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See detailFolding of class A beta-lactamases is rate-limited by peptide bond isomerization and occurs via parallel pathways.
Vandenameele, Julie ULg; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; Di Paolo, Alexandre ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2010), 49(19), 4264-75

Class A beta-lactamases (M(r) approximately 29000) provide good models for studying the folding mechanism of large monomeric proteins. In particular, the highly conserved cis peptide bond between residues ... [more ▼]

Class A beta-lactamases (M(r) approximately 29000) provide good models for studying the folding mechanism of large monomeric proteins. In particular, the highly conserved cis peptide bond between residues 166 and 167 at the active site of these enzymes controls important steps in their refolding reaction. In this work, we analyzed how conformational folding, reactivation, and cis/trans peptide bond isomerizations are interrelated in the folding kinetics of beta-lactamases that differ in the nature of the cis peptide bond, which involves a Pro167 in the BS3 and TEM-1 enzyme, a Leu167 in the NMCA enzyme, and which is missing in the PER-1 enzyme. The analysis of folding by spectroscopic probes and by the regain of enzymatic activity in combination with double-mixing procedures indicates that conformational folding can proceed when the 166-167 bond is still in the incorrect trans form. The very slow trans --> cis isomerization of the Glu166-Xaa167 peptide bond, however, controls the final step of folding and is required for the regain of the enzymatic activity. This very slow phase is absent in the refolding of PER-1, in which the Glu166-Ala167 peptide bond is trans. The double-mixing experiments revealed that a second slow kinetic phase is caused by the cis/trans isomerization of prolines that are trans in the folded proteins. The folding of beta-lactamases is best described by a model that involves parallel pathways. It highlights the role of peptide bond cis/trans isomerization as a kinetic determinant of folding. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Blocks Tumor Growth, Invasion, and Angiogenesis
Devy, L.; Huang, L.; Naa, L. et al

in Cancer Research (2009), 69(4), 1517-1526

Inhibition of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MNIP) is an attractive noncytotoxic approach to cancer therapy. MMP-14, a membrane-bound zinc endopeptidase, has been proposed to play a central role in ... [more ▼]

Inhibition of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MNIP) is an attractive noncytotoxic approach to cancer therapy. MMP-14, a membrane-bound zinc endopeptidase, has been proposed to play a central role in tumor growth, invasion, and neovascularization. Besides cleaving matrix proteins, MMP-14 activates proMMP-2 leading to an amplification of pericellular proteolytic activity. To examine the contribution of MMP-14 to tumor growth and angiogenesis, we used DX-2400, a highly selective fully human MMP-14 inhibitory antibody discovered using phage display technology. DX-2400 blocked proMMP-2 processing on tumor and endothelial cells, inhibited angiogenesis, and slowed tumor progression and formation of metastatic lesions. The combination of potency, selectivity, and robust in vivo activity shows the potential of a selective MMP-14 inhibitor for the treatment of solid tumors. [Cancer Res 2009;69(4):1517-26] [less ▲]

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See detailTem-1 Beta-Lactamase Folds in a Nonhierarchical Manner with Transient Non-Native Interactions Involving the C-Terminal Region
Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; Pain, R. H.; Charlier, Paulette ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2008), 47(4), 1186-93

The conformational stability and kinetics of refolding and unfolding of the W290F mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase have been determined as a function of guanidinium chloride concentration. The activity and ... [more ▼]

The conformational stability and kinetics of refolding and unfolding of the W290F mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase have been determined as a function of guanidinium chloride concentration. The activity and spectroscopic properties of the mutant enzyme did not differ significantly from those of the wild type, indicating that the mutation has only a very limited effect on the structure of the protein. The stability of the folded protein is reduced, however, by 5-10 kJ mol-1 relative to that of the molten globule intermediate (H), but the values of the folding rate constants are unchanged, suggesting that Trp-290 becomes organized in its nativelike environment only after the rate-limiting step; i.e., the C-terminal region of the enzyme folds very late. In contrast to the significant increase in fluorescence intensity seen in the dead time (3-4 ms) of refolding of the wild-type protein, no corresponding burst phase was observed with the mutant enzyme, enabling the burst phase to be attributed specifically to the C-terminal Trp-290. This residue is suggested to be buried in a nonpolar environment from which it has to escape during subsequent folding steps. With both proteins, fast early collapse leads to a folding intermediate in which the C-terminal region of the polypeptide chain is trapped in a non-native structure, consistent with a nonhierarchical folding process. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, quality control and in vivo evaluation of [I-123] rhTIMP-2, a potential tumour-imaging agent
Oltenfreiter, R.; Burvenich, I.; Staelens, L. et al

in Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals (2005), 48(5), 387-396

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix. Their overexpression in tumours may provide a target for diagnostic imaging by using labelled MMP ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix. Their overexpression in tumours may provide a target for diagnostic imaging by using labelled MMP inhibitors. MMPs are inhibited by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The enhanced production of MT1-MMP, located on the surface of cells within or in the direct vicinity of the tumour, and the high affinity interaction between TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP suggested that TIMP-2 could be a potential agent for non-invasive monitoring of cancer MMP levels, diagnosis of primary and secondary tumours and tumour response to MMP inhibitor therapy. There is also evidence that I-125-rhTIMP-2 internalizes, which is an important feature for its possible use as a radiotherapeuticum if labelled with I-131. Labelling of rhTIMP-2 was performed using the iodogen method resulting in a radiochemical yield of 51.1 +/- 11.8% (n = 5) and a radiochemical purity of > 98%. The trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitability of I-123 rhTIMP-2 was 95.2%. SDS-PAGE confirmed the correct size (21 kDa) of the purified I-123 rhTIMP-2 without degradation. HPLC showed one radioactive peak with a retention time corresponding to the nonlabelled rhTIMP-2. In vivo biodistribution showed no long-term accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumour. These results show the potential of I-123 rhTIMP-2 as tumour-imaging agent. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailHost plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promotes human skin carcinoma progression in a stage-dependent manner
Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M.; Romer, M. U. et al

in Neoplasia : An International Journal for Oncology Research (2005), 7(1), 57-66

Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system. Recently, several ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system. Recently, several experimental data have implicated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in tumor angiogenesis in murine systems. However, little is known about PAI-1 functions in human skin carcinoma progression. By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1(-/-) or nude background) deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1(-/-)), we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. When using the surface transplantation model, angiogenesis and tumor invasion of these two cell lines are strongly reduced in PAI-1-deficient mice as compared to the wild-type control animals. After subcutaneous injection in PAI-1-/- mice, the tumor incidence is reduced for HaCaT II-4 cells, but not for those formed by HaCaT A5-RT3 cells. These data indicate that PAI-1 produced by host cells is an important contributor to earlier stages of human skin carcinoma progression. It exerts its tumor-promoting effect in a tumor stage-dependent manner, but PAI-1 deficiency is not sufficient to prevent neoplastic growth of aggressive tumors of the human skin. [less ▲]

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See detailNew radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor tracers as potential tumor imaging agents
Oltenfreiter, R.; Staelens, L.; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2004), 31(4), 459-468

Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor progression and expression of extracellular proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and MMP-9 have become ... [more ▼]

Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor progression and expression of extracellular proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and MMP-9 have become attractive targets for cancer research because of their increased expression in human malignant tumor tissues of various organs, providing a target for medical imaging techniques. Radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4'-[123]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylainino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (9) and 2-(4'-[I-123] iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionamide (11) were synthesized by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl derivatives and resulted in radiochemical yields of 60% +/- 5% (n - 3) and 70% +/- 5% (n = 6), respectively. In vitro zymography and enzyme assays showed high inhibition capacities of the inhibitors on gelatinases. In vivo biodistribution showed no long-terin accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumor. These results warrant further studies of radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MNIP inhibitor tracers as potential SPECT tumor imaging agents. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative Analysis of the Stabilization by Substrate of Staphylococcus Aureus Pc1 Beta-Lactamase
Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; Vanhove, Marc; Lamotte-Brasseur, Josette et al

in Chemistry & Biology (2001), 8(8), 831-42

BACKGROUND: The stabilization of enzymes in the presence of substrates has been recognized for a long time. Quantitative information regarding this phenomenon is, however, rather scarce since the enzyme ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The stabilization of enzymes in the presence of substrates has been recognized for a long time. Quantitative information regarding this phenomenon is, however, rather scarce since the enzyme destroys the potential stabilizing agent during the course of the experiments. In this work, enzyme unfolding was followed by monitoring the progressive decrease of the rate of substrate utilization by the Staphylococcus aureus PC1 beta-lactamase, at temperatures above the melting point of the enzyme. RESULTS: Enzyme inactivation was directly followed by spectrophotometric measurements. In the presence of substrate concentrations above the K(m) values, significant stabilization was observed with all tested compounds. A combination of unfolding kinetic measurements and enzymatic studies, both under steady-state and non-steady-state regimes, allowed most of the parameters characteristic of the two concurrent phenomena (i.e. substrate hydrolysis and enzyme denaturation) to be evaluated. In addition, molecular modelling studies show a good correlation between the extent of stabilization, and the magnitude of the energies of interaction with the enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the enzyme is substantially stabilized towards heat-induced denaturation, independently of the relative proportions of non-covalent Henri-Michaelis complex (ES) and acyl-enzyme adduct (ES*). Thus, for those substrates with which the two catalytic intermediates are expected to be significantly populated, both species (ES and ES*) appear to be similarly stabilized. This analysis contributes a new quantitative approach to the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailThe in vivo association of BiP with newly synthesized proteins is dependent on the rate and stability of folding and not simply on the presence of sequences that can bind to BiP
Hellman, R.; Vanhove, M.; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (1999), 144(1), 21-30

Immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP) is a member of the hsp70 family of chaperones and one of the most abundant proteins in the ER lumen. It is known to interact transiently with many nascent ... [more ▼]

Immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP) is a member of the hsp70 family of chaperones and one of the most abundant proteins in the ER lumen. It is known to interact transiently with many nascent proteins as they enter the ER and more stably with protein subunits produced in stoichiometric excess or with mutant proteins. However, there also exists a large number of secretory pathway proteins that do not apparently interact with BiP. To begin to understand what controls the likelihood that a nascent protein entering the ER will associate with BiP, we have examined the in vivo folding of a murine XI immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain (LC). This LC is composed of two Ig domains that can fold independent of the other and that each possess multiple potential BiP-binding sequences. To detect BiP binding to the LC during folding, we used BiP ATPase mutants, which bind irreversibly to proteins, as "kinetic traps." Although both the wild-type and mutant BiP dearly associated with the unoxidized variable region domain, we were unable to detect binding of either BiP protein to the constant region domain. A combination of in vivo and in vitro folding studies revealed that the constant domain folds rapidly and stably even in the absence of an intradomain disulfide bond. Thus, the simple presence of a BiP-binding site on a nascent chain does not ensure that BiP will bind and play a role in its folding. Instead, it appears that the rate and stability of protein folding determines whether or not a particular site is recognized, with BiP preferentially binding to proteins that fold slowly or somewhat unstably. [less ▲]

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See detailA collapsed intermediate with nonnative packing of hydrophobic residues in the folding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase
Vanhove, M.; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; GUILLAUME, G. et al

in Biochemistry (1998), 37(7), 1941-1950

The kinetics of refolding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from solution in guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated on the manual and stopped-flow mixing time scales. The kinetics of change of far-UV ... [more ▼]

The kinetics of refolding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from solution in guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated on the manual and stopped-flow mixing time scales. The kinetics of change of far-UV circular dichroism and of intrinsic and ANS fluorescence have been compared with changes in the quenching of fluorescence by acrylamide as a probe of the accessibility of solvent to tryptophan. The binding of ANS points to hydrophobic collapse in the very early stages of folding which take place in the burst phase. This is accompanied by regain of 60-65% of-native ellipticity, indicating formation of a significant proportion of secondary structure, Also in the burst phase, the tryptophan residues, which are largely exposed to solvent in the native protein, become less accessible to acrylamide, and the intrinsic fluorescence increases markedly. An early intermediate is thus formed in which tryptophan is more buried than in the native protein. Further intermediates are formed over the next 20 s. Quenching by acrylamide increases during this period, as the transient nonnative state is disrupted and the tryptophan residue(s) become(s) reexposed to solvent, The two slowest phases are determined by the isomerization of incorrect prolyl isomers, but double jump tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments show little, if any, effect of proline isomerization on the earlier phases, Hydrophobic collapse thus occurs to a folding intermediate in which there is a nonnative element of structure which has to rearrange in the later steps of folding, resulting in a nonhierarchical folding pathway. The C-terminal W290 is suggested as being involved in the nonnative intermediate. beta-Lactamase provides further evidence for the occurrence of nonnative intermediates in protein folding. [less ▲]

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See detailbeta-lactamases as models for protein-folding studies
Vanhove, M.; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; Pain, R. H.

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (1998), 54(4), 372-377

This review traces some of the key features of the folding of beta-lactamases and their relevance to the way proteins fold in general. Studies on the enzymes have highlighted the nature and role of ... [more ▼]

This review traces some of the key features of the folding of beta-lactamases and their relevance to the way proteins fold in general. Studies on the enzymes have highlighted the nature and role of equilibrium and transient condensed states. The kinetics of folding are multiphasic, and when monitored by acrylamide quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence, an early phase provides evidence for the transient accumulation of a nonnative intermediate involving burial of tryptophan in a nonpolar environment. Intermediate phases can be understood in terms of progressive folding of different parts of the molecule. The later, slow phases are associated with proline isomerization in the TEM-1 enzyme and, in its P167T mutant form, with isomerization from trans to cis of the E166 T167 peptide bond. Coupled with kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies of the beta-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus and its D179Q mutant, it appears that the final stage of folding is that of collapse and packing of the Omega-loop on to the main body of the protein. [less ▲]

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See detailUnexpected Influence of a C-Terminal-Fused His-Tag on the Processing of an Enzyme and on the Kinetic and Folding Parameters
Ledent, Philippe; Duez, Colette ULg; Vanhove, Marc et al

in FEBS Letters (1997), 413(2), 194-196

The addition of a poly-His C-terminal extension, designed to facilitate the purification of the protein, to the beta-lactamase of a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain modified the site of action ... [more ▼]

The addition of a poly-His C-terminal extension, designed to facilitate the purification of the protein, to the beta-lactamase of a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain modified the site of action of the signal peptidase. This resulted in the secretion of a protein with a different N-terminus, showing that this type of protein engineering might not always be as 'neutral' as generally assumed. (C) 1997 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. [less ▲]

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