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See detailSpatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera) on domestic small mammals in the city of Cotonou, Benin
Houménou, Gualbert; Kassa, Barthélemy; Libois, Roland ULg

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2014), 80

Objectives: A survey of domestic small mammals and their associated fleas was conducted in Cotonou during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of ... [more ▼]

Objectives: A survey of domestic small mammals and their associated fleas was conducted in Cotonou during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of small mammals in the transmission of anthropozoonosis. Methodology and Results: A total of 1,402 domestic small mammals were captured in 54 stations using methods following Houémenou (2006). The most abundant small mammals were, Rattus rattus (black rat) (63.7%), Mastomys sp. (multimammate rat) (11.84%), Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) (11.48%) and Crocidura olivieri (7.85%). Among these rodents, 364 individuals were found with ectoparasites and 886 fleas were collected (flea index 0.63), the most common flea being Xenopsylla cheopis (rat flea) (97.2%). This species was found in all areas of the city and infested all small mammal species. The Pulicidae prevalence (26%) howed important variations, with relatively low and significantly higher prevalence during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Conclusions and application of findings: Small mammal community in Cotonou was dominated by Rattus rattus and fleas by Xenopsylla cheopis. Due to the presence of a seaport of paramount importance, Cotonou town was not away from importation by sea transport of zoonotic rats (shelter ships calling at the port of Cotonou, from all continents). To date, in Cotonou there is lacking information on pathogenic agents hosted by the small mammals and their ectoparasites. Therefore, awareness of the authorities on the zoonotic risk of small mammals for the human population is necessary. The authorities of the Port Autonome de Cotonou must increase the screening of ships, which arrive at Cotonou to avoid zoonotic rodent importation. The Ministry of Human Health in Benin must sensitize the populations at high risk of the rodent transmitted diseases. Further studies are needed to detect the different animal reservoirs of these pathogenic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailEcologie, diversité spécifique et abondance des petits mammifères de la ville de Cotonou au Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest)
Houèmènou, Gualbert; Kassa, B.; Libois, Roland ULg

in International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2014), 8(3), 1202-1213

L’étude de la diversité des petits mammifères de la ville de Cotonou (Bénin) selon les types de milieux (habités ou non) a été réalisée du 25 août 2004 au 25 mai 2005 avec interruptions. Les campagnes de ... [more ▼]

L’étude de la diversité des petits mammifères de la ville de Cotonou (Bénin) selon les types de milieux (habités ou non) a été réalisée du 25 août 2004 au 25 mai 2005 avec interruptions. Les campagnes de captures ont été effectuées. Au total, 348 petits mammifères ont été capturés pour un effort de piégeage de 2652 nuits-pièges et 11 espèces comprenant 3 espèces (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus et Mus domesticus) cosmopolites représentant 25% du total et les espèces africaines (Crocidura olivieri, Crocidura sp., Arvicanthis niloticus,Cricetomys gambianus, Dasymys rufulus, Mastomys sp., Gerbilliscus kempi, Taterillus gracilis) représentant 75% du total, ont été inventoriées. La prépondérance de Rattus rattus dans les captures avec 59,8% de Mastomys sp. (13,5%) et de C. olivieri (8,6%) a été notée. Mus domesticus (0,29%), Arvicanthis niloticus (0,86%) et Crocidura sp. (0,86%) sont faiblement représentées. L’indice de diversité de Shannon est de 2,08 dans la ville de Cotonou, de 2,70 dans les milieux non habités et de 1,45 dans les milieux habités où l’on ne trouve quasiment que les rats et souris. Le domaine de l’aéroport (aéroport international de Cotonou) et quelques zones marécageuses, inaccessibles à la population, constituent des zones refuges où l’indice de diversité des petits mammifères est relativement élevé. [less ▲]

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See detailRégime alimentaire et stratégie de prédation chez le busard Saint-Martin, Circus cyaneus, en forêt d'Orléans
Rosoux, René; Libois, Roland ULg; Larigauderie, Marie-France et al

in Recherches Naturalistes en Région Centre (2013), 21

Le Busard Saint-Martin, rapace qui traditionnellement installe son nid dans des steppes herbeuses, les landes, les tourbières et des lits d'hélophytes, niche également dans les formations forestières ... [more ▼]

Le Busard Saint-Martin, rapace qui traditionnellement installe son nid dans des steppes herbeuses, les landes, les tourbières et des lits d'hélophytes, niche également dans les formations forestières pionnières, mais aussi, depuis quelques décennies, dans les grandes cultures céréalières. En région Centre, une petite partie de la population de ce busard niche traditionnellement dans le massif forestier d'Orléans et il était intéressant de savoir dans les quels milieux s'alimentaient les adultes nicheurs. Une étude du régimealimentaire de l'espèce, basée sur deux années consécutives (2008 et 2009), a été menée parallèlement au programme "Oiseaux des bois", coordonné par l'ONF et la LPO. [less ▲]

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See detailCauses de mortalité et survie du martin pêcheur (Alcedo atthis) en Europe
Libois, Roland ULg; Libois, François

in Aves (2013), 50(2), 65-79

This study reviews all available data for the European kingfisher in Europe (Euring database). The analysis of the mortality causes based on 966 juveniles and 753 adults reveals that a large proportion of ... [more ▼]

This study reviews all available data for the European kingfisher in Europe (Euring database). The analysis of the mortality causes based on 966 juveniles and 753 adults reveals that a large proportion of the carcasses (43%) are just reported as “found dead”. Other major causes of mortality listed in the database include percussions against a window (22%), collisions with engines (10%), other types of collisions (5%) or predation by domestic cats (5%). For both adults and juveniles, predation by cats is the most common death cause in Great Britain while in North Western Europe, mortality is mostly due to the percussion against windows. Juvenile mortality is highest at the end of the summer and in autumn, while adults decease mostly in the spring. The European kingfisher lifespan is short. Its demographic structure, studied in 4028 juveniles and 1131 adults, shows that mortality is very important during the first winter, as 70 % of the juveniles do not reach the next spring. The mortality rate is similar in subsequent reproductive seasons. The different pyramids of age are not identical (between adults and juveniles, between regions, between sexes) but the trend is similar: a reproductive individual has a probability of one third to reproduce the next year. Less than 10% of the European kingfishers survive over four years. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution de la répartition de la loutre d'Europe (Lutra lutra) au Maroc
Libois, Roland ULg; Rosoux, René; Fareh, Mostafa

Conference (2013, April 22)

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See detailDiet composition of young and adult Northern Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseus and adult Southern Red Bishop Euplectes orix in Burundi
Nasasagare, Régine Pacis; Ntakimazi, Gaspard; Libois, Roland ULg

in Malimbus (2013), 35(1), 1-10

We studied the diet composition of Northern Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseus and Southern Red Bishop Euplectes orix in four localities of the Rusizi Plain, northwest Burundi. We analyzed crop contents ... [more ▼]

We studied the diet composition of Northern Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseus and Southern Red Bishop Euplectes orix in four localities of the Rusizi Plain, northwest Burundi. We analyzed crop contents of 100 adults from each of the two species and the composition of food brought by parents to nestlings of the sparrow at ten nests. In all four sites, the sparrow’s diet consisted primarily of rice. The bishop also fed mostly on rice grains but also ate Lepidoptera caterpillars, some other insects and wild grass seeds such as Panicum sp. and Brachiaria sp. For adults of both bird species, there was no significant variation in diet throughout the year. However, the diet of young sparrows was much more diverse and changed from the day of hatching until fledging. On the day of hatching, chicks ate mainly caterpillars but by the tenth day, food items comprised one third caterpillars, one third Orthoptera and the rest of other insects including Odonata, Dictyoptera, Isoptera and adult Lepidoptera. After this and until fledging, the chicks were fed increasingly on rice seeds. Simultaneously, the proportion of caterpillars taken gradually decreased until none was fed to the nestlings at the end of the nestling period. The items brought by parents also varied with time of day, with caterpillars and grasshoppers in higher proportions in the morning, decreasing around mid-day and then increasing in the evening. [less ▲]

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See detailLeptospira spp. prevalence in small mammal populations in Cotonou, Benin
Houemenou, Gualbert ULg; Ahmed, A.; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in ISRN Epidemiology (2013)

The aim of this study was to assess the Leptospira prevalence in small animals in Cotonou, the capital of Benin. Rodents and shrews were captured in urban and periurban settings and determined as species ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to assess the Leptospira prevalence in small animals in Cotonou, the capital of Benin. Rodents and shrews were captured in urban and periurban settings and determined as species of the genera Rattus, Mastomys, and Crocidura. Kidney specimens of 90 animals were examined using a real-time PCR assay specific for leptospires that belong to pathogenic species. Leptospiral DNA was amplified from kidney tissues ranging from 13.3% (8/60) in Rattus rattus to 100.0% (1/1) in Crocidura spp. with an average of 18.9% (17/90) of the animals caught at 15 locations. Clade-specific Taqman PCR on 10 samples placed six of these within clade 1 comprising the species L. kirschneri, L. interrogans, L. meyeri, and L. noguchii and four within clade 2 consisting of species L. weilii, L. alexanderi, L. borgpetersenii, and L. santarosai. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the amplicons of seven samples of these 10 samples revealed that four of the clade 1 samples could equally be assigned to L. interrogans and L. kirschneri and three samples fromclade 2 belonged to L. borgpetersenii. Results presented in the paper indicate that small mammals present a major public health risk for acquiring leptospirosis in Cotonou, Benin and will contribute to a raised awareness amongst health care workers and decision makers and hence promote appropriate clinical management of cases. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogeography of the garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus in the western Palearctic region
Perez, Grégoire; Libois, Roland ULg; Nieberding, Caroline

in Journal of Mammalogy (2013), 94(1),

The garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus (Rodentia, Gliridae), displays a surprisingly high karyotypic diversity, with the number of chromosomes varying between 2N ¼ 48 and 2N ¼ 54. We aimed to assess ... [more ▼]

The garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus (Rodentia, Gliridae), displays a surprisingly high karyotypic diversity, with the number of chromosomes varying between 2N ¼ 48 and 2N ¼ 54. We aimed to assess whether the karyotypic diversity is congruent with the mitochondrial differentiation of the populations; improve our understanding of the taxonomic relationships between garden dormouse populations based on both chromosomal and mitochondrial information; and establish the phylogeographic history of the species and the time of differentiation of mitochondrial lineages of E. quercinus and E. melanurus. For this purpose we sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome-b (Cytb) gene for 62 E. quercinus and 4 E. melanurus from 27 localities representing all the known chromosomal races of the genus Eliomys in the western Palearctic region. Our results 1st showed that populations of E. quercinus are separated into 4 evolutionarily significant units partially congruent with the chromosomal races and corresponding to Iberian (2N¼48), Italian (2N¼48 or 50), western European (2N¼48, 49, or 50), and Alpine (2N ¼ 52 or 54) mitochondrial lineages or clades. The existence of hybrid individuals between chromosomal races and the presence of several chromosomal races within each mitochondrial lineage both indicate that gene flow persists between chromosomal races. Second, we estimated that the major mitochondrial lineages differentiated from each other around 4.2 6 SD 1 million years ago, thus predating the Quaternary glaciations. Third, E. quercinus displayed a higher haplotypic variability in the Mediterranean peninsula than in the northwestern European populations. However, E. quercinus did not show a pattern of ostglacial recolonization of northwestern Europe from Iberian or Italian populations. Our results also suggest that additional, unexpected refuge regions around the Alps exist for the species. Such information will be useful for deciphering the priorities for the protection of E. quercinus, which is listed as ‘‘Near Threatened’’ on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species and is protected by Appendix III of the Bern Convention. [less ▲]

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See detailCestodes and Acanthocephalans parasitizing small mammals from Benin
Houemenou, Gualbert; Martin-Alonso, A.; Sanchez, S. et al

Conference (2012, September)

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See detailEvidence for a differentiated chromosomal race north of classical south European refuge areas in the garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus
Libois, Roland ULg; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça; Rosoux, René

in Acta Theriologica (2012), 57(4), 313-320

The dormouse Eliomys quercinus is a forest rodent undergoing long periods of winter hibernation. The species presents a surprisingly large diversity of chromosomal races, which geographic distribution was ... [more ▼]

The dormouse Eliomys quercinus is a forest rodent undergoing long periods of winter hibernation. The species presents a surprisingly large diversity of chromosomal races, which geographic distribution was shown recently to predate the Pleistocene glaciations. Previously reported data on the karyotypes of the garden dormouse in France come from the northeast of the country, where the 2N050 race occurs. New data are presented from specimens trapped near the Atlantic coast (departments of Vendée and Charente-Maritime), in the Pyrenees, the Alps and in the Massif Central. The French Alpine chain, close to the Italian border, is inhabited by the 2N054 race. A karyotype with 2N048 chromosomes, of Iberian type, is found north of the Pyrenees, near the central Atlantic coast and also in the south of the Massif Central, whereas the 2N050 race occurs in the north of the massif. A hybrid between these two races (2N049) was found in Vendée. These facts reveal that neither the Pyrenees nor the Alps constitute a biogeographic barrier to the dormouse and strongly suggest that the present population of northern France derives from a postglacial recolonisation movement initiated in the southernmost regions of France or in the Rhône valley. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du régime alimentaire et la stratégie trophique saisonnière de la loutre d'Europe (Lutra lutra) sur l'oued Beht (Maroc)
Fareh, Mostafa; Libois, Roland ULg; Gmira, Najib et al

Conference (2012, May)

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See detailEvolution de la répartition de la loutre d'Europe (Lutra lutra) au Maroc
Libois, Roland ULg; Rosoux, René; Fareh, Mostafa

Conference (2012, May)

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See detailWeb-building spiders and blood-feeding flies as prey of the notch-eared bat (Myotis emarginatus)
Kervyn, Thierry; Godin, Marie Céline; Jocqué, Rudy et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2012), 142(1), 59-67

Conservation of the endangered notch-eared bat (M. emarginatus) requires a specific action plan based on precise ecological requirements of this species. The analysis of the diet of three colonies in ... [more ▼]

Conservation of the endangered notch-eared bat (M. emarginatus) requires a specific action plan based on precise ecological requirements of this species. The analysis of the diet of three colonies in southern Belgium revealed: (1) spatial and seasonal variations of the diet; (2) the consumption of web-building spiders (Araneus diadematus, A. triguttatus, Cyclosa conica, Enoplognatha sp., Larinioides patagiatus, Neriene emphana); (3) the predominance of blood-feeding dipterans in the diet (Stomoxys calcitrans and Musca autumnalis). Since the populations of these two ectoparasitic flies are sensitive to the use of antiparasitic drugs, these drugs should be used with caution by farmers and veterinarians in the vicinity of maternity colonies. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure à conserver et aménagement à prévoir pour le conservation de la loutre en Région wallonne
Schockert, Vincianne ULg; Libois, Roland ULg

Learning material (2012)

La loutre d’Europe est un mammifère protégé devenu rare en Région wallonne. Autrefois, l’espèce était pourtant présente sur l’ensemble des réseaux hydrographiques du pays. Très exigeante par rapport à la ... [more ▼]

La loutre d’Europe est un mammifère protégé devenu rare en Région wallonne. Autrefois, l’espèce était pourtant présente sur l’ensemble des réseaux hydrographiques du pays. Très exigeante par rapport à la qualité de son habitat et de sa nourriture, la loutre constitue un excellent témoin de l’état de santé de nos rivières. Mais si la population de loutre d’Europe paraît chez nous aujourd’hui au bord de l’extinction, on constate que d’autres populations européennes sont en pleine progression, notamment à partir de la France (Massif central) et de l’Allemagne. Elle gagne du terrain chaque année, amenuisant la distance qui nous sépare des autres populations européennes. Ce guide propose l’identification des abris potentiels pour la loutre ainsi que des aménagements des cours d’eau propices à son retour, puisqu’on pourrait l’espérer, à partir des populations européennes, d’ici 15 ou 20 ans. [less ▲]

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See detailClé de détermination des restes crâniens de poissons collectés sur les rives nord du lac Tanganyika et de ses environs
NASASAGARE, Régine Pacis; Libois, Roland ULg

in Bulletin scientifique de l'Institut national pour l'environnement et la conservation de la nature (2012), 10

Lake Tanganyika is very rich in fish species. It is exploited by fishermen and by fish-eating birds often seen as competitors of man. An osteological study was undertaken to establish a methodological ... [more ▼]

Lake Tanganyika is very rich in fish species. It is exploited by fishermen and by fish-eating birds often seen as competitors of man. An osteological study was undertaken to establish a methodological tool as a basis to studying the diet of fish-eating birds. Fish were collected, grouped by family. They were then transported to the laboratory to extract features of the cranial bones of each species or genus. An identification key to these bones has been prepared based on the similarities and differences between these bones. Correlations between the length of bone characteristics and size of fish were calculated. [less ▲]

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See detailPlan loutre 2011-2021 en Wallonie et au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Nederlandt, Nicolas; Schmidt, Gérard; Leclercq, Christine et al

Report (2011)

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See detailMigration et déplacements du martin pêcheur Alcedo atthis en Europe
Libois, Roland ULg

in Aves (2011), 48(2), 65-86

Previous publications on the migration and movements of kingfisher s have been limitid to a few countries; there has not been any previous synthesis of the data from the whole of Europe. The present study ... [more ▼]

Previous publications on the migration and movements of kingfisher s have been limitid to a few countries; there has not been any previous synthesis of the data from the whole of Europe. The present study,based on the Euring database, related to the movements of 5991 ringed and recaptured birds. The data were classified according to the status of each individual (pulli, juvenile or adult) as noted at ringing, the time of year (autumn and winter; spring; breeding period), and general geographical area. In the first autumn and winter, half of the pulli remained in the nesting area. Those that did move (between 25 and 250 km) dispersed approximately equally in all directions. The tendency to migrate was most marked among birds born in Sweden. The tendency decreases progressively in the sequence North Europe/Central Europe/ North Western Europe, where only 5 % of birds migrate, moving in a southwesterly direction. Juvenile birds are less mobile (approximately 80 %) than the pulli. Those which do move have the same pattern of dispersion as the pulli. The tendency to migrate is especially marked in North Europe, and is almost non existent in Gread Britain and in the Mediterrannean peninsulas. In springtime, most birds are already nesting, but some migrate towards the N or NE, and some are delayed in their overwintering location. During the nesting period, the ex pulli rarely take over the burrow where they were born, while the majority of juveniles tend to remain in the area where they were first captured. Some adults do change area ot the time, this tendeny being more accentuated among females, while male birds appear to be more attached to their home territory. In subsequent autumns the patterns of dispersion, of distance and of direction of ex juveniles and ex pulli are indistinguishable from those of the first automn. In Sweden the adults migrate, whereas elswhere adults have similar behaviour as juvenile birds; but adults are even more sedentary. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des potentialités d'accueil du lynx boréal (Lynx lynx) dans l'est de la province de Liège (Belgique)
Thiry, Violaine; Schockert, Vincianne ULg; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in Rosoux, René; de Bellefroid, Marie des Neiges; Baillon, Jacques (Eds.) et al Lynx... le grand retour ? (2011)

The fist lynx were seen in eastern Belgium at the end of the 1990s. Since then, both sightings and tracks have been recorded there and in the Ardenne (south east Belgium). Whether this presence indicates ... [more ▼]

The fist lynx were seen in eastern Belgium at the end of the 1990s. Since then, both sightings and tracks have been recorded there and in the Ardenne (south east Belgium). Whether this presence indicates a spontaneous return of individuals deriving from the population reintroduced in Germany or results from illicit releases, it raises the question of the suitability and the carrying capacity of habitats in an area of dense human occupation. Using two software programs, a mapping model to assess habitat characterization, drawn from relevant criteria for this species, was tested to estimate the potential host of the study area, via the determination of areas of suitable habitats, and the dispersion potential of the species, through the identification of the most viable dispersal corridors. The findings of the study (multi criteria analysis of potential host of habitats, identification of corridors of lowest cost, estimation of the potential population...), compiled on the basis mapping model and simulations, suggest that a return of the lynx in Wallonia may be sustainable if supported and managed wisly by the regional administrative services. [less ▲]

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See detail19. Oiseaux
Lougbegnon, Toussaint; Libois, Roland ULg

in Neuenschwander, Peter; Sinsin, Brice; Goergen, Georg (Eds.) Protection de la nature en Afrique de l'Ouest: une liste rouge pour le Bénin (2011)

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See detailPremière approche du choix des proies et de la stratégie alimentaire chez le balbuzard pêcheur en France continentale
Rosoux, René; Libois, Roland ULg; Schweyer, Jean Baptiste et al

in Recherches Naturalistes en Région Centre (2010), 18

La population nicheuse de balbuzards pêcheurs en région Centre, principalement établie en forêt d'Orléans et en Sologne, a fait l'objet d'une prémière étude sur le choix des proies et la stratégie ... [more ▼]

La population nicheuse de balbuzards pêcheurs en région Centre, principalement établie en forêt d'Orléans et en Sologne, a fait l'objet d'une prémière étude sur le choix des proies et la stratégie alimentaire. L'analyse a été menée sur un échantillon d'une quinzaine de couples. Les premiers résultats montrent que les rapaces consomment une large gamme de poissons, évaluéenà plus de 20 espèces. Quels que soient la méthode utilisée et le nid étudié, ce sont les cyprinidés qui constituent la grande majorité des proies. En période d'étiage, les espèces de poisson de fond viennent également enrichir le régime alimentaire en raison de la faible profondeur de l'eau. [less ▲]

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