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See detailChoisir des cas exemplaires. La Strategic litigation face aux discriminations
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Déviance et Société (2014), 38(1), 55-76

Strategic litigation is one of the methods used by equal opportunity agencies in Europe to promote rights. Looking at the organizational level, this article aims to show how and under which circumstances ... [more ▼]

Strategic litigation is one of the methods used by equal opportunity agencies in Europe to promote rights. Looking at the organizational level, this article aims to show how and under which circumstances strategic litigation is deemed relevant to fight employment discrimination in Belgium and on which grounds and arguments exemplary cases are chosen. The article also highlights possible changes in the mobilizations of courts and the judicial arena. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (23 ULg)
See detailAnimation d'une table ronde "Accès aux droits et organisation des services publics"
Lejeune, Aude ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
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See detailWorkshop "Non-compliance to the rules and disobedience towards the law"
Lejeune, Aude ULg; García Villegas, Mauricio

Conference (2013, September 06)

Acts of disobedience are increasing today. Dissident behaviors express new types of political commitment and mobilization. Madrid indignant protesters, Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street are some ... [more ▼]

Acts of disobedience are increasing today. Dissident behaviors express new types of political commitment and mobilization. Madrid indignant protesters, Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street are some manifestations of this phenomenon. Beside collective movements, other conducts of disobedience are less visible, but equally important; for instance, when a citizen refuses to pay taxes or do not comply with traffic rules or refuses to participate in the election when vote is compulsory. These ordinary conducts are also part of the contestation of social norms and order. In non-democratic or in transition to democracy countries, scholarly works have highlighted how complex the phenomenon of non-compliance with rules is. They have showed the existence of a culture of non-compliance, linked not only to the problem of national State legitimacy but similarly to the influence of other normative orders, such as tradition or religion. Disobedient citizens experience a tension between, on the one side, what they consider as the moral norms or customary rules, and, on the other side, the current legal norms. How these plural normative orders are connected one to each other and how they affect the rule of law and the democratic regimes? Through this workshop, we want to examine how citizens experience the law and the rules in different social and political settings. Crossing different approaches – Sociology, Political science, Law, and Anthropology – allows us to analyze both organized and collective behaviors of disobedience, such as destroying GMO crops or commercial billboards, as well as ordinary and individual conducts of non-compliance to the rules, such as cheating during an exam or breaking the traffic laws. These different forms of disobedience and non-compliance invite us to think about the articulation between individual and collective behaviors (to the extent that each conduct of non-compliance is embedded in a larger social context and contributes, in return, to shape it) and between political and self-interested acts of resistance. The phenomenon of non-compliance to the rules can be analyzed from two perspectives: one, from the point of view of the actor (individual or collective) who are involved; the other from the purposes of action (interest-oriented or value-oriented). By crossing these two focuses, four practices of disobedience can be distinguished: (1) the non-compliance by an individual, as a selfish and interested practice, for example when a driver jumps the lights or when a citizen does not pay taxes; (2) the non-compliance by an individual who thinks the norm is unjust or immoral, for example when a physician does not follow the law in the case of abortion; (3) the non-compliance by a group in order to fulfill its interests, for example the gas smuggling practices on the border between two countries and; (4) the non-compliance by a group on behalf of shared values, for example indignant protesters. These different forms of disobedience and non-compliance to the norms allow us to analyze dissident legal mobilizations and highlight activities which differ from conventional political protestation. Through these questions, we suggest more broadly to examine how ordinary citizens experience the law and the legality and which cultures of legality are constructed in different social and political contexts. In short, the comparative analysis of disobedience practices allows us to think about the relationship between legality and legitimacy and between the law and other normative orders. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
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See detailSocial Rights, Civil Rights : Addressing Disability Discrimination in the United States and in Sweden
Lejeune, Aude ULg

Conference (2013, June 02)

Some scholarly works have highlighted the diffusion of the US disability rights model in Europe, considering that a disability rights’ revolution was underway. They have also identified sources of ... [more ▼]

Some scholarly works have highlighted the diffusion of the US disability rights model in Europe, considering that a disability rights’ revolution was underway. They have also identified sources of resistance to the diffusion of this “civil rights’ frame” to address disability issues in Europe (Burke, 2004; Heyer, 2002; Vanhala, 2011; Waldschmidt, 2009). Focusing on legal mobilizations against disability discrimination in the workplace, I analyze and compare how government agencies (the Swedish Ombudsman against discrimination and the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission), as well as non-governmental organizations in both countries, address these issues. How do the structures of national institutions frame legal mobilizations against disability discrimination in each country? Do they tend to converge in the way they mobilize the law to address these issues? Through investigative techniques consisting primarily of open-ended interviews with lawyers working in NGOs and in government agencies for equality in the United States and in Sweden, I highlight several challenges faced by studies on disability rights, especially when they describe and explain convergence of legal mobilizations, and try to offer suggestions for overcoming these challenges. More broadly, this contribution aims to call into question the processes of transnationalisation and policy transfer from one country to another. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Mobilization against Workplace Discrimination in Belgium and Sweden: Transnationalism and Convergence in Internal Decision-Making?
Lejeune, Aude ULg

Conference (2013, March 13)

Some scholarly works on legal mobilization have highlighted the diffusion of litigious policies to address social problems in Europe, considering that a rights’ revolution was underway; others have ... [more ▼]

Some scholarly works on legal mobilization have highlighted the diffusion of litigious policies to address social problems in Europe, considering that a rights’ revolution was underway; others have identified sources of resistance to the diffusion of the mobilization of the courts as a mechanism for promotion of rights in Europe. European national agencies for equality, created in the 2000s to address discrimination issues, use litigation to produce social change, both at national and supranational levels. Their strategies, if not new, may tend to redefine legal mobilization against unlawful treatment in the workplace in Europe. In this paper, I analyze how the Belgian and the Swedish equality agencies select the cases they bring to court. How and according to which criteria do they choose, among the complaints they receive, the ones which are relevant for litigation? Although litigation policy at the organizational level has been studied in scholarly works, only a few scholars have examined how European networks influence the internal decision-making. How does Equinet, the European network of equality agencies, promote common frames of interpreting and addressing discrimination in the workplace among European countries? Referring to recent works on social structure and individual actor agency, this contribution aims to highlight organizations’ constraints and resources within different legal regimes, current anti-discrimination policies and legal culture. More broadly, this contribution aims to call into question the processes of transnationalisation and policy transfer from one country to another within the European Union. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (3 ULg)
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See detailComte-rendu de l'ouvrage de G. Hayes et S. Ollitrault, La désobéissance civile
Lejeune, Aude ULg

in Droit et Société (2013), 84

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
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See detailAccès au droit, accès à la justice ou accès au juge? L'activité judiciaire dans les maisons de justice et du droit
Lejeune, Aude ULg

in Lapérou, Béatrice; Donier, Virginie (Eds.) Accès au juge: quelles évolutions? (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (14 ULg)
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See detailCompte-rendu du numéro "Les avocats" de la revue Pouvoirs
Lejeune, Aude ULg

in Droit et Société (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
See detailL’accompagnement associatif des usagers dans le secteur du handicap
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Revillard, Anne

Scientific conference (2012, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (5 ULg)
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See detailChoisir des cas exemplaires La Strategic litigation dans la lutte contre les discriminations liées à l’emploi en Belgique
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2011, July 07)

Dans plusieurs pays européens, les organismes publics nationaux de promotion de l’égalité des chances et de lutte contre les discriminations, appelés Equality Bodies, recourent à une pratique de « ... [more ▼]

Dans plusieurs pays européens, les organismes publics nationaux de promotion de l’égalité des chances et de lutte contre les discriminations, appelés Equality Bodies, recourent à une pratique de « Strategic litigation ». Inspirée par les pratiques anglo-saxonnes de common law, elle consiste à utiliser l’arène judiciaire pour faire avancer la jurisprudence dans certaines matières. Il s’agit plus précisément de sélectionner, parmi les cas individuels que traitent ces organismes, les dossiers qui sont exemplaires et qui pourront permettre aux magistrats de créer une jurisprudence positive dans certains domaines particuliers du droit. Au-delà de la contrainte budgétaire qui les empêche de défendre tous les cas, leur objectif est de se positionner comme un acteur stratégique en utilisant les cours et tribunaux comme des espaces d’action politique. Notre communication s’appuie sur une recherche de terrain qui traite des discriminations liées à l’emploi en Belgique. Notre matériau empirique se compose principalement d’entretiens et d’observations dans les deux centres chargés de la promotion de l’égalité des chances en Belgique (le Centre pour l’égalité des chances et la lutte contre le racisme et l’Institut pour l’égalité des femmes et des hommes) : entretiens de juristes de première et de seconde lignes, entretiens avec les plaignants, observation d’interactions aux « guichets » et au sein des équipes. En outre, nous avons réalisé une vaste analyse documentaire : consultation de dossiers depuis le dépôt de la plainte jusqu’au jugement, examen de rapports d’activité, de notes de travail internes aux services, etc. Enfin, nous avons procédé à des entretiens complémentaires d’avocats et de magistrats en charge de ces dossiers. Ce riche matériau nous permet d’analyser le processus de choix de cas exemplaires et ses implications. L’étude met tout d’abord en lumière les arguments auxquels se réfèrent les juristes qui sont amenés à sélectionner les dossiers en qualifiant certains cas « d’exemplaires ». Ensuite, elle examine l’articulation entre les revendications individuelles des plaignants, liées à leur propre histoire personnelle, avec les stratégies collectives de publicisation de ces centres. Enfin, elle interroge la stratégie judiciaire qui, dans un pays de droit continental, peut nourrir d’autres stratégies de lobbying politique en dehors des cours et tribunaux. [less ▲]

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See detailOrdinary Citizens' Experiences of Law as Process: The Case of Employment Discriminations in Belgium
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2011, June 04)

Through their different encounters with union, court, and government equality agency lawyers, workers report diverse understandings of her personal experience of injustice in the workplace. This paper ... [more ▼]

Through their different encounters with union, court, and government equality agency lawyers, workers report diverse understandings of her personal experience of injustice in the workplace. This paper examines workers’ experiences of discrimination and the role lawyers play in litigating these issues in Belgium. Bringing together the legal and rights consciousness studies and the sociology of mediation and tracking different stages in the construction of discrimination cases, from the moment when a future litigant describes an event as an injustice to the moment when the judge recognizes a discriminatory behavior (or conversely, dismisses a case), we suggest several possible empirical explanations of the way in which lawyers’ interpretation of a case directly affects workers’ rights consciousness. Because we refer to US socio-legal studies, this paper also calls into question how to import these studies to assist in analyzing legal mobilizations and legal consciousness in continental Europe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg)