References of "Lebeau, Frédéric"
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See detailImprovement of battery life of iPhones Inertial Measurement Unit by using edge computing Application to cattle behavior
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre et al

Conference (2017, October)

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers widely used around the world in multiple domains of applications such as animal behavior. iPhones are readily available on ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers widely used around the world in multiple domains of applications such as animal behavior. iPhones are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development. They are equipped with high performance inertial measurement units (IMU) and absolute positioning systems analyzing users movements, but they can easily be diverted to analyze likewise the behaviors of domestic animals such as cattle. Using smartphones to study animal behavior requires the improvement of the autonomy to allow the acquisition of many variables at a high frequency over long periods of time on a large number of individuals for their further processing through various models and decision-making tools. Storing, treating data at the iPhone level with an optimal consumption of energy to maximize battery life was achieved by using edge computing on the iPhone. It reduced the size of the raw data by 42% on average by eliminating redundancies. The decrease in sampling frequency, the selection of the most important variables and postponing calculations to the cloud allowed also an increase in battery life by reducing of amount of data to transmit. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on optimal spray properties for ground based agricultural applications using deposition and retention models
De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Massinon, Mathieu ULiege; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULiege et al

in Biosystems Engineering (2017), 162

In crop protection, it is well known that droplet size determine spray efficacy. The optimisation of both spray deposition and retention leads to a dilemma: should small droplets be used to increase ... [more ▼]

In crop protection, it is well known that droplet size determine spray efficacy. The optimisation of both spray deposition and retention leads to a dilemma: should small droplets be used to increase retention or large droplets be preferred to avoid drift? An ideal droplet should have a short time of flight to minimise its distance travelled while impacting the target with a moderate kinetic energy. This paper aims to determine an optimum range of droplet sizes for boom-sprayer applying herbicide using a modelling approach. The main parameters of spray deposition and retention models are systematically varied and the effects on drift potential and droplet impaction outcomes are discussed. The results of the numerical simulations showed that droplets with diameter ranging between 200 μm and 250 μm offer high control of deposition by combining a low drift potential and a moderate kinetic energy at top of the canopy. A fourfold reduction of the volume drifting further than 2 m from the nozzle was observed for a spray with a volume median diameter of 225 μm when the relative span factor of the droplet spectrum was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6. In the latter scenario, an increase from 63 to 67% of the volumetric proportion of droplets adhering to the wheat leaf was observed. Therefore, strategies for controlling the droplet size distribution may offer promising solutions for reducing adverse impact of spray applications on environment. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of feeding behaviour and forage quality on diurnal methane emission dynamics of grazing cows
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Keita (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September 12)

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in pasture characteristics. Existing methods to assess grazing ruminants’ daily CH4 emissions provide useful insights to investigate mitigation strategies relying on feeding and genetic selection. Nonetheless such methods based on tracer gases (SF6) or feeding bins equipped with sniffers (e.g. GreenFeed) can hardly cover diurnal CH4 emission fluctuations which can influence the accuracy of total CH4 production estimations. Previous studies in barns showed that emission dynamics strongly vary during post feeding time, leading to a possible bias in estimates of daily CH4 emissions as high as 100%. To investigate whether such fluctuations are also taking place on pasture, a portable device was designed with infrared CH4 and CO2 sensors measuring concentrations in the exhaled air at a high sampling rate (4 Hz). Six grazing dry red-pied cows were equipped with the device and motion sensors during runs of 24h to monitor CH4 and CO2 emissions and detect their feeding behaviours (grazing, rumination and other behaviours), respectively. This experiment was performed in summer and fall in order to cover seasonal changes in pasture forage quality. Methane emission was estimated from the CH4:CO2 concentration ratio and the metabolic CO2 production of the cows. As for barn studies, variations were observed in total daily CH4 emission due to the seasons and diurnal variations were also observed due to animal behaviours. Relationships between animal feeding behaviour and CH4 emissions patterns on pasture were also unravelled. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiating pre- and post-grazing pasture heights using a 3D camera: a prospective approach
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Castro Muñoz, Eloy ULiege; Blaise, Yannick ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Alassane (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September)

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance ... [more ▼]

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance livestock productivity and welfare. The evolution of grass resource during the grazing process is not being overlooked by graziers and researchers, but grass characteristics, such as height, dry matter content, productivity or density, are still measured using low frequency and sometimes destructive and time-consuming methods; such as quadrat, sward-sticks, rising plate meters. This study investigated the potential of using 3D cameras to assess sward physical characteristics. Main objectives were: (1) to define the correct way to capture images, particularly the camera position above the ground and, (2) to assess if differences in sward height were detectable. Couples of images differing in grass height were captured on the same spot with a 3D camera at different above-ground heights (30, 40, 50 cm) on a ryegrass-white clover pasture. Pregrazing height was 15cm and post-grazing sward was simulated by cutting at 2 cm. Histograms of intensity performed on greyscale images showed differences between pre- and post-grazing sward. As expected, overall darker pixels were observed for pre-grazing images (p<0.01) and whiter pixels for post-grazing images (p<0.01), indicating longer distances consistent with lower forage biomass. Images taken at a distance of 30 and 40 cm could identify these differences. Further developments require improving the calibration of the camera and developing image analysis method to estimate more plant characteristics such as density or dry matter content. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an open-source algorithm based on inertial measurement units (IMU) of a smartphone to detect cattle grass intake and ruminating behaviors
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Lebeau, Frédéric ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Computers & Electronics in Agriculture (2017), 139

In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a smartphone, which contains an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer and location sensors signals sampled at 100 Hz. This equipment was mounted on 19 grazing cows of different breeds and daily video sequences were recorded on pasture of different forage allowances. After visually analyzing the cows’ movements on a calibration database, signal combinations were selected and thresholds were determined based on 1-s time windows, since increasing the time window did not increase the accuracy of detection. The final algorithm uses the average value and standard deviation of two signals in a two-step discrimination tree: the gravitational acceleration on x-axis (Gx) expressing the cows’ head movements and the rotation rate on the same x-axis (Rx) expressing jaw movements. Threshold values encompassing 95% of the normalized calibrated data gave the best results. Validation on an independent database resulted in an average detection accuracy of 92% with a better detection for rumination (95%) than for grass intake (91%). The detection algorithm also allows for characterization of the diurnal feeding activities of cattle at pasture. Any user can make further improvements, for data collected at the same way as the iPhone’s IMU has done, since the algorithm codes are open and provided as supplementary data. [less ▲]

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See detailCaméras 3D et plantes numériques : vers une automatisation de l’agriculture
Bouvry, Arnaud ULiege; Stalport, Benoît ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege et al

Diverse speeche and writing (2017)

En cours de développement à la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, l’exploitation d’images en 3 dimensions de plantes permet de récolter une grande quantité de données. Cette technique, couplée à un ... [more ▼]

En cours de développement à la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, l’exploitation d’images en 3 dimensions de plantes permet de récolter une grande quantité de données. Cette technique, couplée à un système mathématique de modélisation de plantes, utilisé notamment par Pixar, offre de nombreuses possibilités pour la recherche scientifique. [less ▲]

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See detailSpray droplet impaction outcomes for different plant species and spray formulations
Massinon, Mathieu ULiege; De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Forster, W. Alison et al

in Crop Protection (2017), 99

A track-sprayer combined with a high-speed camera were used to visualize and identify droplet impaction outcomes for three formulations (water, 0.1% LI 700® (lecithin, a mixture of soya oils, propionic ... [more ▼]

A track-sprayer combined with a high-speed camera were used to visualize and identify droplet impaction outcomes for three formulations (water, 0.1% LI 700® (lecithin, a mixture of soya oils, propionic acid and surfactants) in water and 0.1% Pulse® (non-ionic surfactant, trisiloxane ethoxylate) in water) on four plant species (bean (Vicia faba L.), avocado (Persea americana L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. P. Beauv.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)) selected to represent a wide range of leaf surface characters. Droplet sizes and velocities were measured by image analysis and a multiple hypothesis tracking algorithm. Impaction outcomes were categorized into adhesion, bounce, or shatter. The probability of each outcome was estimated from logistic regression models related to the dimensionless Weber number. This approach is in contrast to various deterministic threshold criteria for droplet bounce or shatter that have been used to model droplet impaction events on leaves. It also provides a simple visual and numerical presentation of the complexity of impaction processes, and the relative influence of leaf surface character versus formulation for droplets with different impaction energies. [less ▲]

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See detailActivités et production de méthane des bovins au pâturage
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Castro Muñoz, Eloy ULiege et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Quels sont les liens entre les comportements des bovins et les caractéristiques de la prairie sur la dynamique de production de méthane (CH4)?

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See detailDéveloppements scientifiques et nouvelles technologies pour l'application de produits phytosanitaires de précision
Lebeau, Frédéric ULiege

Conference (2017, March 10)

Depuis leur introduction, les produits phytosanitaires ont largement démontré leur efficacité pour assurer des rendements agricoles élevés. Toutefois, les nuisances sanitaires et environnementales sont ... [more ▼]

Depuis leur introduction, les produits phytosanitaires ont largement démontré leur efficacité pour assurer des rendements agricoles élevés. Toutefois, les nuisances sanitaires et environnementales sont rapidement apparues ainsi que le développement de diverses résistances. Les développements scientifiques récents, qui permettent une meilleure compréhension du processus d’application tant pour les chercheurs que les agriculteurs, ouvrent la porte à de nombreux développements technologiques. Une présentation des principales bases physiques du processus permet d’éclaircir les diverses options technologiques à la disposition des agriculteurs pour améliorer leurs pratiques en traitement des cultures. En particulier, l’attention est portée sur la trajectoire des gouttes entre la buse et sa cible ainsi que la rétention du produit par les plantes. Ces considérations se traduisent par diverses options technologiques au niveau des agro-équipements et produits de traitement qui doivent être prises en considération pour effectuer les investissements les plus pertinents et choisir les meilleures options lors du traitement. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb-based animal behavior study service for researchers based on the smartphone inertial central
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre et al

Scientific conference (2017, March 07)

Smartphones, particularly Iphones, are equipped with high performance inertial units and absolute positioning systems that are traditionally used to measure user behavior. They are also very relevant ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly Iphones, are equipped with high performance inertial units and absolute positioning systems that are traditionally used to measure user behavior. They are also very relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior. In this work, a lambda cloud architecture and web services are developed to archive and process high-frequency data from the inertial center of an Iphone 4S using behavioral classification algorithms. In addition, a web interface for encoding behavior observed on videos allows to synchronize the observations with the measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud architecture for digital phenotyping and automation
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre et al

in IEEE Cloud Computing (2017)

Digital phenotyping presents a very important tool for scientists to measure with high accuracy the effects of external phenomena on plant development. Plant phenotyping is mainly based on imaging ... [more ▼]

Digital phenotyping presents a very important tool for scientists to measure with high accuracy the effects of external phenomena on plant development. Plant phenotyping is mainly based on imaging techniques. However, the number of images and parameters used to store and treat these parameters are continuously growing. Consequently, the high-throughput of data and the need of specific treatment in real or near real-time requires a large quantity of resources. Moreover, the increasing amount of particular phenotyping case studies needs the development of specific application. Cloud architectures offers means to store a wide range of numerous data and host a large quantity of specific software to process these data. In this paper, we propose to match digital phenotyping need and cloud possibilities in a lambda cloud architecture in order to store and treat this important amount of data. We also propose a data platform allowing to host applications and access to the stored data within the lambda architecture. The present application platform allows to use several frameworks with a fine-grained resource use of the cluster. We develop then a case study in a controlled environment system (growth chamber) where we grow basil plants. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb-based cattle behavior service for researchers based on the smartphone inertial central
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege et al

in Procedia Computer Science (2017), 110(C), 110-116

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior because they are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior because they are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development. They are equipped with high performance inertial measurement units (IMU) and absolute positioning systems analyzing users’ movements, but they can easily be diverted to analyze likewise the behaviors of domestic animals such as cattle. The study of animal behavior using smartphones requires the storage of many high frequency variables from a large number of individuals and their processing through various relevant variables combinations for modeling and decision-making. Transferring, storing, treating and sharing such an amount of data is a big challenge. In this paper, a lambda cloud architecture and a scientific sharing platform used to archive and process highfrequency data are proposed. An application to the study of cattle behavior on pasture on the basis of the data recorded with the IMU of iPhones 4S is exemplified. The package comes also with a web interface to encode the actual behavior observed on videos and to synchronize observations with the sensor signals. Finally, the use of fog computing on the iPhone reduced by 42% on average the size of the raw data by eliminating redundancies. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal Conductivity of Straw Bales: Full Size Measurements Considering the Direction of the Heat Flow
Costes, Jean-Philippe; Evrard, Arnaud; Biot, Benjamin et al

in Buildings (2017), 7(11), 1-15

The thermal conductivity of straw bales is an intensively discussed topic in the international straw bale community. Straw bales are, by nature, highly heterogeneous and porous. They can have a relatively ... [more ▼]

The thermal conductivity of straw bales is an intensively discussed topic in the international straw bale community. Straw bales are, by nature, highly heterogeneous and porous. They can have a relatively large range of density and the baling process can influence the way the fibres are organised within the bale. In addition, straw bales have a larger thickness than most of the insulating materials that can be found in the building industry. Measurement apparatus is usually not designed for such thicknesses, and most of the thermal conductivity values that can be found in the literature are defined based on samples in which the straw bales are resized. During this operation, the orientation of the fibres and the density may not be preserved. This paper starts with a literature review of straw bale thermal conductivity measurements and presents a measuring campaign performed with a specific Guarded Hot Plate, designed to measure samples up to 50 cm thick. The influence of the density is discussed thoroughly. Representative values are proposed for a large range of straw bales to support straw-bale development in the building industry. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurements of reference ISO nozzles by high-speed imaging
De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Massinon, Mathieu ULiege; Nuyttens, David et al

in Crop Protection (2016), 89

Agricultural spray characteristics determine the efficiency of a pesticide application because size and velocity affect droplet trajectory and impact behavior. At present, the relevance of different ... [more ▼]

Agricultural spray characteristics determine the efficiency of a pesticide application because size and velocity affect droplet trajectory and impact behavior. At present, the relevance of different characterization techniques remains controversial since discrepancies may be significant between measurements performed in different laboratories. A digital image acquisition technique and analysis algorithm is proposed for droplet size and velocimetry measurements as an alternative to well-established techniques such as the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) or laser diffraction spectrometry (LDS). The algorithm requires double exposed shadow images acquired in a back-lighted arrangement with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) camera and a pulsed light emitting diode (LED). Spatial illumination heterogeneities are corrected by subtracting from each image a mean background acquired on several images without any particle. The algorithm accuracy is ensured by the rejection of out-of-focus particles using a focus parameter depending on gradient intensity at the particle edges. Thresholds for focus particle selection were determined by studying the evolution of the focus parameter and the error on particle size measurements from images containing droplets with uniform size at various distance of the object plane. Selected droplets were identified on both pairs of images to determine their size and velocity. Droplet size distributions were corrected to account for the uneven sampling probability caused by the volumetric method. Droplet size distributions of a set of reference nozzle/pressure combinations defined in the ISO/DIS 25358 were measured. The image technique was able to distinguish each of the reference sprays well. Comparison with PDPA measurements showed that the imaging technique tends to measure an equivalent Dv50, a lower Dv10 and a higher Dv90 leading therefore to a higher relative span factor. Velocity measurements showed good agreement between both techniques except for one nozzle/pressure combination. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the dynamic impact behaviour of spray droplets on flat plant surfaces
Delele, Mulugeta Admasu; Nuyttens, David; Douga, Ashenafitilahun T. et al

in Soft Matter (2016), 12 (34)(7), 195-211

The dynamic impact behaviour of water droplets on plant surfaces was investigated based on a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The study was conducted using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF ... [more ▼]

The dynamic impact behaviour of water droplets on plant surfaces was investigated based on a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The study was conducted using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) approach. The static contact angle of water droplets on leaf surfaces of different plants (apple, pear, leek and cabbage) was measured and found to vary between 54.9 and 138.2°. Impact experiments were conducted by monitoring the flow and impact characteristics of water droplets on leaves in still air with a high speed camera. Droplets were generated by an agricultural flat fan spray nozzle moving across the leaf at constant speed. The nozzle produced droplets with diameters ranging from 20.6 up to 550.8 μm, and droplet velocity values near the impact between 0.03 and 13.2 m s(-1). The CFD model was capable of predicting the observed dynamic impact behaviour of droplets on the plant surfaces. The fate of the droplets after the impact process for adhesion, bouncing or splashing was accurately predicted for Weber numbers (We) in the range of 0.007 to 1096 and droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) between 5 to 8000. The process was highly dependent on the surface and droplet flow characteristics during the impact. Combinations of We, Re and Ohnesorge (Oh) numbers defined the droplet maximum spread factor, the number of secondary droplets generated as a result of the splashing process and the transition between the different impact outcomes. These criteria can then be used in field scale spray deposition and drift models to better understand agricultural spray operations. [less ▲]

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See detailI-cows exploring plant-animal interface by precision grazing
Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Blaise, Yannick ULiege et al

Conference (2016, August 02)

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See detailDynamics of a thin radial liquid flow
De Cock, Nicolas ULiege; Massinon, Mathieu ULiege; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULiege et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2016), 83

The present work proposes an extension of the existing analytical development on the radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal surface to the case of a thin radial flow. When the gap, H, between the ... [more ▼]

The present work proposes an extension of the existing analytical development on the radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal surface to the case of a thin radial flow. When the gap, H, between the jet nozzle and the plate is reduced the discharging area may be smaller than the inlet area leading to an increase of the main flow velocity downstream of the thin cylindrical opening. This increase of velocity, de fined here as 1/alpha , can be related to the relative gap of the nozzle H/R with R the nozzle pipe radius. Numerical computations with a volume of fluid method were realised with for H/R ranging from 0.2 to 3 and with flow rates Q of 3 and 6 l/min1. The results of these computations allowed to express alpha in respect of H/R. Taking in account the flow acceleration allowed to extend the set of equation from the jet impacting flow to the thin cylindrical opening flow. The liquid layer thickness and the surface velocity diff er with a maximum error of 4% between the flow predicted by the model and computations. Main discrepancies appear in the region close to the nozzle where the analytical model assumption of a constant velocity outside the boundary layer is not valid. However, further downstream the model and the computations are in good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailA review on the use of sensors to monitor cattle jaw movements and behavior when grazing
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Mercatoris, Benoît ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20

Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly ... [more ▼]

Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly based on the recording of three parameters: the location, the posture and the movements of the animal. Until now, several techniques have been used to discriminate grazing and ruminating behaviors with accuracies over 90% on average, when compared to observations, providing valuable tools to improve the management of pasture and grazing animals. However, bites and jaw movements are still overlooked, even though they are of utmost importance to assess the animal grazing strategies for various pasture types and develop future techniques allowing better estimation of their intake. The goal of this review is to explore the possibility of monitoring the individual jaw movements and the differentiation of bites in grazing animals. For this purpose, (1) the mechanisms of forage intake in cattle are explained briefly in order to understand the movements performed by the cow, especially during grazing, (2) the various sensors that have been proposed to monitor jaw movements of ruminants such as mechanical sensors (pressure sensors), acoustic sensors (microphone) and electromyography sensors are compared and (3) finally the relationship between jaw movements, biting behavior and forage intake is discussed. The review clearly demonstrated the abilities of mechanical, acoustic and electromyography sensors to classify the difference types of jaw movements. However, it also indicated a wide range of accuracies and different observation windows required to reach these accuracies when compared to the observed movement. This classification purpose could lead to a better detection of more specific behavior, e.g. bite detection, and their exact location on pasture. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring spore settling velocity for an improved assessment of dispersal rates in mosses
Zanatta, Florian ULiege; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULiege; Patiño, Jairo et al

in Annals of Botany (2016)

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains ... [more ▼]

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains largely undocumented in bryophytes. The settling velocities of moss spores were measured and it was determined whether settling velocities can be derived from spore diameter using Stokes’ Law or if specific traits of spore ornamentation cause departures from theoretical expectations. [less ▲]

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