of adenomas, 48% of carcinomas, and 44% of metastases were strongly positive (P < 0.0001). Cytoplasmic expression was down-regulated in adenomas (16%) but increased again in carcinomas (64%) (P < 0.0001). Galectin 1 expression was mainly detected in stromal cells and correlated with tumor progression from normal mucosae to adenomas and carcinomas (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Galectin 3 expression is down-regulated in the initial stages of neoplastic progression, whereas a dissociated cytoplasmic expression increases in later phases of tumor progression. Galectin 1 in colorectal mucosa is predominantly a stromal product whose overexpression is associated with the neoplastic progression of colorectal cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin-3, a Laminin Binding Protein, Fails to Modulate Adhesion of Human Melanoma Cells to Laminin
van den Brule, F. A.; Buicu, C.; Sobel, M. E. et al

in Neoplasma (1995), 42(5), 215-9

Galectin-3 is a laminin binding protein which expression is altered in a variety of human carcinomas including colon, breast and endometrium. In these tumors, we consistently observed a down regulation of ... [more ▼]

Galectin-3 is a laminin binding protein which expression is altered in a variety of human carcinomas including colon, breast and endometrium. In these tumors, we consistently observed a down regulation of galectin-3 expression related to increased aggressiveness. Galectin-3 belongs to a family of galactose-binding lectins and binds laminin through its numerous poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains. To date, the exact role of galectin-3 in the complex interactions between cancer cells and laminin has not been clearly defined. Adhesion of melanoma cells to laminin is a critical event during tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we explore the possibility that galectin-3 could modulate attachment of two human melanoma cell lines to laminin. A2058 and A375 melanoma cell expressed galectin-3 on their surface as demonstrated by immunofluorescence, and attached to laminin in an in vitro assay. We demonstrate that neither recombinant galectin-3 nor an affinity purified antigalectin-3 antiserum altered adhesion of A2058 or A375 melanoma cells to laminin. Our data strongly suggest that galectin-3 is not a key element in adhesion of the melanoma cells to laminin. These results are not surprising in light of the observation that galectin-3 expression is down regulated in cancer and that increased adhesion to laminin is a constant feature of invasive cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Expression of the 67-Kd Laminin Receptor and 31-Kd Human Laminin-Binding Protein in Human Ovarian Carcinomas
van den Brule, F. A.; Berchuck, A.; Bast, R. C. et al

in European Journal of Cancer (1994), 30A(8), 1096-9

The expression of the 67-kD laminin receptor (67LR) and the 31-kD human laminin-binding protein (HLBP31), two proteins involved in cancer cell laminin interaction, was evaluated on 30 ovarian cancer ... [more ▼]

The expression of the 67-kD laminin receptor (67LR) and the 31-kD human laminin-binding protein (HLBP31), two proteins involved in cancer cell laminin interaction, was evaluated on 30 ovarian cancer specimens. Expression of the 67LR was increased (up to 2.5-fold, in 87% of the patients), while HLBP31 expression was downregulated in cancer cells compared with the normal tissue, as detected by northern blotting and immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the 67LR was significantly overexpressed (P < 0.05) in the group of patients whose cytoreductive surgery was suboptimal, and those with poor clinical outcome. No correlation was observed between HLBP31 expression and clinicopathological features. Increased expression of the 67LR appears to correlate with the invasive phenotype of ovarian cancer cells and suggests a role of the latter in ovarian cancer invasion. [less ▲]

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See detailGenes involved in tumor invasion and metastasis are differentially modulated by estradiol and progestin in human breast-cancer cells.
van den Brule, F. A.; Engel, J.; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G. et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (1992), 52(4), 653-7

Invasion of basement membranes by cancer cells is a critical step in metastasis, which requires the coordinated expression of specific genes such as laminin receptors and metalloproteinases. Estradiol and ... [more ▼]

Invasion of basement membranes by cancer cells is a critical step in metastasis, which requires the coordinated expression of specific genes such as laminin receptors and metalloproteinases. Estradiol and progesterone modulate the clinical progression of steroid-sensitive breast cancers; however, little is known about the molecular regulation of the invasive phenotype by these hormones. We therefore examined the effects of 10 nM estradiol and/or 10 nM progestin R5020 on the expression of 2 non-integrin laminin binding proteins, the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) and HLBP31 as well as the 72-kDa type-IV collagenase (MMP-2) and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, in steroid-receptor-positive (T47D and MCF-7) and -negative (MDA-MB 231) human breast-cancer cells. The relative steady-state level of 67LR mRNA was increased 2- to 3-fold by estradiol in both MCF-7 (p < 0.001) and T47D (p < 0.001) cells, also by R5020, alone or in combination with estradiol, in T47D cells (p < 0.001) and to a much less extent in MCF-7 cells. HLBP31 mRNA and protein levels were increased 2- to 3-fold (p < 0.001) by R5020 alone or in combination with estradiol, but not by estradiol alone. None of the steroid treatments affected the expression or activity of MMP-2. Interestingly, however, TIMP-2 mRNA levels and protein expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells were 50% down-regulated (p < 0.001) by treatment with R5020 or R5020 plus estradiol, but not by treatment with estradiol alone. None of these genes were modulated in steroid-independent MDA-MB231 cells. The data suggest that estradiol and progesterone might act as coordinators regulating specific genes in the steroid-sensitive breast-cancer cell, leading to the acquisition of the metastatic phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailInverse modulation of steady-state messenger RNA levels of two non-integrin laminin-binding proteins in human colon carcinoma.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Campo, E.; van den Brule, F. A. et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (1992), 84(15), 1161-9

BACKGROUND: Interactions between cells and the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin are altered during colon cancer progression. Colon carcinoma and normal mucosa cells express a variety of laminin ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Interactions between cells and the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin are altered during colon cancer progression. Colon carcinoma and normal mucosa cells express a variety of laminin-binding proteins, including the 67-kd laminin receptor (67 LR) and a 31-kd human laminin-binding protein (HLBP31) homologous to the 31-kd human IgE-binding protein/galactoside-binding lectin. PURPOSE: To investigate whether various laminin-binding proteins are differentially expressed in human colon carcinoma, we studied messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the 67 LR and HLBP31 in matched tumor and adjacent normal mucosa samples from a series of 21 patients. METHODS: Total cellular RNA from tumor and normal mucosa was isolated and analyzed by Northern and slot blot hybridization. In addition, HLBP31 protein levels were assessed by the immunoblot technique. Quantitative laminin affinity chromatography was also used to measure the synthesis of HLBP31 protein in five human cancer cell lines. RESULTS: The steady-state mRNA level of HLBP31 was downregulated (i.e., decreased) in 18 of 21 human colon carcinomas compared with the level in their corresponding normal colonic mucosa. On average, the level of HLBP31 mRNA was decreased 50% +/- 30% (+/- SD) in the colon cancers. The mean ratio of colon cancer HLBP31 mRNA to adjacent normal mucosa HLBP31 mRNA was twofold lower in primary tumors of patients with metastases (0.3 +/- 0.2 SD) than in primary tumors of patients free of metastatic lesions (0.6 +/- 0.2 SD). The differences between the two groups of patients were statistically significant (P less than .05, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). We have previously shown that the ratio of colon cancer 67 LR mRNA to corresponding normal mucosa 67 LR mRNA was increased in the same patient population. When the two ratios (ratio of cancer to normal HLBP31 mRNA and ratio of cancer to normal 67 LR mRNA) were compared, HLBP31 mRNA/67 LR mRNA was significantly lower (P less than .05) in primary tumors with metastases (mean +/- SD, 0.3 +/- 0.2) than in primary cancers without metastases (mean +/- SD, 0.7 +/- 0.5). The steady-state level of HLBP31 mRNA was directly correlated with the amount of HLBP31 protein in both colon tissue samples and human cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: HLBP31 mRNA expression in colon cancer tissues is modulated inversely to that of 67 LR mRNA expression. The down-regulation of HLBP31 appears to be associated with the metastatic capabilities of colon cancer cells. IMPLICATIONS: Prospective studies on a large cohort should determine if the systematic detection of HLBP31 and 67 LR protein and/or mRNA can be a valuable adjunct in the prognostic evaluation of primary colon cancers. [less ▲]

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