References of "Leterme, Pascal"
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See detailInfluence of different Carbohydrate Composition in Barley Varieties on Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen Colonization in a ’Trojan’ Challenge Model in Pigs
Pieper, Robert; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Malik, Gita et al

in Archives of Animal Nutrition (2012)

Based on previously performed in vitro studies, which showed that hulless barley varieties could reduce large intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen proliferation in pigs, two in vivo ... [more ▼]

Based on previously performed in vitro studies, which showed that hulless barley varieties could reduce large intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen proliferation in pigs, two in vivo experiments were conducted with a total of 252 piglets to prove these observations. In experiment 1, 126 weaning piglets were randomly allocated into pens of seven animals each and fed one of 6 experimental diets. Three diets contained (75% as-fed) one of 3 hulless barley varieties with -glucan (BG) contents ranging from 5-11% and amylose from 5-40%, and two diets contained a low BG and amylose hulless barley supplemented with isolated barley BG or raw potato starch. A hulled barley diet served as a control. Two piglets per pen (’Trojan’ pigs) were orally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen (ST). The remaining 5 pigs per pen were designated ’Contact’ pigs. The ST shedding was determined over one week after infection. On day 6, the two trojans and two random contacts from each pen were euthanized and intestinal contents and mesenteric lymph nodes cultured for ST. Intestinal volatile fatty acids and microbial composition were determined. In experiment 2, 126 piglets were assigned to one of 3 diets based on hulled or hulless barleys. The timeline, infection, sampling and analyses were similar as in experiment 1 except samples were taken from 4 contacts pigs. Hulless barley varieties with high BG and amylose tended to decrease ST persistence in experiment 1. Clostridia from cluster I in the colon were reduced with high amylose hulless barley or diets supplemented with potato starch (p<0.05), whereas other microbial groups were not. Propionate increased (p<0.05) and acetate decreased (p<0.05) with hulless barley inclusion. Using more experimental units per barley, experiment 2 revealed a reduced ST shedding and reduced number of clostridia for high BG hulless barley as compared to common hulled barley and a low BG variety (p<0.05). In conclusion, high BG hulless barley do not prevent ST colonization but might help to reduce transmission in pigs, likely by supporting an intestinal environment limiting growth of this zoopathogen. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes alter the microbial community and the fermentation patterns of barley cultivars and wheat products in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Pieper, Robert; Montoya, Carlos A. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2011), 76

An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence fermentation of dietary fibre in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products ... [more ▼]

An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence fermentation of dietary fibre in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products and cultivars with differing carbohydrate fractions (CHO) were hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin in the presence or not of NSP-degrading enzymes (xylanase and b-glucanase) and the filter retentate fermented with sow fecal bacteria. Dry matter, starch, crude protein and β-glucan digestibilities during hydrolysis were measured. Fermentation kinetics of the hydrolyzed ingredients were modelled. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and molar ratio were compared after 12, 24 and 72 h. Microbial communities were analyzed after 72 h of fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). The results showed an increase of nutrient digestibility (P<0.001), whereas fermentability and SCFA production decreased (P<0.001) with addition of the enzyme. SCFA and bacterial community profiles indicated also a shift from propionate to acetate and an increase in cellulolytic Ruminoccocus- and xylanolytic Clostridium-like bacteria. This is explained by the increase in slowly fermentable insoluble CHO and the lower proportion of rapidly fermentable β-glucan and starch in the retentate when grains were incubated with NSP-degrading enzymes. Shifts were also different for the 4 barley varieties investigated, showing that the efficiency of the enzymes depends on the structure of the CHO fractions in cereal products and cultivars. [less ▲]

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See detailFEED INGREDIENTS, PATHOGEN COLONIZATION AND GUT HEALTH IN PIGS
Van Kessel, Andrew; Pieper, Robert; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

in Proceeding of the 47th Eastern Nutrition Conference (2011)

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See detailIn vitro evaluation of the fermentation characteristics of the carbohydrate fractions of hulless barley and other cereals in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs
Jha, Rajesh; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Rossnagel, Brian et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2011), 163

An in vitro model was used to study the fermentation characteristics of carbohydrate fractions of hulless barley (hB), in comparison to hulled barley (HB), hulled oat and oat groats (OG) in the pig ... [more ▼]

An in vitro model was used to study the fermentation characteristics of carbohydrate fractions of hulless barley (hB), in comparison to hulled barley (HB), hulled oat and oat groats (OG) in the pig intestine. For this purpose, 6 hulless barley cultivars (hB), varying in β-glucan content (36-99 g/kg DM), were compared to 3 HB cultivars, 2 oat groat samples (OG), 3 oat varieties and a reference sample of wheat. The residue of a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis was incubated in a buffered mineral solution inoculated with pig faeces. Gas production, proportional to the amount of fermented carbohydrates, was measured for 48 h and kinetics modelled. The fermented solution was subsequently analyzed for microbial production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia. In vitro dry matter degradability varied according to ingredient (P<0.001). Higher values were observed for OG, ranging from 0.88 to 0.99 as compared to oat, hB and HB, for which degradability ranged from 0.63 to 0.73, 0.68 to 0.80 and 0.69 to 0.71, respectively. A “cereal type” effect (P<0.05) was observed on fermentation kinetics parameters. Total gas production was higher (P<0.05) with hB (224 ml/g DM incubated) than with HB and oat (188 and 55 ml/g DM incubated, respectively). No difference was observed between hB cultivars (P>0.05) for total gas production but differences (P<0.001) were found for lag time and the fractional rate of degradation. Hulless barley cultivar CDC Fibar (waxy starch) and CDC McGwire (normal starch) started to ferment sooner (lag time of 0.7 and 0.9 h, respectively) than SH99250 (high amylose starch; 1.7 h). The fractional rate of degradation was similar in both hB and OG (0.15/h on average), which was higher than that of HB (0.12/h). The production of SCFA was also higher (P<0.05) with hB (6.1 mmol/g DM incubated, on average) than with HB and oat (4.9 and 2.9 mmol/g DM incubated, respectively). Similar trends were found for SCFA production expressed per g fermented carbohydrates, with higher butyrate and lower acetate ratio. In contrast, oat fermentation generated higher (P<0.05) ammonia concentration (1.4 mmol/g DM incubated, on average) than hB (1.0 mmol/g DM incubated). In summary, hulless barleys, irrespective of cultivar type had higher in vitro fermentability and produced more SCFA and less ammonia than hulled barley and oat. Thus, hulless barleys have a better potential to be used in pig nutrition to manipulate the fermentation activity in the intestine of pigs. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro fibre fermentation of feed ingredients with varying fermentable carbohydrate and protein levels and protein synthesis by colonic bacteria isolated from pigs
Jha, Rajesh; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Van Kessel, Andrew et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2011), 165

An in vitro experiment was carried out using the gas technique to study the fermentation characteristics of different feed ingredients differing in their fermentable carbohydrate and protein composition ... [more ▼]

An in vitro experiment was carried out using the gas technique to study the fermentation characteristics of different feed ingredients differing in their fermentable carbohydrate and protein composition by colonic bacteria isolated from pigs. The effect on in vitro bacterial protein synthesis was also evaluated. The ingredients used were wheat bran (WB), wood cellulose (Solka-floc®, SF), peas, pea hulls (PH), pea inner fibre (PIF), sugar beet pulp (SBP), flax seed meal (FSM) and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The samples were pre-treated with pepsin and pancreatin and the hydrolyzed substrates were then incubated with pig faeces in a buffered mineral solution. The nitrogen source in the buffer solution (NH4HCO3) was replaced by an equimolar quantity of 15N-labeled NH4Cl, used for the determination of the rate of bacterial protein synthesis. Gas production, proportional to the amount of fermented carbohydrate, was recorded for 48 h and modelled. The fermented product was subjected to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analysis. The source of fibre affected the in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD), the fermentation kinetics and the gas production profile (P<0.05). The highest (P<0.001) IVDMD values were observed for peas (0.80) and FSM (0.70), whereas SF was essentially undegraded (0.06). The fractional rate of degradation appeared to be lower (P<0.001) for WB and DDGS (0.07 and 0.05 h, respectively) and highest for SBP (0.20 h). Peas started to ferment rapidly (lag time 1.3 h). Half gas production (T/2) was achieved sooner for PIF (8.4 h) and was the longest for DDGS (19.8 h). The total gas production was the highest for PH, followed by SF, PIF and peas (276, 266, 264 and 253 ml/g DM incubated, respectively) and the lowest for FSM and WB (130 and 124 ml/g DM incubated, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) in SCFA production after the fermentation of SF, P, PH, PIF and SBP (ranging from 3.8 to 4.5 mmol/g DM incubated) while WB and FSM yielded lowest (P<0.05) SCFA. The bacterial nitrogen incorporation (BNI), both at T/2 and after 48 h of fermentation was the highest (P<0.001) for PIF (18.5 and 15.6 mg/g DM incubated, respectively) and the lowest for DDGS and WB. In conclusion, peas and pea fibres had higher rates of fermentability, produced more SCFA and had high bacterial protein synthesis capacity. They thus have the potential to be included in pig diets as a source of fermentable fibre to modulate the gut environment and reduce nitrogen excretion. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional value and intake of aquatic ferns (Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Salvinia molesta Mitchell.) in sows
Leterme, Pascal; Londoño, Angela M.; Ordoñez, Diana C. et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2010), 155(1), 55-64

Aquatic ferns (AFs) such as Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia molesta are grown on swine lagoons in the tropics and used in diets for pigs. The present work is aimed at evaluating their potential as feed ... [more ▼]

Aquatic ferns (AFs) such as Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia molesta are grown on swine lagoons in the tropics and used in diets for pigs. The present work is aimed at evaluating their potential as feed ingredients for sows. When presented with ad libitum AFs, gilts weighing 110 ± 14 kg (mean ± SD), were able to ingest 9.1–9.7 kg fresh AF per day (from 597 to 630 g dry matter (DM) per day) and from 1240 to 1428 g DM per day when presented in a dry, ground form. A digestibility study was conducted, using sows weighing 213 ± 9 kg (mean ± SD), which were fed diets containing maize, soybean meal and 0, 150 or 300 g AF kg−1 diet. The presence of AFs had a negative impact on the faecal digestibility of the crude protein, NDF and energy content of the whole diet (P<0.001) and on the ileal protein digestibility, especially with 300 g AFs kg−1 diet. The level of AFs in the diet had no effect on stomach weight (P>0.05) but increased the weight of the rest of the gastrointestinal tract (P<0.001). The rate of AF fibre fermentation in the pig large intestine was measured using an in vitro gas test. The rates were much lower than tropical tree foliage, which can also be used in pig diets in the tropics. This could partly explain the low apparent digestibility of AFs in pigs. In conclusion, the inclusion level of AFs in rations for sows should be limited to 150 g AFs kg−1 diet due to the low digestibility and energy density, as well as the negative impact on the digestibility of the whole diet. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in carbohydrate composition of barley varieties influence Salmonella transmission among pen mate weaned piglets
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Pieper, Robert; Marshall, Jason et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2010), 88(E2), 284

Indigestible carbohydrate (CHO) composition can vary markedly between barley varieties. They induce changes in intestinal ecophysiology and enhance growth of health-promoting bacteria. An experiment was ... [more ▼]

Indigestible carbohydrate (CHO) composition can vary markedly between barley varieties. They induce changes in intestinal ecophysiology and enhance growth of health-promoting bacteria. An experiment was undertaken to assess whether these changes could influence Salmonella typhimurium (ST) infection in pigs and transmission between penmates. A challenge study was undertaken using 84 recently weaned piglets divided in 12 pens, and fed one of the 4 experimental diets (3 pens/diet), according to the barley variety. Three hullless and one hulled varieties were chosen according to their differing CHO composition (amylose/amylopectin, β-glucan, and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides). After 14 d of adaptation, 2 pigs per pen (Trojan pigs, TrojP) were orally infected (8.0 log cfu/animal) with a low virulent, nalidixic acid and novobiocin resistant ST strain. The other animals were considered as Contact pigs (ConP) to assess ST transmission. Over 5 d following inoculation, pigs were monitored for detection of ST in the feces using plate counts. On d 6, 2 TrojP and 2 ConP per group were killed and intestinal samples as well as organ samples (liver, spleen, and lymph nodes) were analyzed for ST. The results showed that in TrojP, the cereal variety had no influence on ST fecal shedding over time and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) colonization. All pigs were positively tested for ST. Translocation of ST to lymph nodes was observed frequently but not to other organs. In ConP, compared with hulled barley, hulless barleys reduced the number of animals shedding ST (P < 0.05 for d 2) and the number of ST (cfu/g) in cecum on d 6 (P < 0.01). Although hulless barleys did not protect against colonization when directly challenged at a high oral dose, these barleys may be useful to reduce natural ST transmission among penmates. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro fermentation characteristics for pigs of hulless barleys differing in β-glucan content
Jha, Rajesh; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Rossnagel, Brian et al

in Livestock Science (2010), 133

Isolated non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), especially isolated β-glucan, are reported to have prebiotic effects in pigs. However, little information is available on their possible functional properties ... [more ▼]

Isolated non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), especially isolated β-glucan, are reported to have prebiotic effects in pigs. However, little information is available on their possible functional properties when they are still present in the fibrous matrix of whole cereals. Hulless barleys (hB) are rich but variable sources of β-glucan. In order to evaluate their potential as functional feeds, an in vitro experiment was carried out to study the fermentation characteristics of 6 hB varieties and breeding lines varying in their β-glucan content (36–99 g/kg DM) in comparison to three hulled barleys (HB), two oat groats, three oats and one wheat, taken as reference. After pepsin–pancreatin hydrolysis, the ingredients were incubated in a buffered mineral solution and pig faeces (inoculum). The accumulated gas production, proportional to the amount of fibre fermented, was measured for 48 h and modelled. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonia concentrations were measured in the fermented solutions. A cereal type effect (Pb0.05) was observed on the fermentation kinetics parameters. Rates of degradation and total gas productions were higher with hB than with oat (Pb0.05). Differences were also found between hB for total gas production, lag time and rate of degradation (Pb0.01). The production of SCFA was also higher with hB (6.1 mMol/g DM incubated; Pb0.05) than with hulled barley and oat (4.9 and 2.9 mMol/g DM incubated respectively). In contrast, oat generated higher ammonia (Pb0.05) production (1.4 mMol/g DM incubated, on average) than both hB and HB (1.0 mMol/g). In conclusion, hB are better fermented, produce more beneficial (SCFA) and less harmful (ammonia) metabolites and have a better potential than other cereal species to modulate gut microbiota and improve gut health. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in intestinal microbial ecophysiology as related to the carbohydrate composition of barleys and oats cultivars in an in vitro model of the pig gastrointestinal tract
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Pieper, Robert; Leterme, Pascal et al

in Livestock Science (2010), 133

The influence of variation in carbohydrate (CHO) composition within the same type of cereal on intestinal fermentation patterns and microbial community composition in the pig is unknown. Ten hulless ... [more ▼]

The influence of variation in carbohydrate (CHO) composition within the same type of cereal on intestinal fermentation patterns and microbial community composition in the pig is unknown. Ten hulless barleys (HLB), 6 hulled barleys (HB), 6 oats (O) and 6 oat groats (OG) were studied in vitro. These cultivars differed in β-glucan, non-starch polysaccharides (total, soluble and insoluble), starch content and structure. They were hydrolyzed enzymatically, inoculated with pig feces and fermented for 72h. Fermentation kinetics was modelled, and microbial composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles analyzed using TRFLP and gas chromatography. Multivariate analysis revealed that microbial profiles, SCFA and fermentation parameters were affected by CHO composition but differently according to the grain type (HLB, HB, O or OG). Members of Clostridium cluster XIVa were associated to higher amylose contents and butyrate production in HB cultivars and in HLB cultivars. Several clostridia phylotypes were positively influenced by β-glucan content in HLB and HB. Cellulolytic Ruminococcus-like bacteria were increased with cellulose content in HB, HLB and OG and these bacteria tended to increase acetate production in general. Bacteroides-like bacteria were positively affected by amylopectin and starch content of barley cultivars. Cereal cultivars differing in CHO composition can alter the pig intestinal microbial ecophysiology to possibly improve gut health. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of carbohydrate composition in barley and oat cultivars on microbial ecophysiology and the proliferation of Salmonella enterica in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract
Pieper, Robert; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Rossnagel, Brian et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2009), 75(22), 7000-7016

The influence of the carbohydrate (CHO) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Ten hull-less barley cultivars ... [more ▼]

The influence of the carbohydrate (CHO) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Ten hull-less barley cultivars, six barley cultivars with hulls, six oat cultivars, and six oat groats that differed in beta-glucan, nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP), and starch contents and starch type were hydrolyzed enzymatically and incubated for 72 h with pig feces. Fermentation kinetics were modeled, and microbial compositions and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and gas chromatography. Cluster analysis and canonical ordination revealed different effects on fermentation and microbial ecology depending on the type of CHO and cultivar. First, in cultivars of barley with hulls and oats, the cellulose and insoluble NSP contents (i) increased Ruminococcus flavefaciens-like and Clostridium xylanolyticum-like phylotypes, (ii) increased acetate production, and (iii) decreased fermentation activity. Second, in hull-less barley cultivars the beta-glucan, amylose, amylopectin, crude protein, and soluble NSP contents determined the microbial community composition and activity as follows: (i) the amylose contents of the hull-less barley varieties increased the butyrate production and the abundance of Clostridium butyricum-like phylotypes, (ii) the beta-glucan content determined the total amounts of SCFA, and (iii) the amylopectin and starch contents affected the abundance of Clostridium ramosum-like phylotypes, members of Clostridium cluster XIVa, and Bacteroides-like bacteria. Finally, the effect of CHO on proliferation of Salmonella enterica in the model was determined. Salmonella cell counts were not affected, but the relative proportion of Salmonella decreased with hull-less barley cultivars and increased with oat cultivars as revealed by quantitative PCR. Our results shed light on the complex interactions of cereal CHO with intestinal bacterial ecophysiology and the possible impact on host health. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of source and levels of dietary fiber on in vivo nitrogen excretion pathways in pigs and in vitro fermentation and protein synthesis by fecal bacteria
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Buldgen, André; Delacollette, Maud et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2009), 87

The inclusion of dietary fiber (DF) in diets has been suggested as a way to reduce ammonia emission in pig barns because it contributes to a shift in N excretion from urine to feces due to enhanced ... [more ▼]

The inclusion of dietary fiber (DF) in diets has been suggested as a way to reduce ammonia emission in pig barns because it contributes to a shift in N excretion from urine to feces due to enhanced bacterial growth in the intestines. This study compared an in vitro method to measure bacterial protein synthesis during fermentation to in vivo N excretion shift induced by diets differing in DF concentrations and solubility. The first experiment measured the effect of graded concentrations of sugar beet pulp (SBP; 0, 10, 20 and 30%) in corn-soybean meal-based diets on in vivo N excretion partitioning between urine and feces. A second experiment investigated the replacement of SBP, rich in soluble DF, by oat hulls (OH), rich in insoluble DF (20:0; 10.5:10.5; 0:22%, respectively). In parallel, the fermentation characteristics of the dietary carbohydrates not digested in the small intestine was evaluated in an in vitro gas test, based on their incubation with colonic microbiota, using a mineral buffer solution enriched with 15N. The N originating from the buffer solution incorporated into the bacterial proteins (BNI) was measured when half of the final gas volume was produced (T/2: 8.5 to 14.5 h of fermentation) and after 72 h of fermentation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were determined in the liquid phase. In the first experiment, the inclusion of SBP linearly decreased urinary N excretion from 0.285 to 0.215 g N excreted in urine per g N ingested and urinary-N:fecal–N excretion ratio from 2.171 to 1.177 (P < 0.01). In the second experiment, the substitution of SBP by OH linearly increased urinary-N:fecal–N excretion ratio (P = 0.009). Unlike SCFA production, BNI was greater at T/2 than at 72 h of fermentation. Sugar beet pulp enhanced BNI linearly (P < 0.001): 2.01, 2.06 and 2.35 mg g-1 diet with 10, 20 and 30% SBP, respectively, as compared to 1.51 mg for the control diet. The substitution of SBP by OH decreased BNI (P < 0.01). With the exception of final gas production, all in vitro kinetics characteristics and BNI were correlated to in vivo N excretion parameters and regression equations for the prediction of N excretion pathways from in vitro data were identified. Even if the presence of resistant starch in the diet might alter the composition of the fibrous residue that is fermented, it can be concluded that the in vitro method is a possible useful tool for the formulation of diets reducing the effects of pig production on the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailVarietal effects of barley carbohydrate composition on digestibility, fermentability and microbial ecophysiology in an in vitro model of the pig gastrointestinal tract.
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Pieper, Robert; Rossnagel, Brian et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2009), 87(E-Suppl. 3), 93

Carbohydrate (CHO) composition can vary markedly between barley varieties. Their influence on digestibility, intestinal fermentation and microbiota in pigs was studied in vitro. Ten hulless (HLB) and 6 ... [more ▼]

Carbohydrate (CHO) composition can vary markedly between barley varieties. Their influence on digestibility, intestinal fermentation and microbiota in pigs was studied in vitro. Ten hulless (HLB) and 6 hulled barleys (HB) differing in B-glucan, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), starch content, and amylose/amylopectin ratio, were hydrolyzed enzymatically and subsequently fermented for 72h. CHO fermentation kinetics were modeled; microbial composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were analyzed. In HLB, in vitro DM digestibility was positively correlated to starch and amylopectin content and CP digestibility to amylopectin (P<0.05), whereas both were negatively correlated to insoluble NSP (P<0.05). Rate of fermentation was different (P<0.01) between barley types but not correlated to the CHO composition. However, high B-glucan contents induced faster fermentation (P<0.05, HLB; P<0.10, HB). SCFA molar ratios after fermentation of HLB were higher in propionate and branchedchain fatty acids and lower in acetate compared to HB (P<0.01). With HLB, amylose content was positively correlated to butyrate production and negatively to propionate, which was positively correlated to soluble NSP content (P<0.01). In HB, no correlation between SCFA production and the carbohydrate composition was found. TRFLP analysis revealed that Bacteroides and members of Clostridium cluster XIVa were differentially affected in HLB compared to HB as well as by the type and source of CHO. Microbial profiles were also correlated (P<0.05) to SCFA and fermentation parameters but response differed significantly between HB and HLB. The strongest correlation between CHO structure, microbial abundance and fermentation parameters was evident in HLB. Hulless barleys may offer the greatest opportunity to improve gut health in pigs. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro fibre fermentation characteristics of specialty ingredients with varying NSP levels
Jha, Rajesh; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Rossnagel, Brian et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailIn vitro evaluation of the fermentation characteristics in the pig intestines of hulless barleys differing in β-glucan content
Jha, Rajesh; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Rossnagel, Brian et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2009), 87(E-Suppl. 3), 103

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in isolated form, especially β-glucans, are reported to have prebiotic effects in pigs. However, little information is available on the possible functional properties of ... [more ▼]

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in isolated form, especially β-glucans, are reported to have prebiotic effects in pigs. However, little information is available on the possible functional properties of these NSP when the latter are still present in the fibrous matrix of whole cereals. Hulless barleys (HB) are good sources of β-glucans and the content is quite variable among varieties. In order to evaluate the potential of HB as functional feeds, an in vitro experiment was carried out to study the fermentation characteristics of 6 HB varieties varying in their β-glucan contents (36-99 g/kg DM) in comparison to 3 hulled barleys and 5 oats. After a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, the ingredients were incubated in a buffer solution containing minerals and pig feces as inoculum. The accumulated gas production, proportional to the amount of fiber fermented, was measured for 48 h and modeled. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonia concentration were measured in the fermented solutions. A cereal type effect (P < 0.05) was observed on the fermentation kinetics parameters. Rates of degradation and total gas productions were higher in HB than in oats (P < 0.05) but no difference was observed between HB varieties. On the contrary, differences were found between HB for lag time and rate of degradation. The production of SCFA was also higher with HB (6.1 mMol/g DM incubated; P < 0.05) than with hulled barleys and oats (4.9 and 2.9 mMol/g DM incubated respectively). In contrast, oats generated higher ammonia (P <0.05) production (1.4 mMol/g DM incubated, on average) than barley (1.0 mMol/g). In conclusion, HB are better fermented in vitro, produce more beneficial (SCFA) and less harmful (ammonia) metabolites and have a better potential than other cereal species to modulate gut microbiota and improve gut health. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional and environmental consequences of dietary fibre in pig nutrition: A review
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg; Leterme, Pascal; Buldgen, André

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12

Despite its negative impact on performances because of lower protein and energy digestibility, increasing attention has been paid in the past decade to dietary fibre in swine nutrition due to its multiple ... [more ▼]

Despite its negative impact on performances because of lower protein and energy digestibility, increasing attention has been paid in the past decade to dietary fibre in swine nutrition due to its multiple functionalities. The present review examines the influence of dietary fibre on the digestive processes and the consequences on pig protein and energy nutrition, health concerns and environmental issues. Dietary fibre is defined as the plant polysaccharides that are resistant to digestive secretions and are potentially available for bacterial fermentation in the intestines of single-stomached animals. Resistant starch is also considered as a dietary fibre. The short-chain fatty acids released by bacteria contribute to the host energy supply and both regulate the composition of the flora and the growth of epithelial cells, especially in the case of butyrate. The bacterial growth supported by the fermentation induces a shift of N excretion from urine to faeces. Beside the fermentability, the physical properties of dietary fibre such as the water-holding capacity, the viscosity and the solubility influence the digestion, the satiety and the transit time. In relationship with the mechanisms of dietary fibre interaction with the digestive processes exposed in this review, the opportunities and treats of dietary fibre inclusion in swine rations for intensified and for more extensive tropical production systems are discussed. Dietary fibre is indeed a possible means to reduce nitrogen losses of production units and to improve pig intestinal health and animal welfare. Finally, the potential role of in vitro fermentation methods to investigate the fate of dietary fibre in the digestive system is discussed. [less ▲]

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