References of "Lefebvre, Mathieu"
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See detailDoes sector-specific experience matter? The case of European higher education ministers
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Jacqmin, Julien

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher ... [more ▼]

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher education ministers, we find that having a past experience in the sector leads to a higher level of performance, as measured by ranking data. Making a parallel with the literature about the impact of education on the educated, we discuss potential explanations behind the impact of this on-the-job learning experience. As we find that this characteristic has no impact on the spendings of the sector, we argue that this academic experience makes them more prone to introduce adequate reforms. Furthermore, we find that this result is driven by ministers with both this sector-specific and an electoral experience, the latter measured by a succesful election at the regional or national level. This tends to show that political credibility should not be overshadowed by the importance of the sector-specific experience of ministers. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Taking of Executives under Different Incentive Contracts: Experimental Evidence
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand

in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2014), 97

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal ... [more ▼]

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal for shareholders, we show that excessive risk taking may occur for one of two reasons: risk preferences or incentives. Even when compensated through restricted company stock, experimental CEOs take large amounts of excessive risk. This contradicts classical financial theory, but can be explained through risk preferences that are not uniform over the probability and outcome spaces, and in particular, risk seeking for small probability gains and large probability losses. Compensation through options further increases risk taking as expected. We show that this effect is driven mainly by the personal asset position of the experimental CEO, thus having deleterious effects on company performance. [less ▲]

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See detailtax evasion and peer effects: an experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

Conference (2013, January 28)

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See detailMeasuring poverty without the Mortality Paradox
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Ponthiere, Grégory ULg

in Social Choice and Welfare (2013), 40(1), 285-316

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the “true” poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the ... [more ▼]

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the “true” poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the Mortality Paradox: the worse the survival conditions of the poor are, the lower the measured poverty is. We examine several solutions to avoid that paradox. We identify conditions under which the extension, by means of a fictitious income, of lifetime income profiles of the prematurely dead neutralizes the noise due to differential mortality. Then, to account not only for the “missing” poor, but, also, for the “hidden” poverty (premature death), we use, as a fictitious income, the welfare-neutral income, making indifferent between life continuation and death. The robustness of poverty measures to the extension technique is illustrated with regional Belgian data. [less ▲]

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See detailLes comportements vis-à-vis de la fraude fiscale et de la fraude sociale diffèrent-ils ? Une expérience menée en Belgique, en France et aux Pays-Bas
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Riedl, Arno et al

in Economie et Prévision (2013), 202-203

En période de crise économique, les besoins de l’État augmentent et l’assiette fiscale se réduit. Il est alors courant de voir resurgir dans le débat public la lutte contre les diverses formes de fraude ... [more ▼]

En période de crise économique, les besoins de l’État augmentent et l’assiette fiscale se réduit. Il est alors courant de voir resurgir dans le débat public la lutte contre les diverses formes de fraude qui réduisent les recettes publiques. Dans ce contexte, on oppose régulièrement fraude fiscale à fraude sociale et la discussion porte souvent sur l’importance relative de l’une et de l’autre. On entend par fraude fiscale le détournement illégal d’un système fiscal afin de ne pas contribuer au financement des charges publiques, et par fraude sociale le fait d’échapper au versement des prélèvements sociaux ou de bénéficier indûment de prestations sociales. Les deux formes de fraude se recoupent parfois. S’il est difficile de mesurer avec précision l’une et l’autre forme de fraude, on estime généralement que la fraude fiscale représente un manque à gagner pour l’État beaucoup plus important que la fraude sociale. Cependant, ces deux types de fraude émanent probablement de populations aux caractéristiques différentes en termes d’activité et de ressources. Il est donc intéressant d’essayer d’identifier les facteurs explicatifs de ces deux types de fraude, c’est-à-dire d’étudier si ces derniers répondent à des ressorts économiques et des impératifs moraux similaires ou non. Des populations ou des groupes sont souvent stigmatisés pour pratiquer l’un ou l’autre type de fraude. Cet article se propose d’expliquer les facteurs menant à ces deux types de fraude, à partir de données obtenues d’une expérience en laboratoire. De par ses exigences de contrôle et son caractère artificiel, l’expérimentation de laboratoire peut contribuer à apporter des éléments de réponse à cette question. En effet, par le choix de valeurs de paramètres appropriées, elle permet de comparer directement les deux types de fraude du point de vue économique, de façon à isoler des dimensions non-économiques de la prise de décision. L’originalité de notre expérience est double. S’il existe maintenant un grand nombre d’expériences sur la fraude fiscale, aucune n’a été consacrée spécifiquement à la fraude sociale au sens de cumul d’un revenu de remplacement et d’un revenu dans un emploi au noir. Outre le fait de comparer la fraude fiscale et la fraude sociale dans un cadre expérimental comparable, nous avons mené cette recherche dans les deux principales régions de Belgique (Flandres et Wallonie), aux Pays-Bas et en France, afin d’élargir le champ de comparaison. Si ces pays ont des institutions différentes, la France et les Pays-Bas partagent avec l’une ou l’autre région de Belgique la même langue et, de ce fait, une culture similaire. Ceci nous permet de comparer les comportements face aux mêmes incitations économiques d’un pays à l’autre, ainsi qu’à l’intérieur de la Belgique, tout en contrôlant l’effet du contexte institutionnel. Dans l’expérience proposée, les participants doivent d’abord choisir entre un emploi offrant un revenu aléatoire mais connu de l’autorité fiscale (correspondant de fait à un emploi salarié) et un emploi offrant un revenu plus aléatoire mais non observable sans contrôle. Dans le traitement de la fraude fiscale, le second choix correspond à un travail indépendant dont le revenu n’est connu du fisc avec certitude que moyennant un contrôle. Dans le traitement de la fraude sociale, il s’agit d’une activité non déclarée que l’individu mène tout en touchant des allocations de chômage. Les valeurs des paramètres dans les deux traitements sont choisies de sorte qu’un individu rationnel et neutre au risque devrait choisir l’emploi autorisant la fraude et frauder s’il existe un très faible risque de contrôle. Les paramètres retenus sont tels que les choix devraient être identiques dans les deux traitements. Les résultats montrent que, dans le cadre du laboratoire, alors que les gains monétaires espérés de la fraude sont identiques, la fraude sociale tend à être plus probable que la fraude fiscale.On observe aussi que de nombreux individus optent pour l’emploi se prêtant à la fraude fiscale tout en ne fraudant pas, ce qui confirme l’existence d’une aversion à la tricherie chez une partie de la population. On retrouve un résultat classique dans ce type de travaux, à savoir que la fréquence des contrôles conduit à l’honnêteté fiscale. Enfin, en ce qui concerne la comparaison internationale, les différences entre les pays sont faibles. La fraude fiscale est plus fréquente chez les participants français et néerlandais que chez les participants belges toutes choses égales par ailleurs. Les participants flamands ne fraudent pas plus le fisc que les participants wallons. Il n’y a pas de différences de recours à la fraude sociale d’un pays ou d’une région à l’autre. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Security and Retirement: the Relationship between Workers, Firms and Government
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2013), 84(1), 43-61

In this paper we survey a number of theoretical and empirical studies in order to propose explanations to the fall of labor force participation at older age. Starting from the largely studied e ect of ... [more ▼]

In this paper we survey a number of theoretical and empirical studies in order to propose explanations to the fall of labor force participation at older age. Starting from the largely studied e ect of social security schemes on labor supply, we explore the employers behavior and the role of govern- ments in the development of early retirement schemes. We show that early retirement is the result of a global agreement between rms and government where workers have incentives to early exit the labor market due to generous non actuarial bene ts. Firms have an advantage to separate older workers because they are costly compare to young workers and governments hope that by pushing elderly into early retirement they will solve the massive unemployment problem. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth Status, Disability and Retirement Incentives in Belgium
Jousten, Alain ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Many Belgian retire well before the statutory retirement age. Numerous exit routes from the labor force can be identified: old‐age pensions, conventional early retirement, disability insurance, and ... [more ▼]

Many Belgian retire well before the statutory retirement age. Numerous exit routes from the labor force can be identified: old‐age pensions, conventional early retirement, disability insurance, and unemployment insurance are the most prominent ones. We analyze the retirement decision of Belgian workers adopting an option value framework, and pay special attention to the role of health status. We estimate probit models of retirement using data from SHARE. The results show that health and incentives matter in the decision to exit from the labor market. Based on these results, we simulate the effect of potential reforms on retirement. [less ▲]

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See detailReining in Excessive Risk Taking by Executives: The Effect of Accountability
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; vieider, ferdinand

in Theory and Decision (2013), 75(4), 495-517

Performance-contingent compensation by means of stock options may induce risk taking in agents that is excessive from the point of view of the company or the shareholders. We test whether increasing ... [more ▼]

Performance-contingent compensation by means of stock options may induce risk taking in agents that is excessive from the point of view of the company or the shareholders. We test whether increasing shareholder control may be an effective checking mechanism to rein in such excessive risk taking. We thus tell one group of experimental CEOs that they may have to justify their decision making processes in front of their shareholders. This indeed reduces risk taking and increases the performance of the companies they manage. Implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailRetirement incentives in Belgium: estimations and simulations using SHARE data
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in De Economist (2013), 161

The paper studies retirement behavior of wage‐earners in Belgium – for the first time using a rich survey dataset to analyze retirement incentives as faced by individuals. Specifically, we use SHARE data ... [more ▼]

The paper studies retirement behavior of wage‐earners in Belgium – for the first time using a rich survey dataset to analyze retirement incentives as faced by individuals. Specifically, we use SHARE data to estimate a model à la Stock and Wise (1990). Exploring the data on individual life‐histories from SHARELIFE, we construct a measure of financial incentive to retire. Our analysis explicitly takes into account the different take‐up rates of the various early retirement exit paths across time and ages. The results show that financial incentives play a strong role. Health and education also matter, as do regional differences. Against the general background of the 2020 strategy, we perform a set of policy simulations and illustrate the scope but also the limits associated with selective parametric reforms. [less ▲]

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See detailUnemployment and Retirement in a Model with Age-specific Heterogeneity
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in LABOUR : Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations (2012), 26(2), 137-155

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See detailA Structural Model for Early Exit of Older Men in Belgium
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

Scientific conference (2012, May 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
See detailL'État-providence en Europe. Performance et dumping social
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

Book published by Editions rue d'Ulm (2012)

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See detailA Structural Model for Early Exit of Older Men in Belgium
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Orsini, Kristian

in Empirical Economics (2012), 43(1), 379-398

In this paper we propose a structural model of the retirement decision for older workers in Belgium. We model the exit paths available through the various available schemes. Our framework allows ... [more ▼]

In this paper we propose a structural model of the retirement decision for older workers in Belgium. We model the exit paths available through the various available schemes. Our framework allows exploiting all information on possible exit paths and also better identifying preferences and constraints. Results based upon Belgian microsimulation data from 2001 for private sector workers fits rather well observed behavior. Simulations of hypothetical reforms illustrate the potential effects of changing social security rules. [less ▲]

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See detailDisability in Belgium: There is More than Meets the Eye
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Wise, David (Ed.) Social Security and Retirement around the World: Historical Trends in Mortality and Health, Employment, and Disability Insurance Participation and Reforms (2012)

The paper provides a perspective on the development of the Belgian disability insurance system. Using both survey and administrative data, it sketches a picture of the (changing) factors leading towards ... [more ▼]

The paper provides a perspective on the development of the Belgian disability insurance system. Using both survey and administrative data, it sketches a picture of the (changing) factors leading towards disability, as well as the outcomes in terms of program participation. The paper shows the key role of integrating other forms of early retirement programs into the analysis. The main findings are an unspectacular trend in the number of DI beneficiaries over time combined with a strong expansion of (early-) retirement schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring poverty without the mortality paradox
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Ponthiere, Grégory ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the "true" poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the ... [more ▼]

Under income-differentiated mortality, poverty measures reflect not only the "true" poverty, but, also, the interferences or noise caused by the survival process at work. Such interferences lead to the Mortality Paradox: the worse the survival conditions of the poor are, the lower the measured poverty is. We examine several solutions to avoid that paradox. We identify conditions under which the extension, by means of a fictitious income, of lifetime income profiles of the prematurely dead neutralizes the noise due to differential mortality. Then, to account not only for the "missing" poor, but, also, for the "hidden" poverty (premature death), we use, as a fictitious income, the welfare-neutral income, making indifferent between life continuation and death. The robustness of poverty measures to the extension technique is illustrated with regional Belgian data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)