References of "Lejeune, Caroline"
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See detailAutomatization of mirror - tracing skill in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Desmottes, Lise ULg et al

Poster (2014, September)

Aim: This study investigated the hypothesis of a skill automatization deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Method: Thirty children (15 with DCD and 15 control children), aged between 7 ... [more ▼]

Aim: This study investigated the hypothesis of a skill automatization deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Method: Thirty children (15 with DCD and 15 control children), aged between 7 and 12 years old, were administered the mirror-tracing task during two 10-trials sessions separated by one week. An auditory interference task was introduced at the end of the procedural learning phase to test skill automatization. Results: Interestingly, no between-group difference was revealed in learning and automatization measures except for a specific subgroup of DCD children (n=5) who experienced difficulties in skill automatization. Conclusion: The results of our preliminary study highlighted the heterogeneity of the deficit presented in DCD and they emphasized the importance to explore further the lack of automatization in DCD. [less ▲]

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See detailL’apprentissage de résolution de problèmes complexes (ARP - C) : un dispositif d’entrainement au travail interdisciplinaire
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2014, May 21)

Les futurs logopèdes et futurs psychologues doivent apprendre à s’intégrer dans une prise en charge multidisciplinaire, à interagir efficacement avec d’autres professionnels, et à comprendre les limites ... [more ▼]

Les futurs logopèdes et futurs psychologues doivent apprendre à s’intégrer dans une prise en charge multidisciplinaire, à interagir efficacement avec d’autres professionnels, et à comprendre les limites de leur champ d’intervention. Pour entrainer ces apprentissages critiques, un dispositif interdisciplinaire a été proposé à 36 étudiants en logopédie et 14 étudiants en psychologie, tous en cinquième année de leur formation initiale à l’Université de Liège. Ces étudiants ont été confrontés à une vignette clinique dont la complexité justife le recours à divers intervenants. Cette vignette a été, dans un premier temps, analysé en petits groupes disciplinaires avec l’aide d’un tuteur (4 groupes en logopédie et 2 groupes en neuropsychologie). Ensuite, des groupes interdisciplinaires (composés de logopèdes et de neuropsychologues) ont été formés pour partager leurs analyses et avancer dans la formulation du diagnostic. Enfin, les étudiants ont eu l’occasion de rencontrer des professionnels d’autres disciplines (instituteur, psycho-pédagogue, etc.) avec lesquels ils ont du discuter des questions en suspens liées à la vignette analysée. L’évaluation du dispositif suggère que globalement les étudiants ont le sentiment d’avoir progressé quant à la maitrise de certains apprentissages critiques. Plus de 90% des étudiants relatent avoir progressé en évaluation pluridisciplinaire et différents indices indiquent qu’ils perçoivent l’intérêt de recourir à un réseau de professionnels. Par ailleurs, la perception du dispositif peut être différente selon les disciplines. Ainsi, 90% des psychologues mais seulement 60% des logopèdes estiment avoir progressé dans la prise de décisions argumentées par rapport à l’évaluation. Inversement, 30% des psychologues mais plus de 70% des logopèdes relatent des progrès pour la capacité à prioriser les recommandations thérapeutiques. Ces résultats seront analysés et discutés. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopmental Invariance in Implicit Sequence Learning
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Wansard, Murielle ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2014, April 05)

This study was intended to test the age invariance hypothesis on implicit learning abilities using the serial reaction time paradigm and focusing on the comparison of second-order conditional (SOC ... [more ▼]

This study was intended to test the age invariance hypothesis on implicit learning abilities using the serial reaction time paradigm and focusing on the comparison of second-order conditional (SOC) sequences of two different lengths (8 and 12 elements). A total of 128 participants from 4 age groups (4 years, 7 years, 10 years, and adults) were tested. The results showed significant and similar learning effects in 4-, 7-, and 10-year-old children, as well as adults. The learning effect was more pronounced for the 8-element sequence than for the 12-element sequence for all age groups, suggesting that the shorter sequence was better learned than the longer one. In addition, the degree of explicit sequence awareness was comparable between age groups and sequence lengths. These results, showing that 4-year-old children are able to learn 8- and 12-element-long SOC sequences as well as adults, provide further support for the hypothesis that implicit learning abilities are developmentally invariant. [less ▲]

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See detailAge difference in dual-task interference effects on procedural learning in children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Desmottes, Lise ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2014)

The present study aimed to investigate the role played by explicit mechanisms during procedural learning in two age groups of children (7 and 10 years old), using a dual-task paradigm. To do this, we ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to investigate the role played by explicit mechanisms during procedural learning in two age groups of children (7 and 10 years old), using a dual-task paradigm. To do this, we explored the effect of an interference task during the early and late phases of a mirror tracing learning task. The results showed a differential impact of the secondary task on the two age groups, but only during the first learning phase: the performance of 10-year-olds was affected by the second task, whereas in 7-year-olds no performance difference was found between the single- and dual-task conditions. Overall, our study suggests that there are differences in the amount of effortful processing that 7- and 10-year-olds engage at the beginning of the learning process: Procedural learning in young children is mainly implicit, as attested by its lesser sensitivity to an interference task, whereas high-level explicit mechanisms seem to contribute to the procedural performance of 10-year-old children. However, these explicit mechanisms, even if they have an effect on performance, may not have an impact on the learning curve because no difference in rate of acquisition was found between age groups. These findings are discussed in the light of classical conceptions of procedural learning. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Benefits of Errorless Learning for Serial Reaction Time Performance in Alzheimer's Disease.
Schmitz, Xavier ULg; Bier, Nathalie; Joubert, Sven et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2014), 39(2), 287-300

Identifying the conditions favoring new procedural skill learning in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could be important for patients’ autonomy. It has been suggested that error elimination is beneficial during ... [more ▼]

Identifying the conditions favoring new procedural skill learning in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could be important for patients’ autonomy. It has been suggested that error elimination is beneficial during skill learning, but no study has explored the advantage of this method in sequential learning situations. In this study, we examined the acquisition of a 6-element perceptual-motor sequence by AD patients and healthy older adults (control group). We compared the impact of two preliminary sequence learning conditions (Errorless vs. Errorful) on Serial Reaction Time performance at two different points in the learning process. A significant difference in reaction times for the learned sequence and a new sequence was observed in both conditions in healthy older participants; in AD patients, the difference was significant only in the errorless condition. The learning effect was greater in the errorless than the errorful condition in both groups. However, while the errorless advantage was found at two different times in the learning process in the AD group, in the control group this advantage was observed only at the halfway point. These results support the hypothesis that errorless learning allows for faster automation of a procedure than errorful learning in both AD and healthy older subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation d’un test d’inhibition auprès d’enfants présentant un trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec/sans hyperactivité
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2014), 46(1), 66-72

The objective of this study was to assess the development of inhibition in 5-11 years old children with the “Stroop fruit” task (see Archibald & Kerns, 1999; Catale & Meulemans, 2005) and to examine the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess the development of inhibition in 5-11 years old children with the “Stroop fruit” task (see Archibald & Kerns, 1999; Catale & Meulemans, 2005) and to examine the clinical value of this tool. 346 French-speaking children without any developmental disorders or learning disabilities were included in this study. A clinical group of 25 children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder was also assessed with this task. Developmental analyses on age groups show an enhancement of performance in the interference condition between 5 and 8 years old. Furthermore, results also show that the clinical group performed significantly less accurately that the control group for the interference condition, which confirms the clinical interest of this tool. [less ▲]

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See detailIntact procedural motor sequence learning in developmental coordination disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg et al

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2013), 34(6), 1974-1981

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with and without DCD using the serial reaction time task, in which the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to minimize the impact of perceptuomotor coordination difficulties that characterize this disorder. The results showed that children with DCD succeed as well as control children at the procedural sequence learning task. These findings challenge the hypothesis that a procedural learning impairment underlies the difficulties of DCD children in acquiring and automatizing daily activities. We suggest that the previously reported impairment of children with DCD on the serial reaction time task is not due to a sequence learning deficit per se, but rather due to methodological factors such as the response mode used in these studies. [less ▲]

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See detailFrench Adaptation of the Childhood ExecutivFe Function Inventory (CHEXI): Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Sample of Young French-Speaking Belgian Children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2013), 29(2), 149-155

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating instrument for executive functioning in day-to-day life that can be divided into four ... [more ▼]

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating instrument for executive functioning in day-to-day life that can be divided into four subscales: working memory, planning, inhibition, and regulation. By using an exploratory factor analysis on data from young Swedish children attending kindergarten, Thorell and Nyberg (2008) found a two-factor solution tapping working memory and inhibition. In the present study, we explored the psychometric characteristics of the French adaptation of the CHEXI. Ninety-five parents of 5- and 6-year-old children completed the CHEXI. Eighty-seven children from this sample were given clinical inhibition and working memory tasks. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the two-factor solution based on inhibition and working memory that was identified in the original study of Swedish children. Supplementary results indicated good internal and test-retest reliability for the entire scale, as well as for the two subscales identified. Correlation analyses showed no relationship between cognitive measures and the CHEXI subscales. Possible clinical applications for the CHEXI scales are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-Related Differences in Perceptuomotor Procedural Learning in Children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2013), 116

Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known ... [more ▼]

Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known about the development of procedural learning or the role played by explicit cognitive processes during learning. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether procedural learning performance improves with age by comparing groups of 7-yearold children, 10-year-old children, and adults, and (2) to investigate the role played by executive functions during the acquisition in these three age groups. Seventy-six subjects were assessed on a computerized adaptation of the mirror tracing paradigm. Results revealed that the youngest children had more difficulty adapting to the task (they were slower and committed more errors at the beginning of the learning process) than 10-year-olds, but despite this age effect observed at the outset, all children improved performance across trials and transferred their skill to a different figure as well as adults. Correlational analyses showed that inhibition abilities play a key role in the performance of 10-year-olds and adults at the beginning of the learning, but not in 7-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the age-related differences observed in our procedural learning task are at least partly due to the differential involvement of inhibition abilities, which may facilitate (so long as they are sufficiently developed) learning in the initial steps of learning process; however, they would not be a necessary condition for skill learning to occur. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a French Version of a New Anxiety Trait Scale for Children
Geurten, Marie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Fresson, Megan ULg et al

Poster (2013)

Anxiety diagnosis is relatively complex in children because intensity as well as symptoms of anxiety change during childhood (Bouden, Halayem, & Fakhfakh, 2002). The principal aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Anxiety diagnosis is relatively complex in children because intensity as well as symptoms of anxiety change during childhood (Bouden, Halayem, & Fakhfakh, 2002). The principal aim of this study was to validate through Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) the a priori three-factor structure of the French version of the anxiety trait scale for children which includes psychological (“tend to be worried about everything”), behavioral (“tend to be upset, nervous or grumbling”), and somatic symptoms (“headache complaints”) of anxiety. This scale was previously found to discriminate, with high sensitivity and specificity, children with anxiety from control group. A first CFA performed on 288 6-12 year-old children showed an acceptable fit (2/df =2.66; RMSEA=.07 and CFI=.94). A second three-factor model was constructed and showed a better fit with a new sample of 287 children (2/df =2.18; RMSEA=.06 and CFI=.96), with a lower ECVI value for the model 2. For this model, the Cronbach’s alpha for each of the subscales ranged from .71 to .86, which confirmed the good internal reliability of the scale. This study provides a new three-factor structure for this anxiety scale and proposes normative data for French-speaking children. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference of a secondary task on procedural learning in children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Desmottes, Lise ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Belgian Brain Congress 2012: Abstract Book (2012, October 27)

Introduction Procedural learning is generally considered as involving different learning phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role only during the initial learning step. Through repeated ... [more ▼]

Introduction Procedural learning is generally considered as involving different learning phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role only during the initial learning step. Through repeated practice, the skill becomes progressively more automatic and the involvement of controlled cognitive functions is progressively reduced (Anderson, 2000;Doyon and Benali, 2005;Beaunieux et al., 2006). This view has been supported by studies in which the mirror-tracing paradigm was used to evaluate procedural learning, demonstrating the implication of the executive mechanisms in the first phase of perceptuomotor learning (Rouleau, 2002;Brosseau et al., 2007). However, from a developmental perspective, little is known about the progression of learning in procedural tasks, as well as about the role played by the explicit cognitive processes during learning in children. We recently showed that the cognitive mechanisms involved during the procedural task differed between age groups (Lejeune et al., in press). Indeed, we observed that 7-year-old children performed the procedural task in a less controlled fashion than 10-year-olds, who used a more conscious strategy, which permits them to reach better performance levels. The aim of the present study was to confirm the differential implication of explicit mechanisms in procedural learning in children by using a dual-task paradigm. Objective The present study used a dual-task paradigm in order to further investigate the role played by explicit mechanisms during the early and final stages of procedural learning in two ages-groups (7- and 10 year-olds). An auditory interference task was introduced at the beginning and at the end of the procedural learning phase. According to Sun, Merrill, and Peterson (2001), the introduction of an interference task should affect more the explicit processes than the implicit processes, the latter being more automatic. Thus, we predict that performance would be altered by in the dual-task condition only during the first phase of learning, and not during the automation phase. Furthermore, considering that the cognitive mechanisms underlying procedural learning would be different between 7- and 10-year-old children, we predicted that the impact of the dual-task would differ between the two aged-groups: the dual-task condition should affect performance in 10-year-old children but not in the 7-year-old group. Method Seventy-six children were presented with a Mirror Tracing task under single or dual-task conditions. For the Mirror Tracing task, we conformed to the procedure used in previous studies in children (Vicari et al., 2005;Prehn-Kristensen et al., 2009) and we opted for a 5 points star with the double outline of 1 cm. The instruction was to follow the contour of the figure in order to “catch” different picture without leaving the limits of the contour. There were two learning sessions; the task included 10 trials, with a short break (2 min) between trials, and a second 10 trial session was conducted after a one-week delay. In dual-task condition, participants had to perform the procedural learning task while performing at the same time the interference auditory task (which consisted to answer to questions presented continuously). Results Results showed that completion time and accuracy during the mirror tracing task improved with each successive trial in both groups: all children learned the procedural skill regardless of their age and the experimental condition. As predicted, results showed that the impact of the dual-task differed between aged-groups during the first learning phase. While 10-year-old children were significantly slower and less accurate in the dual-task condition than 10-year-old children in the single-task condition, no difference between learning conditions was revealed in the 7-year-old group. Interestingly, at the end of learning (trials 19 and 20), the interference effect had disappeared: there was no impact of the secondary task on procedural performance, whatever the age-group. Discussion In this study, we explored with a dual-task paradigm the role played by explicit mechanisms during the early and final stages of procedural learning in two age-groups (7- and 10 year-olds). During the first learning step, 10-year-old children in the single-task condition used a conscious strategy to perform the task, which permits them to reach better performance levels than 10-year-old children in the dual-task condition (which prevents them from using their controlled cognitive processes). On the contrary, no impact of the interference task was observed in 7-year-old children, who performed the mirror tracing task similarly in the single- and dual-task conditions. This result supports our hypothesis that, in the beginning of a perceptuo-motor learning task, youngest children perform the procedural task in a more implicit fashion comparatively to older children. Thus, while performance of 10-year-old children is congruent with a top-down conception of procedural learning (i.e., performance in the first learning stages would be sustained by high-level explicit mechanisms), this is not the case for youngest children whose explicit mechanisms are not yet mature. So, our results confirm that the involvement of explicit learning mechanisms is not a “necessary condition” for motor skill learning to occur, a point of view supported by the bottom-up skill learning approach which postulates that explicit declarative knowledge is not necessarily associated with procedural skill learning and that the knowledge acquired could be stored in an implicit mode from the beginning of learning (Karmiloff-Smith, 1992;Sun et al., 2001). [less ▲]

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See detailProcedural learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: 1st Joint Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science & Sociedad Espanola de Psicologica Experimental (2012, May 11)

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic ... [more ▼]

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic performance, the mechanisms underlying DCD remain largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the hypothesis of a motor procedural learning impairment in DCD, which would explain difficulties in motor learning and automation of novel motor skills in these children. A total of 32 children (16 with DCD and 16 typically developing [TD] children) aged between 6 and 12 years old participated in this study. Children were administered a task adapted from the traditional shapes’ mirror-tracing task. Results showed that DCD children were able to learn the skill as fast as TD children; the learning pattern of DCD and TD children in motor procedural learning is similar. But is there any generalization of a new perceptual-motor skill in DCD children? Actually, DCD children were slower during the transfer task (triangle task) than TD children; the transfer task was more difficult for the DCD children than their peers. DCD children and TD children differ in their abilities to generalize the motor schema to a new task, more complex. These results confirm the hypothesis of a motor procedural learning impairment in DCD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Conners Parent Rating Scale: Confirmatory factorial analysis on preliminary data in a sample of 5-10 years old Belgian French Speaking Children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in Book of Abstracts (2012)

Introduction The Conners Parent Rating Scale-48 items (CPRS) is one of the most used behavioral scales in clinical and research settings with children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, and ... [more ▼]

Introduction The Conners Parent Rating Scale-48 items (CPRS) is one of the most used behavioral scales in clinical and research settings with children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, and particularly with children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This scale provides an interesting qualitative and quantitative picture of the emotional and behavioural children’s attitude by including five subscales assessing conduct problem, learning problem, anxiety, impulsive/hyperactive behaviour and psychosomatic feelings (e.g., Goyette, Conners, & Ulrich, 1978). Previous versions of this scale were developed to contribute to the identification of hyperkinetic children and evaluate treatment efficiency. To our knowledge, no study has verified the factor structure of the French version of the CPRS. In this context, the principal aims of this study were to verify the five-factor structure of the French version of the CPRS and therefore to provide preliminary culturally adapted normative data for Belgian French-speaking children aged from 5 to 10 years old. Method The CPRS for parents was distributed in several schools in the region of Liège (Belgium). A total of 157 parents of normally developing 5-10 years old children participated in this study (Mean age: 7.94 years, SD: 2.01). Exclusion criteria for participation were a history of traumatic brain injury or neurological, developmental, learning, or psychiatric disorders. Results We carried out a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using LISREL 8.80 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 2006) to examine the factor structure of the French version of the CPRS. We tested the five-factor structure found in Goyette, Conners, and Ulrich (1978) with the English version including the five following subscales: [i] Conduct problem, [ii] Learning problem, [iii] Psychosomatic, [iv] Impulsive-hyperactive, and [v] Anxiety. To evaluate the fit of this model, different goodness-of-fit indexes were employed: (1) the chi2 value, (2) the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA; Browne & Cudeck, 1989), and (3) the Comparative Fit Index (CFI; Bentler, 1990). Generally, the fitness index is calculated from the value of the chi-square divided by the degrees of freedom. A value of chi2/df of less than 2 is considered to be an indication of an adequate fit. The RMSEA indicates a ‘good’ approximation if it is less than .05. A RMSEA between .05 and .08 reflects a ‘reasonable’ approximation, and a RMSEA greater than .08 indicates poor approximation. In line with Goyette, Conners, and Ulrich (1978), a five-factor model was constructed in which the items of the CPRS were hypothesized to reflect these factors. The chi-square of the model was not significant, chi2 (199) = 230.626, p > .05. The chi2/df ratio is 1.15, which indicates an adequate fit. For the other fit indices, we obtained a RMSEA of .07. The combination of these indices indicated an acceptable fit for the model tested. The standard item alpha for the whole-scale was .82. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) for each of the subscales ranged from .63 to .80 (Mean: .72). The coefficients confirmed the good internal reliability of the inventory. Discussion The principal aim of this study was to validate the five-factor structure of the French adaptation of the CPRS in Belgian French-speaking children. Interestingly, the CFA showed that, like the original version, the French adaptation of the CPRS presents good psychometric characteristics. More interestingly, the CFA confirmed that the 48-item scale of the French version of the CPRS specifically assessed the five different children’s behaviours described above. Furthermore, this study provides cultural-adapted normative data for Belgian French-speaking children. Future research will be necessary to examine to what extent this questionnaire can discriminate between children with ADHD and normally developing children. [less ▲]

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See detailProcedural learning in specific language impairment: effects of sequence complexity
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2012)

According to the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), abnormal development in the procedural memory system could account for the language deficits observed in specific language impairment (SLI). Recent ... [more ▼]

According to the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), abnormal development in the procedural memory system could account for the language deficits observed in specific language impairment (SLI). Recent studies have supported this hypothesis by using a serial reaction time (SRT) task, during which a slower learning rate is observed in children with SLI compared to controls. Recently, we obtained contrasting results, demonstrating that children with SLI were able to learn a sequence as quickly and as accurately as controls. These discrepancies could be related to differences in the statistical structure of the SRT sequence between these studies. The aim of this study was to further assess, in a group of 21 children with SLI, the PDH with second-order conditional sequences, which are more difficult to learn than those used in previous studies. Our results show that children with SLI had impaired procedural memory, as evidenced by both longer reaction times and no sign of sequence-specific learning in comparison with typically developing controls. These results are consistent with the PDH proposed by Ullman and Pierpont (2005) and suggest that procedural sequence-learning in SLI children depends on the complexity of the to-be-learned sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailIs motor sequence learning impaired in Developmental Coordination Disorder?
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

Poster (2012)

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic ... [more ▼]

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic performance, the mechanisms underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. One hypothesis that has been proposed is that the poor motor coordination abilities may be attributed to impairments in motor learning and, more specifically, in learning of the correct sequencing of movements (Gheysen et al., 2011). To date, only two studies have directly investigated sequence learning in DCD, but their results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to explore learning of motor sequence in DCD children by means of a modified version of the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task where the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to reduce the impact of the DCD group’s motor difficulties. A total of 34 children (17 with DCD and 17 typically developing (TD) children aged between 6 and 12 years old participated in this study. Results show that DCD children were able to learn the sequence as fast and as accurately as TD children. These findings, showing that children with DCD present the same degree of implicit learning as TD children, differ from those obtained by Gheysen et al. (2011) and so, challenge the motor sequence learning deficit hypothesis. We suggest that differences between studies are not related to an implicit sequence learning deficit per se in children with DCD, but rather to methodological aspects like the response mode used in the studies. [less ▲]

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See detailParental educational level influence on memory and executive performance in children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2012), 62

Introduction. – The influence of Parental Educational Status (PES) on cognitive performance has been confirmed in several studies. Objective. – The aim of this study was to explore the relationship ... [more ▼]

Introduction. – The influence of Parental Educational Status (PES) on cognitive performance has been confirmed in several studies. Objective. – The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PES and several domains of cognitive functioning and examine, through mediation analyses, the relationship between PES, language,and cognitive tasks. Method. – We first administered tasks measuring memory, executive and attentional abilities to 64 European native French speakers, divided into two groups of children according to parents’ educational status. Results. – The results suggest that, on most tasks, the effect of socio-educational status is mediated by language abilities. However, because the results were less clear for executive functions, we carried out a second experiment in which we administered more specific executive measures (i.e. inhibition, cognitive flexibility, updating and reasoning) to 80 children. Conclusion. – The results confirmed the influence of the parents’ educational status on the executive functioning and also that, contrary to other cognitive functions, this influence on executive tasks is not completely explained by language differences. [less ▲]

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See detailRééducation attentionnelle chez l’enfant avec Trouble Déficitaire de l’Attention (TDA) : Analyse de deux cas.
Turine, Hélène ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg

Poster (2012)

L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité d’une prise en charge cognitive basée sur des exercices spécifiques d’entraînement de l’attention (informatisés et papier-crayon) sur les performances ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité d’une prise en charge cognitive basée sur des exercices spécifiques d’entraînement de l’attention (informatisés et papier-crayon) sur les performances cognitives et le comportement de deux enfants TDA. L’impact d’une prise en charge attentionnelle chez des enfants avec TDA reste, à ce jour, mal connu même si quelques rares travaux suggèrent un bénéfice de ce type d’intervention sur des mesures attentionnelles et comportementales chez ces enfants (e.g., Noël et al., 2007). Deux enfants TDA avec troubles attentionnels objectivés par un examen neuropsychologique ont bénéficié de 40 séances de rééducation, lesquelles proposaient des exercices spécifiques aux difficultés de ces deux enfants (inhibition, attention soutenue et sélective et flexibilité). Chaque enfant était apparié à quatre enfants de contrôle. Les analyses de comparaison pré et post-rééducation montrent une amélioration des performances pour le cas 1 au niveau de différents composants attentionnels (inhibition, attention soutenue, attention sélective et flexibilité) ainsi qu’au niveau comportemental (p<.05) qui se maintient au-delà de 6 mois après la rééducation. En revanche, les analyses réalisées pour le cas 2 ne montrent aucune amélioration mais plaident en faveur d’un changement de stratégie cognitive (amélioration de la performance qualitative au détriment de la vitesse de réalisation). Cette étude confirme l’intérêt d’une prise en charge attentionnelle chez des enfants avec TDA et souligne l’importance de différents paramètres (variabilité interindividuelle, âge, motivation, profil attentionnel,…) dans le succès d’une telle rééducation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 281 (28 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAcquisition of a new motor skill in preschool- and school-aged children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: ASecond Meeting of The Federation of European Societies of Neuropsychology (2011, September)

It is generally admitted that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this study was to explore, with a ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this study was to explore, with a perceptivo-motor learning task, whether procedural learning abilities are present to the same extent in 4-, 7-, and 10-year-old children. Forty-five children were tested. The task included 4 blocks of 12 trials during which each subject had to “catch”, as quickly as possible, several toys presented successively on the screen with a computerized inverted mouse. Retention tests, composed of 2 blocks of 12 trials, were administered 15 minutes and 1 week later. The analyses showed an important difference between groups in the first block. This difference could be related to the low ability of young children to handle the mouse and to their less developed executive functioning. On the other hand, results showed a similar learning rate between 5- and 7-year-old children, supporting the idea that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in development. However, we observed no procedural learning in10-year-old children; this unexpected result is probably due to the fact that this task was too easy for this age group, which is confirmed by the ceiling effect already observed during the first learning blocks. So, this study confirms the early efficiency of procedural abilities in childhood, but also highlights the difficulty to develop procedural learning tasks adapted to children from a large age range. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopmental differences in the procedural learning of a perceptual-motor skill
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2011, May 27)

It is generally admitted that procedural learning is efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have brought empirical data confirming this assumption, and many questions remain regarding the ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that procedural learning is efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have brought empirical data confirming this assumption, and many questions remain regarding the cognitive mechanisms that sustain procedural learning in children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether perceptual-motor procedural learning was present to the same extent in 7-, 10-year-old children and in adults. We also examined the role of executive functions, working memory, general intelligence, and motor ability during the learning process. A total of 76 subjects divided into 3 age-groups were tested. The task included 4 blocks of 3 trials during which each subject had to trace the contour of a triangle with an inverted computer mouse. Analyses show an important difference between groups in the initial phase of the learning process. They also reveal that executive functions intervene during the first learning phase, which might explain the observed age effect. In addition, results show significant but different learning effects for the procedural task: while the improvement was equivalent between 10-year-olds and adults, 7-year-old children showed a greater learning slope than the other groups; despite their slowness during the first blocks, younger children showed an equivalent performance at the end of the learning phase. These results suggest that, if executive processes are important during the first learning steps, they are not a “necessary condition” for motor skill learning to occur. The role of compensatory strategies sustaining learning in younger children is discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (4 ULg)